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The value proposition for cross-laminated timber

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub40006
Author
Crespell, Pablo
Gaston, Chris
Date
January 2011
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Crespell, Pablo
Gaston, Chris
Date
January 2011
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
26 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Timber
Laminate product
Analysis
Language
English
Documents
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La proposition-valeur pour le bois lamellé-croisé

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39435
Author
Crespell, Pablo
Gaston, Chris
Date
January 2011
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Crespell, Pablo
Gaston, Chris
Date
January 2011
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
23 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Timber
Laminate product
Analysis
Location
Pointe Claire, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Cross-laminated timber
Market analysis
Market strategy
Documents
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Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) for wood charcoal as an environmental and bioenergy material : phase 1 - market study

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37872
Author
Chow, Gordon
Dai, Chunping
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Chow, Gordon
Dai, Chunping
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
[16 p.]
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wood
Utilization
Insect killed
Analysis
Series Number
W-2500
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
In response to the British Columbia forestry industry’s need for an alternate market for its MPB logs, we conducted a study to determine if allocating this type of wood to the activated charcoal industry is a feasible solution. The study was done via a literature review, telephone calls, and interviews. Our economic analysis showed that local producers can profit from making activated charcoal from MPB wood as long as their costs are no more than three times those of their overseas counterparts. The present charcoal industry allocates a specific input material to make a charcoal product. Wood-based charcoal cannot produce a hardness number and has fewer micropores than competing materials, which are required for the lucrative bottled water market. Hence, wood is usually restricted to making products that decolorize or apply preliminary effluent treatment. North American and Asian companies employed similar input material/final product combinations. We did not find a North Amercian-based company that made wood-based activated charcoal. Lower overseas salaries and other expenses were the most obvious reasons for this observation. Recent overseas cellulose-based activated charcoal research has focussed on minimizing environmental impact and maximizing the quantities of useful by-products that are yielded from the synthesis process.
Market analysis
Insect-killed wood - Utilization
Charcoal
Activated carbon
Documents
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Biological method to pre-dry lumber with wetwood

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39015
Author
Yang, D.-Q.
Date
March 2007
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Yang, D.-Q.
Date
March 2007
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
62 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Yeasts
Wetwoods
Seasoning
Bacteria
Series Number
General Revenue Project No. 4030
4030
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Wetwood, or water pocket, has higher moisture content (MC) and lower permeability than normal wood, which cause problems for lumber drying. The high moisture content of wetwood usually requires relatively long periods for adequate drying; consequently, it causes a high risk for developing checks, splits, crook, bow and twist of lumber in kiln drying. These problems have not been solved by any physical, chemical or mechanical methods yet. Using biological method to pre-dry lumber containing wetwood is a new concept introduced in this project. Wetwood is formed by bacteria growth inside normal wood. Some fungi are able to kill bacteria and to utilize foetid liquid produced by these micro-organisms. Consequently, the permeability of wetwood can be increased and the lumber drying rate can be improved. The present project intends a research on biological method to pre-dry lumber containing wetwood, and to evaluate efficacy and economic benefit of such a biological treatment. Wetwood of balsam fir, sub-alpine fir and aspen was cultured on nutrient media, and several species of bacteria and yeasts were isolated. The bacteria and yeasts were re-inoculated on normal wood of balsam fir. All inoculated micro organisms caused wetwood formation in 2 weeks. The MC of the inoculated wood blocks increased from 41% to 220-240%, whereas the control samples without inoculation reached only 110%. When control samples were dried to a MC of 13%, the inoculated wood samples still had MCs between 80% and 105%. The selection of biological control agents was conducted on both agar plates and on balsam fir wetwood blocks, and 2 fungal candidates demonstrated promising results. The field test showed that pre-treating balsam fir wetwood lumber with the selected best biocontrol candidates, wood stain was reduced by 94%, warping reduced up to 13%, and checking reduced up to 30% compared with untreated controls. Drying time was reduced by 33% (24 hours) compared with drying fresh lumber. CT scanner was able to detect wetwood locations inside a piece of lumber, and the wetwood was identified in heartwood, sapwood or both wood tissues. After the bio-treatment, the wetwood contents of boards were significantly reduced. Economical analysis showed that the biological treatment would cost $4-7/Mfbm depending on treating method used. Reduction of 33% of drying time by the treatment in this study could save energy cost by $6-13/Mfbm depending on kiln drying energy used. The treatment could reduce lumber degrading loss by $8.5-37.4/Mfbm base on this study. The benefit of the treatment is significant, but will be affected by pre-drying operation, kiln type, energy use and drying schedule. The biological treated lumber is resistant to fungal infection during pre-drying period, and the lumber products are clean and free of moulds and stain infection. Acknowledgements We specifically would like to thank Pierre Lemieux, Scierie Leduc, for providing testing wetwood materials. We also appreciate the support and guidance provided by the project’s industry liaison officers: François Saillant, Natural Resources Canada; Léandre Bélanger, Domtar. Their participation was the key to the success of this project.
Wetwood
Seasoning - Predrying
Yeasts
Bacteria
Biological Control
Fungi
Documents
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Biological method to pre-dry lumber with wetwood

