This report covers our involvement in phytosanitary-related issues and research in the financial year 2016/17. It addresses actions planned in the 2016/17 project statement of the CFS-funded project entitled: Phytosanitary Measures and deliverables for Codes and Standards work related to phytosanitary issues. It captures our ongoing engagement with CFS, CFIA, and industry, and participation in the key phytosanitary forums including the International Forestry Quarantine Research Group (IFQRG) and the Canadian Forest Phytosanitary Working Group (CFPWG) as these two forums provide guidance to our research in the area.
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This energy use status report focuses on five commodity products produced within the broadly defined wood products sector: softwood lumber, softwood plywood, oriented strand board, particleboard and medium density fibreboard. The study examines gross facility manufacturing energy use and puts this energy use in context by relating it to upstream energy required to procure raw material and energy inputs. In addition, this work tracks both direct and indirect carbon emissions by fuel type and accounts for the carbon sequestered in wood products and thus, presents a carbon balance for each finished product at the plant gate. Using a life cycle analysis approach, this report documents the cradle-to-gate energy use in the production of the five commodities. Data reported here can assist each industry segment in better understanding material and energy use for the purpose of reducing energy consumption in the future.
Panels - Manufacture - Power requirements
Plywood - Manufacture - Power requirements
Sawmilling - Power requirements
Chapters include resource extration, forest managemetn, resource transportation, softwood lumber manufacture, softwood plywood manufacture, oriented strand board manufacture, composite panel board manufacture, gross energy and carbon balance summary and energy use reduction potential in wood product manufacturing.
One can summarize the work conducted under the Kyoto protocol by extracting some paragraphs from the Montreal climate conference press release.
Under the Kyoto Protocol, which entered into force 16 February 2005, more than 30 industrialized countries are bound by specific and legally binding emission reduction targets. As a first step, these cover the period 2008-2012. The Kyoto Protocol is now fully operational. The adoption of the Marrakesh accords formally launches emissions trading and the other two mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol. Carbon has now a market value. Under the clean development mechanism, investing in projects that provide sustainable development and reduce emissions makes sound business sense. The Joint Implementation (JI) adopted by the parties is one of the mechanisms which allow developed countries to invest in other developed countries and thereby earn carbon allowances which they can use to meet their emission reduction commitments. In addition to this, the clean development mechanism allows industrialized countries to invest in sustainable development projects in developing countries and thereby earn carbon allowances.
“With these decisions in place, we now have the infrastructure to move ahead with the implementation of the Kyoto protocol” said Richard Kinley, head of the United Nations Climate Change conference. It sets solid basis for future steps to bring emissions down he added.
All Kyoto Protocol Parties, including Canada, are now moving ahead to meet their GHG emission reduction commitments. In the past few years, Canada has developed and set strategies to meet our commitments. However, Canada has since changed for a new conservative government and a new strategy has been published first in April and the proposed greenhouse gas regulations are expected to be published in the Canada Gazette later this year, and the regulations finalized in 2009 to come into force as planned on January 1, 2010 according to the minister.
During this fiscal year two Canadian provinces took important steps in regards to climate change by adopting regulations to reduce their respective GHG emissions. The province of BC has published its own green house gas reduction targets through the Bill 44 in which the province has set reduction targets by 2020 for 33% and 80% by 2050 relative to 2007 emissions levels for both. In 2007 the Quebec government announced the first carbon tax in Canada to Oil companies to pay a new energy tax of 0.8 cents a litre for gasoline distributed in the province and 0.938 cents for diesel fuel. The province has also adopted California’s greenhouse gas standards for new light-duty vehicles.
The Prodealers channel is thought to be an increasingly important outlet for wood products. In previous research, homebuilders were found to rely heavily on this segment for wood products supplies and, ever more, structural components. Yet, very little research has been devoted to the characterization of this segment, where significant changes do occur.
Among these changes, prodealers are adapting quickly to the consolidation of their own client base by the way of consolidating themselves. They are also adding framing solutions and installation services to their product portfolio. According to Abernathy et al. (2004), Prodealers’ revenues come mostly from homebuilders that build 25 homes per year. Another 20% of revenues can be attributed to larger firms building 500 (or more) homes per year. Increasingly, these builders are thought to use their leverage to push down prices via purchasing agreements that are covering a broadening spectrum of products. This is forcing prodealers to readjust their strategies in accordance to customers’ needs. Componentization and more emphasis on installed sales are two key elements that prodealers are turning to (Abernathy et al., 2004). This study offers an important complement to “Attributes Demanded in the N.A. Structural Components Industry” in understanding changing demands for primary wood products by the North American structural components industry.
