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Effet de l'entreposage des billes d'épinette noire sur l'écorçage à anneau et sur l'équarrissage-déchiquetage

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39156
Author
Laganière, B.
Date
October 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Laganière, B.
Date
October 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
15 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Bark
Series Number
Projet General Revenue no 5336
5336
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Cette étude a mesuré l’effet de l’entreposage des billes d’une durée de 20 mois sur la qualité de l’écorçage à anneau et sur la qualité du débitage par une équarrisseuse-déchiqueteuse à tête conique. L’écorçage a été réalisé en usine tandis que le débitage a été fait sur le banc d’essai d’équarrisseuse dans les laboratoires de FPInnovations à Québec. Les billes ont été écorcées et débitées à l’état frais et après des périodes de 5, 7 11, 15 et 20 mois d’entreposage. L’écorceuse à anneau est de marque Nicholson (A5, 17 po, 6 pastilles) et la vitesse d’alimentation utilisée de 69 m/min (225 pi/min). La tête de l’équarrisseuse (Ø 14 po, 6 couteaux) a une vitesse linéaire de couteau de 1220 m/min (4000 pi/min) et une vitesse de rotation de 1300 tr/min. La bouchée est de 22,2 mm (7/8 po). Les billes ont été écorcées et débitées à température ambiante ; les paramètres d’écorçage sont les mêmes que ceux utilisés lors de la production. 141 billes d’épinette noire (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.) de diamètre moyen de 14,7 cm au fin bout, de teneur en humidité (base anhydre) de 79,3 % et de densité basale de 393 kg/m3 ont été transformées. Les patrons de débitage (4x4, 4x5, 4x6 et 6x6) ont été utilisés afin d’obtenir le meilleur rendement matière de chaque bille. Les plus grandes pertes de teneur en humidité sont survenues après 5 et 7 mois d’entreposage ; par la suite la teneur en humidité est demeurée semblable et au-dessus du point de saturation des fibres. La proportion de grandes particules de copeau (7/8 et 1 1/8 po) a augmenté après 5 et 7 mois d’entreposage, tandis que la proportion de particules plus fines (3/16 po et fines) a diminué. La qualité d’écorçage est demeurée constante dans les 11 premiers mois d’entreposage ; la perte en volume de bille a oscillé entre 0,7 % et 1,1 %. Par la suite, les pertes en volume de billes ont augmenté à 2,3 et 2,7 % (à 15 et 20 mois). Ces pertes sont attribuables à la détérioration des billes par la coloration et la carie qui ont fait leur apparition après 15 et 20 mois d’entreposage. L’aubier était totalement affecté tandis que le duramen l’était sur une grande partie. De même, le lien entre le bois et l’écorce s’est grandement détérioré entre les mois 11 et 15. De grands lambeaux d’écorce tombaient lorsque les billes étaient manipulées ; l’absence d’écorce rendait l’aubier encore plus exposé à la pression des outils d’écorceuse, ce qui provoquait plus d’arrachement de bois. La proportion des pièces classée Premium 1/32, 1/16 et 1/8 en ce qui a trait à l’arrachement maximal de bois est restée semblable tout au long de l’étude, et ce, malgré la détérioration des bois aux mois 15 et 20. Les pertes monétaires ont très peu progressé lors de 11 premiers mois d’entreposage, elles sont passées de 1,86 % à 2,2 %. Par la suite, les pertes monétaires sont passées de 2,8 % à 3,1 %, principalement à cause de la carie et de la coloration qui sont apparues après 11 mois d’entreposage et sans cette détérioration, la qualité de débitage serait restée similaire. Dans les conditions de cette étude, on peut affirmer que la rentabilité commence à être affectée après 11 mois d’entreposage des billes.
Barking
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Process, operations and quality control procedures : the ring debarker