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38957
Author
Yang, D.-Q.
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Yang, D.-Q.
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
67 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Yeasts
Wetwoods
Seasoning
Bacteria
Series Number
General Revenue Project No. 4030
4030
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Wetwood, or water pocket, has higher moisture content and lower permeability than normal wood, which cause problems for lumber drying. The high moisture content of wetwood usually requires relatively long periods for adequate drying; consequently, it causes a high risk for developing checks, splits, crook, bow and twist of lumber in kiln drying. These problems have not been solved by any physical, chemical or mechanical methods yet. Using biological method to pre-dry lumber containing wetwood is a new concept introduced in this project. Wetwood is formed by bacteria growth inside normal wood. Some fungi are able to kill bacteria and to utilize foetid liquid produced by these micro-organisms. Consequently, the permeability of wetwood can be increased and the lumber drying rate can be improved. The present project intends a research on biological method to pre-dry lumber containing wetwood, and to evaluate efficacy and economic benefit of such a biological treatment. Trees of balsam fir, sub-alpine fir and aspen were felled and cut into lumber. Isolation of causal agents was conducted from wet pockets of these wood species by using peptone agar and malt extract agar media. A total of 319 cultures were obtained from the wetwood of these three wood species. Three bacteria and two yeasts were isolated from balsam fir wetwood, 2 bacteria and 1 yeast were more frequently isolated from aspen wetwood, and 2 bacteria and 5 yeasts were obtained from sub-alpine fir. Two bacteria were isolated from the wetwood of all 3 wood species: Shigella sonnei and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Other bacteria and yeasts isolated were identified as Aerococcus viridans, Chryseomonas luteol, Candida boidinli, C. zeylanoides, Cryptococcus albidus, C. laurentii, C. terreus, and Rhodotorula mucileginosa. In addition to these identified bacteria and yeasts, two other yeasts isolated from balsam fir and sub-alpine fir wetwood were unabile to be identified. Six bacteria and yeast isolates were re-inoculated on normal wood of balsam fir; they were A-a (a bacterium isolated from aspen and identified as Shigella sonnei), A-c (a yeast isolated from aspen and identified as Cryptococcus laurentii), B-a (a bacterium isolated from balsam fir and identified as Shigella sonnei), B-c (a mixture of 2 bacteria isolated from balsam fir and identified as Shigella sonnei and Aerococcus viridans), Y-2 (an unidentified yeast isolated from balsam fir), and SaB-2 (a bacterium isolated from sub-alpine fir and identified as Shigella sonnei). The result showed that all of these micro-organisms caused wetwood formation on inoculated normal wood samples in 2 weeks. This result indicates that wetwood formation in trees is not caused by only 1 micro-organism but is more likely caused by several species (either bacteria or yeasts) that can colonise well in the wood of trees. The moisture contents (MC) of the inoculated wood blocks increased from 41.2% to 220-240 %, whereas the MCs of the control samples submerged in a liquid culture medium without inoculation reached only 110%. When control samples were dried to a MC of 13%, the inoculated wood samples still had MCs between 80% and 105%. This result indicates that drying lumber containing wetwood will take double the time required to dry normal lumber without wetwood. An antagonist test using fungal candidates was conducted on agar plates. In this test, 6 potential fungal antagonists and 6 wetwood causal agents (WCA) were used. The six fungal antagonists were Gliocladium roseum (a bioprotectant developed by Forintek), a white isolate of Ophiostoma piliferum (a fungus used in a commercial bioprotectant, Cartapip), a white isolate of Ceratocystis resinifera (an anti-sapstain biological agent used by Chantal Morin at Laval University), Geotrichum sp.A (a white fungus in Deuteromycetes isolated from Jack pine logs, DP3/5B-3a, 1998), Geotrichum sp. B (a white fungus in Deuteromycetes isolated from balsam fir logs, DF3/1B-1b, 1998), and Phaeotheca dimorphospora (a biological control agent of tree disease from Laval University). The six wetwood causal agents were A-a (a bacterium isolated from wetwood of aspen), A-c (a yeast isolated from wetwood of aspen), B-a (a bacterium isolated from wetwood of balsam fir), Y-2 (a yeast isolated from wetwood of balsam fir), SaB-2 (a bacterium isolated from wetwood of sub-alpine