Up to now consolidation had remained a marginal trend in the prodealer segment, in contrast with the do-it-yourself (DIY) and retail segments. However, further consolidation can be expected and the prodealer segment is bound to gain importance for the wood products industry. Another change that might be occurring lies within the wood products portfolio carried by prodealers and homecenters. Over the last decade, there has been a sharp increase in U.S. imports of overseas lumber, most notably from Europe. While much of this substitution is thought to be happening in prodealers and homecenters yards, little is known on the impetus for substitution.
The work conducted under the Kyoto Protocol, can be summarized by extracting some paragraphs from the Montreal Climate Conference press release.
Under the Kyoto Protocol, which entered into force February 16, 2005, more than 30 industrialized countries are bound by specific and legally binding emission reduction targets. These cover the period 2008-2012, as a first step. The Kyoto Protocol is now fully operational. The adoption of the Marrakesh accords formally launches emissions trading and the other two mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol. Carbon now has a market value. Under the clean development mechanism, investing in projects that provide sustainable development and reduce emissions makes sound business sense. The Joint Implementation (JI) adopted by the parties is one of the mechanisms which allows developed countries to invest in other developed countries and thereby earn carbon allowances, which they can use to meet their emission reduction commitments. In addition to this, the clean development mechanism allows industrialized countries to invest in sustainable development projects in developing countries and thereby earn carbon allowances.
“With these decisions in place, we now have the infrastructure to move ahead with the implementation of the Kyoto protocol” said Richard Kinley, head of the United Nations Climate Change conference. “It sets solid basis for future steps to bring emissions down,” he added.
All Kyoto Protocol Parties, including Canada, are now moving ahead to meet their GHG emission reduction commitments. In the past few years, Canada has developed and set strategies to meet our commitments. Canada has recently elected a new Conservative Federal government and the new position in regards to the Protocol and what strategies will be adopted by this government, is unknown at this time. However, because H.E. Ms Rona Ambrose has been confirmed by both the Canadian Government and the United Nations as the new President of the Conference of the Parties (COP), we will very soon know what will be the new Canadian position.
This report analyses softwood-drying practices in Canada and identifies the R&D efforts required in this field. These issues need to be examined in order to address environmental concerns and implement solutions that will improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Developing advanced softwood-drying control systems would reduce energy use and enhance product quality. According to some researchers, the potential reduction in energy use by kilns in Canada would be 5.5 PJ per year, or 335 kT per year in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Furthermore, it is estimated that CO2 emissions could be reduced by an additionnal 90 kT per year through a decrease in the amount of lumber that is downgraded.
This study aims to give an overview of the main trends in developing control systems and to identify barriers to their introduction. It will also serve as a starting point for launching and directing projects on control procedures for lumber-drying in cooperation with the industry, universities, private and public laboratories, manufacturers and users.
In keeping with this objective, researchers for this study surveyed members of the Quebec Lumber Manufacturers' Association and a few mills in British Columbia. The main findings are as follows:
- Industry opinion is that its facilities are sufficiently modern to meet current market needs.
- Industry opinion is that quality (grade reduction / rejection rate) is the most significant factor when evaluationg drying systems.
- Because it is not easy to measure the quality of the drying process, drying time is the most often used to evaluate drying performance.
- Although quality was identified as the main variable in the drying process, the proportion of under-dried and over-dried lumber units was 9 and 16 percent, respectively.
- Operators play a significant role in drying operations (they manage the process before, during and after drying), and their actions affect the results of the process considerably.
- The decision to purchase a drying-control system is driven more by the acquisition of a kiln than by requirements related to the process itself.
The researchers reviewed current technical knowledge of the main dry kiln control systems by considering two types of controls : air temperature control when drying ; and setting up drying programs. The figures in this report illustrate the use of these two approaches along with various other control methods employed in the industry.
There are five softwood kiln controller manufacturers in Canada, which together account for 75 percent of the Canadian market. Although they use similar controllers, there are differences in how drying programs are set up and how changes in moisture content are measured during drying. In spite of recent technological advances, proper drying operations still depend on operator expertise.
R&D on new measurements instruments and mathematical models has not resulted in advanced kiln controllers so far. Innovation in this area has not kept pace with the advances in other leadings sectors. One technical problem that has not been resolved is that of measuring moisture content. In spite of more than 20 years of effort, mathematical models are still being developed in the scientific community, and few applications resulting from this work have benefited the industry other than those supporting operator training.
The research community and the industry acknowledge that the development of an advanced controller represents a promising avenue for improving the lumber-drying process. Unfortunately, problems in modelling the drying process and measuring moisture content remain represent major obstacles to the development of high-efficiency controllers.
Another obstacle relates to the difficulty of evaluating the financial benefits that would accrue from potential advances with the necessary speed and accuracy. These, then, are the key factors hindering the introduction of new drying technologies. They also explain why length of drying time is still the most frequently used control variable, despite the fact that the industry considers finished product quality more important. Furthermore, it appears that operators' actions significantly affect what happens not only in the kiln but at all stages in the process, from sawmill to shipping.