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39114
Author
Laganière, B.
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Laganière, B.
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Quality control
Qualitative analysis
Process control
Bark
Series Number
General Revenue Project No. 3653
3653
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
The overall objective of this research project was to develop process control procedures to facilitate the generation of products that meet standards at every step of the conversion process, using equipment operating at maximum efficiency. This report focuses on the ring debarker. It contains four parts: set-up methods using a proposed schedule; operator responsibilities and productivity measurement; quality control in product manufacturing; industry standards and loss calculation. Data compilation tables are also provided as examples. The distinguishing characteristic of the data collection method used in this document is that it involves checking off values or characteristics on a control chart. This allows users to note equipment performance over a number of hours and days at a glance, and to plan or implement corrective measures, if results deviate too far from targeted performance criteria. Note: Readers are encouraged to obtain a copy of a special Forintek publication entitled Ring Debarking (SP 525E). Several figures and methods included in this manual are used in the overall process control procedure described in this report.
Quality control
Process control
Barking
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Procédure de contrôle du procédé, de l'opération et de la qualité : l'écorceuse à anneau

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38949
Author
Laganière, B.
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Laganière, B.
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Quality control
Qualitative analysis
Process control
Bark
Series Number
E-4096
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
L’objectif général de ce projet de recherche est d’établir des procédures de contrôle du procédé visant la production de produits conformes à chaque étape du procédé de transformation à l’aide d’équipements fonctionnant avec une efficacité maximale. Le présent document est consacré à l’écorceuse à anneau. Le contenu comporte quatre parties : les méthodes de mise au point selon un horaire suggéré, les responsabilités de l’opérateur et la mesure de la productivité, le contrôle de qualité de fabrication du produit, les standards de l’industrie et le calcul des pertes. Des tableaux de compilation de données sont aussi fournis à titre d’exemple. La particularité des prises de données dans ce document réside à cocher une caractéristique obtenue dans une carte de contrôle, plutôt que de l’écrire au complet. Cette méthode permet de visualiser graphiquement la performance de l’équipement au cours des dernières heures et des derniers jours en un seul regard. Une action corrective peut alors être prise rapidement ou être planifiée si une caractéristique tend à s’éloigner des critères de performance exigés. Note importante : Il est suggéré aux lecteurs de se procurer le « Manuel d’écorçage à anneau » publié par Forintek (publication spéciale SP-525F) puisque plusieurs figures et méthodes de cette publication sont utilisées dans cette procédure de contrôle de procédé.
Quality control
Process control
Barking
Documents
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L'écorçage à anneau : manuel

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42107
Author
Laganière, B.
Date
April 2003
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Laganière, B.
Date
April 2003
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
87 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Bark
Saw mills
Series Number
Publication spéciale SP525F
E-3634
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
French
ISBN
0-86488-535-0
ISSN
0825-0030
Abstract
Debarking
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Ring debarking : manual

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42108
Author
Laganière, B.
Date
April 2003
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Laganière, B.
Date
April 2003
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
85 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Bark
Saw mills
Series Number
Special Publication SP-525E
E-3635
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
ISSN
0824-2119
Abstract
Debarking
Documents
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Development of bark board products