fir), and SaY-4 (a mixture of a yeast and a bacterium isolated from wetwood of sub-alpine fir). The results showed that Geotrichum sp.A and Geotrichum sp.B were the most effective against all 6 WCA inoculated; they reduced growth of the WCA in 7 days and completely absorbed colonies of WCA in 11 days. G. roseum, O. piliferum, and C. resinifera were moderately effective against 5 WCAs, but not effective on bacterium A-a that was isolated from aspen wetwood. P. dimorphospora was the least effective against any of these WCA. The three promising fungal antagonists, Geotrichum sp., G. roseum and the white isolate of O. piliferum, selected from agar plate test were used for an antagonist test on balsam fir wetwood blocks in the laboratory conditions. This test was conducted on small wetwood samples (2 x 4 x 1 inch) in incubators at 25°C and two relative humidity ranges (100% and 75% RH). The results showed that all these three fungi were able to establish on wood surfaces and able to reduce wetwood contents. At 25°C and 75% RH, Geotrichum sp. was the most effective to reduce wetwood content in samples, followed by G. roseum, and then by O. piliferum. G. roseum and Geotrichum sp. not only reduce wetwood content, but also inhibit mold growth and wood stain, compared with untreated control samples. At 25°C and 100% RH, the moisture contents of treated and untreated samples were not changed in any week of the testing period. This result indicates that biological pre-dry wetwood samples should not be conducted at this high relative humidity condition. A test was conducted to investigate the inhibitory ability of Geotrichum sp., the wetwood control candidate, against sapstaining fungi on wood. The results showed that if balsam fir wood wafers were inoculated with Geotrichum sp. 3 days before the staining fungi, no staining fungi grew on these samples. If wood wafers were inoculated with Geotrichum sp. and staining fungi at the same time, samples were covered by both Geotrichum sp. and the staining fungus Ophiostoma piceae in a ratio of 1:1. If wood wafers were inoculated with the staining fungi 3 days before Geotrichum sp., samples were absolutely covered by the staining fungus and fully stained. A study on environmental effects on the growth of Geotrichum sp., the wetwood control agent, showed that this fungus started growth at 5°C, had optimal growth between 20-25°C, stopped growth at 30°C, and died at 40°C. Geotrichum sp. had a wide range of pH requirement and grew well in agar medium at pHs between 3 and 10. Geotrichum sp. started to grow at 29% MC, and the speed of the growth increased along with the increase of MC in wood. The best fungal growth of Geotrichum sp. was observed on wood blocks containing 56% MC. Geotrichum sp. was able to grow on wood of jack pine, black spruce, balsam fir, sub-alpine fir and aspen, but it grew better on wood of jack pine, balsam fir and black spruce than on sub-alpine fir and aspen. Geotrichum sp. was able to grow together with an anti-sapstain fungus, Gliocladium roseum, without any antibiotic or incompatible growth reaction. In the laboratory conditions, the biological treated boards reduced wood MC by 22-37% more than untreated boards. Untreated boards were fully covered by molds and stain after 8 weeks in storage, and 0% of boards was acceptable for use. The biological treated boards were less affected, with 35-75% of pieces acceptable. The time required for drying biological treated boards was estimated reducing by 10.5 hours compared with untreated controls. After drying, the biological treated boards reduced the rate of crook, bow and twist by 5-20%, but increased the rate of split and check by 5-12%, compared with untreated controls. The total deformation rate was reduced up to 5% by the best biological treatment. In the field conditions, untreated boards were 100% affected by molds and stain after 8 weeks in storage, whereas the best biological treated boards were only affected by 6%. Drying biological treated and untreated boards took similar times, but it was estimated reducing drying time by 48 hours compared with fresh boards. Compared with untreated controls, the biological treated boards reduced the rate of crook, bow and twist by 2-13%, and reduced the rate of split and check by 3-30%. The total deformation rate was reduced by 5-22%, depending on the treatments. CT scanner was able to detect wetwood locations inside a piece of lumber, and the wetwood present in either heartwood, sapwood or both wood tissues. After the bio-treatment, the wetwood contents of boards were significantly reduced.
Wetwood
Seasoning - Predrying
Yeasts
Bacteria
Biological Control
Fungi
Documents
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Biological method to pre-dry lumber with wetwood