In view of this, we believe that a system for monitoring the entire drying process is worth investigating. Such a system would :
- serve to collect all data generated by measuring instruments at all stages in the process, from the sawmill to the planing mill
- help to establish productivity and quality indicators for measuring the monetary value of process enhancements introduced by operators
- make it possible to provide a rationale for other promising research approaches such as multivariate analysis and experimental design
This approach would make it possible to enhance control of the drying process and process quality while also revealing potential energy savings.
Laminating wood to produce clear or larger sizes is one of the easiest ways to add value to wood products. The Canadian producer is today presented with many choices in wood species, adhesives and equipment available for laminating. Success in this business environment requires that the producer have access to the skills needed to produce durable laminates with whatever wood species, adhesive or processing method requested by the customer.
Available information on properties of various Canadian wood species has usually been limited to particular species or to a specific property. The intent of this report is to fill in the information gaps on the laminating properties of Canadian wood species and, in particular, to see how these species compare to commercially prominent imports.
The eighteen Canadian species examined performed favourably in comparison to the imports while the performance of some of the species variants was not always similar. More difficulty was encountered with laminating with Phenol Resorcinol Formaldehyde (PRF) than with the other adhesives. Radio-frequency (RF) curing also showed some varied results with several species passing delamination testing but failing in the shear block wood failure criterion. Care should be taken when bonding porous woods with low viscosity adhesives.
Face veneers for high-grade plywood have solid wood surfaces free from knots and defects. These plywood panels are used where a high quality finish is required or where the surface appearance is very important. For less strenuous requirements the use of a patching compound to cover and seal open defects has become accepted in the international market place. Certification agencies evaluate plywood panel quality and durability and offer consumer assurance that the panel will perform satisfactorily over an extended period. With evolution of the plywood industry and their suppliers, new patching materials and methods have come into use. The long-term performance of plywood patches made with these new materials and methods may affect the long-term durability of the plywood panel. Currently available literature was reviewed to determine if current plywood industry patch test methods are adequate to meet consumer needs.
Conversion factors in comparative and standardized units are proposed for Eastern Canada forest products industry data. Information on wood measurement, wood properties and wood products are the most common "missing links" in the calculation of wood consumption and wood product yield. In this research, Forintek was commissioned to improve the accuracy and usefulness of OMNR'S Forest Industry Mill Information System (FIMIS) database. This publication contains information specific to the resource sizes, species, technologies and units used by the lumber and composite board industries in Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. The resulting forest products industry statistics respond to industry, research and government who need to convert performance data into units and ratios.
Des facteurs de conversion en unités comparables et normalisées sont proposés pour des données d'usines de produits forestiers de l'Est du Canada. Les informations sur le mesurage du bois, les propriétés du bois et les produits du bois permettent de combler les lacunes dans le calcul et l'évaluation statistique de la consommation de bois et du rendement en produits du bois. Un des mandats de cette recherche consistait à améliorer la précision et l'utilité de la base de données Forestry Industry Mill Information system (FIMIS) du MRNO. Cette publication contient les dimensions, les espèces, les technologies et les unités de mesure spécifiques à la ressource exploitée dans les industries de bois de sciage et de panneaux composites de l'Ontario, du Québec, du Nouveau-Brunswick, de la Nouvelle-Ecosse et de Terre-Neuve. Cette contribution sur les statistiques forestières s'adresse aux industriels, aux institutions de recherche et aux organismes gouvernementaux qui désirent convertir des données d'usines en unités de mesure et en proportions. Publication Speciale SP523F
L'alignement précis des équipements de coupe est un moyen recommandé pour assurer la maximisation du rendement matière et de la qualité des produits manufacturés. Les tendances de l'industrie s'orientent de plus en plus vers l'utilisation de scies minces et vers une réduction maximale des dimensions-cibles. Il est essentiel pour la qualité des produits désirés que les préposés de l'entretien et de l'alignement des machines fassent un ajustement de haute précision. Le succès d'un alignement précis dépend en grande partie de la précision des outils utilisés pour accomplir ce travail. Un niveau de précision est calibré de façon telle à permettre de mesurer les déviations du nivelage par unité de millième de pouce. Ce livre propose des formules pratiques que l'expérience en milieu de travail peut mettre à profit. Les méthodes d'alignement s'appliquent à l'ensemble de la machinerie des centres de transformation: équarrisseuse-déchiqueteuse ("Chipper Canter"), scie de tête à ruban avec le chariot, scie de tête à rubans jumelés ("Twin Band"), refendeuse verticale, refendeuse à ruban horizontal, scie de tête circulaire avec le chariot et déligneuse à scies multiples ("Bull Edger").