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37571
Author
Troughton, G.E.
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Troughton, G.E.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. CFS-IEPB Industry Division.
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
37 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Utilization
Bark
Series Number
W-1755
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The work presented in this report addresses the manufacture of bark board products on Forintek’s 15 x 15 –inch hot press. The properties of these bark board products including fire and decay resistance, fastener and weathering properties, VOC’s and formaldehyde emissions, dimensional stability and strength properties are discussed in the report. Some discussion on the mechanism of bark board chemical reactions is discussed. Results on catalysts to reduce pressing temperature and time, the potential to utilize recycled material as well as a preliminary market evaluation for bark board are also discussed. Specifically using an optimized pressing schedule on the 15 x 15 – inch hot press at 260°C, spruce bark boards exhibited excellent internal bond strength and dimensional stability. Results showed that by using 3% by weight of a catalyst, the pressing temperature can be reduced by 40°C in the manufacture of bark board. Results showed it is feasible to use recycled plywood and OSB trim furnish up to 20% by weight in the manufacture of spruce bark board. A preliminary marketing study indicated that the positive attributes of bark board showed strong potential of marketing a bark board product not only in North America but also in Japan. Bark boards made from eastern and western species as well as catalyzed Douglas fir bark all showed substantially lower VOCs emissions compared to commercial unfinished MDF and particleboard panels. These bark boards also showed negligible formaldehyde emissions and were about one hundred times less than the 0.3 ppm emission limit set by the American HUD and voluntarily adopted by the North American Composite Panel Association. The VOCs emissions were driven off the bark boards during the manufacturing process. The higher levels of VOCs emissions during the pressing step would have to be considered when constructing a plant. By overlaying spruce bark board with thin 1.5 mm birch veneers, the nail-head pull-through load increases by a factor of over four and is comparable to plywood and oriented strandboard. Based on cone calorimeter test data, one-step birch veneer overlaid spruce bark board would exhibit a flame-spread rating in the range 60 to 70. This compares to a flame spread rating range of 140 to 220 for OSB, 90 to 120 for Canadian softwood plywood and a flame spread rating below 25 for fire-retardant wood. The cone calorimeter test data also showed the time to ignition for one-step birch veneer overlaid bark board is much better than most wood products. Preliminary results showed that painted western spruce bark board samples showed good weathering properties. Both Douglas fir and spruce bark boards showed good resistance to brown rot fungi. The durable, dimensionally stable bark board products are unique compared to all other wood composite products in that they are manufactured without the need for expensive synthetic adhesive.
Board products - Manufacture
Bark - Utilization
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Debarker performance benchmarking

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37596
Author
Orbay, L.
Date
November 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Orbay, L.
Date
November 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 v.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wood
Studs
Saw mills
Process control
Bark
Series Number
3041
W-1814
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
A mill test and a study were carried out to provide a benchmark as to what is the best debarker performance achievable on frozen wood with properly adjusted debarker settings and well-maintained equipment. The test results have shown that:
The fibre to bark ratio decreased to 12.7% from the 20.9% observed in a previous Forintek study of sawmills with average debarker performance.
The lumber value recovered from logs was 10.7% higher than that achieved with average debarking, and the corresponding lumber volume increase was 10.4%.
The debarker removed 97.3% of the bark volume.
The fibre loss was 1.2% . For a sawmill processing 100,000 m3 of logs during a winter period of three months, losses attributed to poorly operated debarkers can amount to as much as $1.4 million.
Barkers - Process control
Barking - Process control
Frozen wood
Sawmilling studies
Documents
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Development of bark board products

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37476
Author
Troughton, G.E.
Gaston, Chris
Date
June 1998
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Troughton, G.E.
Gaston, Chris
Date
June 1998
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
12 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Utilization
Bark
Series Number
W-1508
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The effects of different pressing variables were evaluated for the manufacture of hog fuel board made from western hemlock. In general, the hog fuel boards made at higher temperature and pressure exhibited better dimensional stability and durability properties. Pressing time was reduced with temperature ranging from 20 min at 260 C to 4 min at 315 C. It was demonstrated that good quality hog fuel boards could be produced using a high wood content of 65%. In all cases, the western hemlock hog fuel boards showed an average thickness swelling less than 10% after a 2-hour boil test. After the same treatment, OSB shows 50% thickness swelling and particleboard disintegrates. Preliminary results for bark / hog fuel boards made from three eastern species, white spruce, balsam fir and jack pine showed the boards exhibited excellent dimensional stability and durability properties. In the interests of furthering the preliminary market and economic feasibility investigations of bark board and in co-operation with Dr. A. Kozak and his 4th year marketing class (Dept. of Wood Science, UBC), exploratory analyses were done on four potential end uses. These were flooring, floor underlayment, roof shingles and furniture / cabinets.
Board products - Manufacture
Bark - Utilization
Documents
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Évaluation de l'écorçage, hiver,été