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42290
Author
Yang, D.-Q.
Date
March 2005
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Yang, D.-Q.
Date
March 2005
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
44 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Yeasts
Wetwoods
Seasoning
Bacteria
Series Number
General Revenue 4030
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Wetwood, or water pocket, has higher moisture content and lower permeability than normal wood, which cause serious problems for lumber drying. The high moisture content of wetwood usually requires relatively long periods for adequate drying; consequently, it causes a high risk for developing checks, splits, crook, bow and twist of lumber in kiln drying. These problems have not been solved by any physical, chemical or mechanical methods yet. Using biological method to pre-dry lumber containing wetwood is a new concept introduced in this project. Wetwood is formed by bacteria growth inside normal wood. Some fungi are able to kill bacteria and to utilize foetid liquid produced by these micro-organisms. Consequently, the permeability of wetwood can be increased and the lumber drying rate can be improved. The present project intends a research on biological method to pre-dry lumber containing wetwood, and to evaluate efficacy and economic benefit of such a biological treatment. Trees of balsam fir, sub-alpine fir and aspen were felled and cut into lumber. Isolation of causal agents was conducted from wet pockets of these wood species by using peptone agar and malt extract agar media. A total of 319 cultures were obtained from the wetwood of these three wood species. Three bacteria and two yeasts were isolated from balsam fir wetwood, 2 bacteria and 1 yeast were more frequently isolated from aspen wetwood, and 2 bacteria and 5 yeasts were obtained from sub-alpine fir. Two bacteria were isolated from the wetwood of all 3 wood species: Shigella sonnei and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Other bacteria and yeasts isolated were identified as Aerococcus viridans, Chryseomonas luteol, Candida boidinli, C. zeylanoides, Cryptococcus albidus, C. laurentii, C. terreus, and Rhodotorula mucileginosa. In addition to these identified bacteria and yeasts, two other yeasts isolated from balsam fir and sub-alpine fir wetwood were unabile to be identified. Six bacteria and yeast isolates were re-inoculated on normal wood of balsam fir; they were A-a (a bacterium isolated from aspen and identified as Shigella sonnei), A-c (a yeast isolated from aspen and identified as Cryptococcus laurentii), B-a (a bacterium isolated from balsam fir and identified as Shigella sonnei), B-c (a mixture of 2 bacteria isolated from balsam fir and identified as Shigella sonnei and Aerococcus viridans), Y-2 (an unidentified yeast isolated from balsam fir), and SaB-2 (a bacterium isolated from sub-alpine fir and identified as Shigella sonnei). The result showed that all of these micro-organisms caused wetwood formation on inoculated normal wood samples in 2 weeks. This result indicates that wetwood formation in trees is not caused by only 1 micro-organism but is more likely caused by several species (either bacteria or yeasts) that can colonise well in the wood of trees. The moisture contents (MC) of the inoculated wood blocks increased from 41.2% to 220-240 %, whereas the MCs of the control samples submerged in a liquid culture medium without inoculation reached only 110%. When control samples were dried to a MC of 13%, the inoculated wood samples still had MCs between 80% and 105%. This result indicates that drying lumber containing wetwood will take double the time required to dry normal lumber without wetwood. An antagonist test using fungal candidates was conducted on agar plates. In this test, 6 potential fungal antagonists and 6 wetwood causal agents (WCA) were used. The six fungal antagonists were Gliocladium roseum (Forintek bioprotectant), a white isolate of Ophiostoma piliferum (Cartapip), a white isolate of Ceratocystis resinifera (an anti-sapstain biological agent produced by Chantal Morin at Laval University), Oidium sp.A (a white fungus in Deuteromycetes isolated from Jack pine logs, DP3/5B-3a, 1998), Oidium sp. B (a white fungus in Deuteromycetes isolated from balsam fir logs, DF3/1B-1b, 1998), and Phaeotheca dimorphospora (a biological control agent of tree disease from Laval University). The six wetwood causal agents were A-a (a bacterium isolated from wetwood of aspen), A-c (a yeast isolated from wetwood of aspen), B-a (a bacterium isolated from wetwood of balsam fir), Y-2 (a yeast isolated from wetwood of balsam fir), SaB-2 (a bacterium isolated from wetwood of sub-alpine fir), and SaY-4 (a mixture of a yeast and a bacterium isolated from wetwood of sub-alpine fir). The results showed that Oidium sp.A and Oidium sp.B were the most effective against all 6 WCA inoculated; they reduced growth of the WCA in 7 days and completely absorbed colonies of WCA in 11 days. G. roseum, O. piliferum, and C. resinifera were moderately effective against 5 WCAs, but not effective on bacterium A-a that was isolated from aspen wetwood. P. dimorphospora was the least effective against any of these WCA. The three promising fungal antagonists, Oidium sp., G. roseum and the white isolate of O. piliferum, selected from agar plate test were used for a following antagonist test on balsam fir wetwood blocks in the laboratory conditions. This test was conducted on small wetwood samples (2 x 4 x 1 inch) in incubators at 25°C and two relative humidity ranges (100% and 75% RH). The results showed that all these three fungi were able to establish on wood surfaces and able to reduce wetwood contents. At 25°C and 75% RH, Oidium sp. was the most effective to reduce wetwood content in samples, followed by G. roseum, and then by O. piliferum. G. roseum and Oidium sp. not only reduce wetwood content, but also inhibit mold growth and wood stain, compared with untreated control samples. At 25°C and 100% RH, the moisture contents of treated and untreated samples were not changed in any week of the testing period. This result indicates that biological pre-dry wetwood samples should not be conducted at this high relative humidity condition. A test was conducted to investigate the ability of Oidium sp., the wetwood control candidate, against sapstaining fungi on wood. The results showed that if balsam fir wood wafers were inoculated with Oidium sp. 3 days before the staining fungi, no staining fungi grew on these samples. If wood wafers were inoculated with Oidium sp. and staining fungi at the same time, samples were covered by both Oidium sp. and the staining fungus Ophiostoma piceae in a ratio of 50 to 50%. If wood wafers were inoculated with the staining fungi 3 days before Oidium sp., samples were absolutely covered by the staining fungus and fully stained.
Wetwood
Seasoning - Predrying
Yeasts
Bacteria
Biological Control
Fungi
Documents
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Rentabilité de méthodes de débitage selon le défilement

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42299
Author
Goulet, P.
Date
March 2005
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Goulet, P.
Date
March 2005
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
14 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Sawing
Costs
Analysis
Series Number
General Revenue 4498
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Le défilement des arbres est une caractéristique reconnue pour affecter considérablement le rendement en sciages lors du débitage des billes. Il est admis que la croissance plus rapide des arbres, notamment suite à des traitements d’éclaircie du peuplement, produit des tiges à défilement plus élevé lors de la récolte. Le défilement des billes a toujours représenté un défi au sciage et il y a eu bien des débats sur la façon de débiter les billes en minimisant l’impact du défilement sur le rendement en sciages. L’avènement des tables de positionnement optimisé a rendu ces débats beaucoup moins pertinents puisque ces équipements permettent l’optimisation du positionnement de chaque plateau avant le débitage. L’optimisation du positionnement est toutefois limitée lorsque les équipements utilisés au second débitage sont composés d’une équarrisseuse suivie d’une débiteuse à scies multiples. En effet, les restrictions sur le décentrage des plateaux et sur l’ouverture des têtes de l’équarrisseuse désavantagent plus les billes de fort défilement puisque la quantité de fibre contenue dans le défilement va directement en copeaux. Une méthode dite « sciage en bouteille » a été proposée et employée par certains industriels. La méthode préconisée dans la présente étude est une variante nommée « débitage en demi-bouteille ». Cette variante permet de maximiser la récupération dans le défilement en le plaçant d’un seul côté. Une des têtes de l’équarrisseuse reste d’un côté toujours à la même position durant le débitage, tandis que la seconde tête s’ouvre davantage vers le tiers de la bille, d’une dimension correspondant à l’épaisseur nominale d’une pièce de 1 ou de 2 pouces. Le simulateur de débitage Optitek a été utilisé pour vérifier si cette méthode présente des gains par rapport aux méthodes présentement employées dans les scieries. Des lots de billes ont été constitués selon deux catégories de longueur, 16 et 12 pieds, et chaque ensemble de billes a ensuite été séparé en trois classes de défilement (faible, moyen et fort défilement). Les résultats montrent que la méthode de débitage en demi-bouteille est avantageuse pour les scieries transformant des billes de 12 pieds et plus sur des lignes utilisant des tables de positionnement des plateaux devant l’équarrisseuse, et ce pour toutes les classes de défilement. La méthode « en demi-bouteille » permet de récupérer davantage de pièces de sciage dans le défilement de la bille, en permettant l’ouverture d’une des têtes équarrisseuses lorsque la bille est suffisamment maintenue dans le système de débitage. Des gains monétaires variant de 6,5 % à 8,9 % ont été observés pour les billes de 16 pieds de longueur et de 4,0 % à 5,1 % pour les billes de 12 pieds de longueur lorsque la méthode de débitage en demi-bouteille est utilisée au lieu de la méthode de l’équarrisseuse optimisée. On constate que les gains sont supérieurs lorsque les billes sont plus longues. Par contre, l’augmentation du défilement n’engendre pas d’augmentation des gains. Le débitage en demi-bouteille s’avère donc une alternative intéressante au débitage avec table de positionnement devant une équarrisseuse. Toutefois, le meilleur système de débitage en ce qui concerne les rendements demeure la débiteuse à scies multiples, précédée d’une table d’optimisation, car il présente beaucoup moins de contraintes de positionnement.
Sawing methods
Cost-benefit analysis
Documents
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Strand alignment factors in the production and performance of osb