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41857
Author
Laganière, B.
Date
June 1998
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Laganière, B.
Date
June 1998
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
45 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Bark
Saw mills
Series Number
E-3165
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Cette étude permet d’identifier des problèmes d’écorçage dans six scieries, de l’Abitibi et du Lac St-Jean, transformant de l’épinette noire. Dix-sept écorceuses Cambio (18, 24 et 30 po) et sept écorceuses Nicholson (12 et 17 po) ont été étudiées en hiver et en été. Les pertes en volume de sciage sont de 8% en hiver et de 3,5% en été. Les pertes en volume de billes sont de 11% en hiver comparativement à 5,3% en été. La quantité de fibre de bois dans l’écorce est de 24,2% en hiver chutant à 9,5% en été. La superficie d’écorce restante sur les billes après écorçage est de 7,2% en hiver et de 4,2% en été. Le taux d’écorce dans les copeaux passe de 1,9% en hiver à 0,6% en été. De grandes lacunes en matière de maintenance sont constatées (forces inégales des outils, bandes élastiques endommagées, pastilles usées, etc.). De grandes différences de design des écorceuses sont notées (angles d’attaque, force des outils, géométrie de la pastille, géométrie des outils, etc.) Aussi, des problèmes d’opération des écorceuses sont observés (plus d’une bille alimentée au même moment, anneau bourré d’écorces, etc.). Aucune usine ne se démarque des autres par sa qualité d’écorçage et chaque usine opère avec des paramètres d’écorçage complètement différents des scieries ayant les mêmes équipements et pratiquement la même ressource. Aucune marque d’écorceuse n’obtient des performances supérieures à d’autres. Suite à notre étude, une usine, possédant des Cambio a décidé de réaligner et de réajuster ses équipements, a fait chuté la quantité de fibre arrachée et la quantité d’écorce restante de ses billes. Cette usine obtient de loin le meilleur écorçage observé en industrie. Les équipements existants sont donc capables de faire un excellent écorçage s’ils sont bien ajustés et entretenus (les limites de l’équipement doivent être cependant respectées).
Debarking
Documents
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Debarking efficiency (winter/summer)

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41901
Author
Laganière, B.
Date
June 1998
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Laganière, B.
Date
June 1998
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
42 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Bark
Saw mills
Series Number
1661
E-3320
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Debarking
Documents
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Literature review on the utilization of bark for energy and value-added products

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41737
Author
Troughton, G.E.
Date
March 1996
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Troughton, G.E.
Date
March 1996
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
32 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Utilization
Review
Bark
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 20
E-2860
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Bark
Energy
Literature Review
Utilization
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Literature review on the utilization of bark for energy and value-added products

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37409
Author
Troughton, G.E.
Date
March 1996
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Troughton, G.E.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 1996
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
32 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Value added
Utilization
Bibliographies
Bark
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 20
Contract no. 1712A768
W-1308
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Over 100 pertinent reports and publications were reviewed on the utilization of bark residues for energy and value-added products. Approximately 10 million bone-dry tonnes of bark residues are produced annually as a by-product from the Canadian forestry industry. Environmental agencies are invoking stricter regulations with regard to landfill disposal and phasing out the use of beehive burners. Hence there is an urgency to find alternative uses for bark residues. Although the use of bark residues in energy systems represents an attractive way to dispose of large quantities, these energy options are curtailed by low gas and electricity prices. A potential short term solution to dispose of large quantities of bark residues is to make the bark non-leachable by a practical method followed by disposal in landfills that accept non-leachable residues. However, this would only be possible in certain areas of the country. A new technology developed by Simco/Ramic Inc. shows good potential to sort out "white wood" from bark residues allowing a higher value-added application for the separated "white wood" such as in MDF. Bark has unique properties compared to wood in that it has a much higher inorganic and polyphenolic content. This facilitates the use of bark for higher-value products albeit these products consume much smaller quantities of bark compared to energy uses. Bark has been found to be an excellent material for agricultural and landscaping uses and has been utilized in this area for many years. Over the years, it has also been utilized as an adhesive filler for plywood glues. Much research has been conducted on other uses for bark and these include oil pollution control agents, adhesives, particleboard additives, frost-insulation materials, biofilter media and an oil drilling mud additive. Because of its unique adhesive properties, a future value-added product could be bark board made without synthetic adhesives. In particular, because of bark board's excellent durability properties, an overlaid bark board could have good market potential for exterior products such as siding. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted in the high-temperature bark board pressing process could be passed through a biofilter using bark as a medium.
Bark - Utilization
Bark - Bibliography
Value added
Documents
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Preparation and evaluation of bark board without synthetic resin