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41789
Author
Grant, D.R.
Date
March 1997
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Grant, D.R.
Date
March 1997
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Strands
Measurement
Image analysis
Analysis
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 11
E-2996
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Strand Alignment
Image Analysis
Measurement
Documents
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Strand alignment measurement by image analysis

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41731
Author
Grant, D.R.
Date
March 1996
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Grant, D.R.
Date
March 1996
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
12 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Strands
Measurement
Image analysis
Analysis
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 8
E-2815
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Strand Alignment
Image Analysis
Measurement
Documents
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Analysis of forming equipment used in the production of oriented strand board

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub4836
Author
Grant, D.R.
Date
March 1995
Edition
41651
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Grant, D.R.
Date
March 1995
Edition
41651
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
28 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Strands
Oriented strandboard
Orientation
Analysis
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 12
E-2172
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Oriented strand board
Forming Equipment
Analysis
Documents
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Computer needs analysis : information technology management

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5649
Author
Desjardins, Richard
Drouin, N.
Liberty, H.D.
Rak, G.
Stuyt, N.
Date
April 1993
Edition
38483
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Desjardins, Richard
Drouin, N.
Liberty, H.D.
Rak, G.
Stuyt, N.
Date
April 1993
Edition
38483
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 v.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Analysis
Series Number
3599A115
E-1400
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
Computer Networks - Benefit Analysis
Information Technology - Management
Documents
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Tree-length merchandizing and log scaling study

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38533
Author
Capstick, D.E.
Date
August 1989
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Capstick, D.E.
Date
August 1989
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
37 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Digitalization
Subject
Scaling
Recovery
Logs
Analysis
Series Number
3786K890
E-1530
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
The merchantable tree-length size and quality has decreased over the past four (4) years. The average volume per merchantable tree-length was 0.876 cubic meters in 1985 versus only 0.705 cubic meters in 1989. This situation has forced Commonwealth Plywood to merchandize the company veneer grade of Deroulable in order to support its veneer plant. The resource merchandizing study identified a 3.5% veneer and 20.7% Deroulable recovery compared to a 40.4% veneer volume in 1985. By accepting a lower grade of veneer, the company is also manufacturing lower quality sawlogs. For tree-lengths containing butt rot or other veneer limiting defects such as: shake and seams, short F-1 or F-2 sawlogs were bucked to produce a veneer log once defects were removed. From tree-lengths containing little or no rot, lower quality sawlogs were merchandized further up the tree stem as a result of taking Deroulable veneer from the butt section. The general quality of the 1989 study sawlogs was better than the 1985 SIP sawlogs at the expense of recovering a lower volume and grade of veneer. The impact of this improved sawlog quality has benefited the conversion efficiency at the sawmill as opposed to the veneer mill. The lumber volume recovery dropped from 195bf per m3 in 1985 to 177 bf per m3 in 1989. On the other hand, lumber grade recovery was better for the 1989 study compared to the 1985 SIP as shown by the No.1 Common and Better recoveries of 35.7 versus 18.0%, respectively. The net effect of a higher grade recovery more than offset th lower volume recovery as summarized by the sawmill profitability analysis. The gross profits (before taxes) were -$6.54, +$8.42 and -$38.43 per Mbf lumber tally for the 1985 SIP study, the 1989 study and the 1989 long-term company average, respectively. The gross profit for the 1989 study sawlogs was significantly higher than for the present long-term results due to a better combination of lumber volume and grade recovery. The sawmill profitability analysis for the 1989 study logs differs greatly compared to the company's long-term average raising a question concerning the selection of a representative sawlog sample. Sawlog quality is a direct reflection of the resource quality. Furthermore, sawmill profits will vary considerably with sawlog quality. With a declining resource quality and a compay policy of maximizing veneer volume, there is increasing pressure on the veneer mill and sawmill to improve profitability as profit centres. Since Commonwealth Plywood is an integrated veneer/sawmill company, poor resource allocation will generally impact each profit centre in an offsetting manner. However, a serious decline in resource quality and improper resource merchandizing will adversely affect both the veneer and sawmill significantly. This study observed certain log making procedures that will improve the overall operating efficiency of both the veneer plant and sawmill. Recommendations are provided to address problems of tree-length merchandizing and sawlog scaling impacting on company profitability.
Merchandizing
Log scaling
Bucking
Log defects
Lumber recovery
Profit analysis
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Manufacturing strategies for improved hardwood profitability

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38105
Author
Capstick, D.E.
Date
March 1986
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Capstick, D.E.
Date
March 1986
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
67 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Statistics
Statistical analysis
Saw mills
Marketing
Hardwoods
Analysis
Series Number
CFS/DSS project no 20/85-86
Project no.37-12-203
E-328
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
Hardwood mills - Manufacturing process - analysis
Hardwoods - Marketing - Statistics
Sawmills - Improvement programs
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Determination of breakeven log analysis procedure

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38269
Author
Capstick, D.E.
Petro, F.J.
Date
March 1984
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Capstick, D.E.
Petro, F.J.
Date
March 1984
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
29 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Digitalization
Subject
Logs
Analysis
Series Number
4043052
E-886
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
Breakeven Log Analysis
Logs - Analysis
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Contribution of western red cedar foliage components in wood adhesives

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37044
Author
MacDonald, B.F.
Nault, J.R.
Swan, E.P.
Date
June 1982
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
MacDonald, B.F.
Nault, J.R.
Swan, E.P.
Date
June 1982
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
11 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Thuja plicata
Glue
Analysis
Series Number
CFS Contract 02-80-43-164
W-252
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Foliar analysis
Foliage products
Glue - Fillers
Thuja plicata
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Performance criteria of strength and stiffness for plywood to lumber joint in a floor with a high degree of composite action.

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38244
Author
van Rijn, G.J.
Date
March 1981
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
van Rijn, G.J.
Date
March 1981
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
16 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Structural analysis
Joints
Analysis
Series Number
CFS/DSS project 6/1980-81
E-846
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
Flooring - Wooden - Joints
Floors - Structural analysis
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Improving already-built lumber floors with elastomeric adhesives

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38252
Author
Bellosillo, S.B.
Date
May 1980
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Bellosillo, S.B.
Date
May 1980
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
8 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Systems
Structural analysis
Design
Analysis
Adhesives
Series Number
CFS project 6/1980-81
E-856
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
Floors - Structural analysis
Floors - Elastrometric Adhesives
Flooring Systems - Design and Construction
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17 records – page 1 of 1.