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37421
Contributor
Alberta Department of Economic Development and Tourism
Forintek Canada Corp.
Date
April 1996
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Contributor
Alberta Department of Economic Development and Tourism
Forintek Canada Corp.
Date
April 1996
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
23 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Utilization
Bark
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Over 0.5 million bone-dry tons of bark residues are produced annually in Alberta. Stricter regulations are now being invoked by environmental agencies with regard to disposal of bark residues by landfilling or burning in beehive burners. Hence it is highly important to find alternate uses for bark waste in the form of higher-valued products. The present study describes the manufacture of bark boards, using high-temperature pressing, without the addition of synthetic adhesives. Internal bond strength and linear expansion values for spruce and pine bark boards fell within the range of requirements for the grades of interior particleboards in the CAN 3-0188.1-M-78 standard (Interior Mat-formed Wood Particleboard). Although the bending strength values for the bark boards were below the bending requirements in the CAN 3-0188.1-M-78 Standard, the requirements could easily be met by applying thin overlays to the bark boards. This would also enhance their appearance. The boards exhibited excellent durability properties when tested using a 2-hour boil test. An important environmental advantage of bark board would be the absence of formaldehyde emission since the board is made without urea formaldehyde resin. It is likely that volatile organic compounds (VOC's) would be emitted in the high-temperature bark board pressing process and these would need to be controlled or trapped in some way, possibly by passage through a biofilter using bark as a medium.
Board products - Manufacture
Bark - Utilization
Documents
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Principles of debarking, sawing, chipping, knife and abrasive planing and moulding

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37394
Author
Kirbach, E.
Date
February 1989
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Kirbach, E.
Date
February 1989
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
91 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wear
Sawing
Bark
Series Number
W-1266
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This report describes methods of debarking, sawing, chipping, knife and abrasive planing and moulding, along with methods to improve the wear resistance of cutting tools. Saw and knife maintenance are also covered.
Barking
Sawing
Chipping
Cutting edges - Wear
Cutters - Maintenance
Documents
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Waferboards from hybrid poplar using bark-modified pf resin as binder : report

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5669
Author
Clermont, Louis Philippe
Manery, N.
Date
1979
Edition
38741
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Clermont, Louis Philippe
Manery, N.
Date
1979
Edition
38741
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
9 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Waferboards
Resin
Populus
Hybrid
Bark
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
Waferboards were made from 5 and 9 year old hybrid poplars, using laboratory prepared wafers. The binder was a powder consisting of a mixture of phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin and comminuted hybrid poplar bark in equal weights. Only 1.25% PF resin was used based on weight of dry wood. These boards had bending strength and internal bond strength much in excess of the minimum required by Canadian Standards. Another binder was used composed of white spruce tannin, hybrid poplar bark and PF. This amount of PF based on dry wood was 0.5%. this mixture also gave strong boards, both dry and wet, at densities of 42 pounds per cubic foot.
Waferboards
Hybrid poplar
Bark-Modified PF Resin
Documents
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15 records – page 1 of 1.