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Performance of preservative-treated lumber in areas with and without termites

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41194
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
February 1999
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
February 1999
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
5 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Termites
Preservatives tests
Preservatives chromated copper arsenate CCA
Preservatives ammoniacal
Preservatives
Ammonia
Series Number
W-1560
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Samples of end-matched preservative-treated dimensional lumber have been exposed in ground contact for 10 years at Forintek's two test plots in Ontario. At Kincardine, the site supports a colony of the Eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar); at Petawawa, there is no termite activity. While decay is somewhat more pronounced at Kincardine, the major difference between the sites is due to the presence or absence of termite activity. Termites are a much more serious threat than decay for treated wood with shallow preservative penetration.
Preservatives - Tests
Termites - Control
Preservatives - Ammoniacal copper arsenate (ACA)
Preservatives - Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)
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Wood drying modelling : final report

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5056
Author
Tremblay, Carl
Cloutier, Alain
Date
December 1999
Edition
41902
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Tremblay, Carl
Cloutier, Alain
Date
December 1999
Edition
41902
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
37 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wood
Simulation
Drying
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 21
E-3323
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Drying Wood
Models and Modelling
Simulation
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Assessment of various composite floating flooring constructions

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5029
Author
Lefebvre, M.
Beauregard, R.
Date
April 1999
Edition
41872
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Lefebvre, M.
Beauregard, R.
Date
April 1999
Edition
41872
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
18 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wood flooring
Wood
Series Number
E-3274
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
During the last decades, Engineered Wood Flooring and Laminated Flooring experienced dramatic increase in demand from consumers in Europe and Asia, and those two products have taken large market share to the traditional hardwood strip flooring and to other floor covering material like textile, vinyl, etc. In North America, these new multi-layer parquets are just taking off, in 1997, Engineered Wood Flooring share of hardwood flooring was 34% and growing fast. This compares with a market share of 67% in Europe. There appears to be much room for growth in North America. The rapid increase of hardwood flooring products in the world in recent years associated with the decrease of available hardwood raw material made the multi-layer and laminated flooring products interesting alternatives for the hardwood flooring industry. Canada is an important supplier of the hardwood raw material for the European production of both hardwood and EW Floorings. Since some volumes of EWF production from Europe are exported to North America, we do not see any reason why they should not be manufactured in Canada with a competitive advantage. The window of opportunity is there to be exploited. High Pressure Laminate flooring, a composite product made of High Density Fiberboard (HDF) overlaid by coated paper and presenting a very high-resistance surface finish, is also growing very fast in the U.S. The focus was less on this product in this report since contrarily to EWF, HPL flooring is already being produced in Canada. Also a high capacity for manufacturing this product is currently being built in S-E Asia and in China and we know these countries are low-cost producers, very hard to compete with. Standards and methods for testing such products were reviewed. It was observed that the European market is very much standard driven, German standards leading the way in that respect. North American are more driven by "lifetime limited warranties”, although some voluntary standards have been defined by the industry. In any case, all testing methods that were observed in these standards can be performed in Forintek materials testing laboratories. The main problems associated with such products are certainly their negative reaction to variation of moisture content. In this report, methods for predicting those reactions were elaborated in terms of quality of construction and performance. More specifically, testing methods were defined, tried and found to be effective to test surface planeity, gap formation associated with shrinkage and cupping. A process quality control method was also proposed to help eventual producers to control their gluing process. Certainly more research needs to be done to find the best parameters in terms of products and methods of production to develop high quality products that consumers will like to use in their home. Additional research is also required in order to find which backing and core materials could provide the future Canadian EWF industry a sustainable competitive advantage.
Engineered wood floors
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Drying issues related to structural engineered wood products

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41876
Author
Ngangué, Y.
Date
April 1999
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Ngangué, Y.
Date
April 1999
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
10 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wood
Drying
Series Number
E-3278
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Given the remarkable growth of engineered wood products (EWP) in recent years, and considering industry’s desire to maximise product recovery and value, Forintek undertook a literature search and mill visits to investigate drying practices in Eastern Canada regarding major engineered products (MSR lumber, finger-jointed studs, wood I-joists, glued-laminated beams), and how such practices affect manufacturing processes. The study revealed that most plants were equipped with on-line moisture detectors to reject undesirable pieces, but, with a few exceptions, little effort was made to adapt drying specifications to EWP requirements. The lumber used was generally dried to the same standards as commodity lumber (19 per cent maximum) even though high moisture contents caused pieces to be downgraded by MSR machines, and moisture content differentials between adjoining pieces was thought to be responsible for some poor finger-joints in structural studs. Based on the experience of some mills, questions were raised as to the effect of high-temperature drying on mechanical properties. However, attitudes were observed to be changing to a client focus as operations became better established, especially in integrated plants. Recommendations made to support improved returns through drying quality include investigation of 1) the effect of moisture content differentials on finger-joints, 2) optimum moisture contents and drying schedules for MSR production, and 3) the effect of high-temperature drying on I-beam flange material performance.
Engineered wood products
Drying
Structural Products
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Study of volatile organic chemical emissions from the pressing of composite panels

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41880
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 1999
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 1999
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
18 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
VOC Volatile Organic Compounds
Pressing
Panels
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
VOC
Pressing
Composites panels
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Study of adhesive requirements for OSB from high density hardwood

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41881
Author
Wang, X.
Date
June 1999
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, X.
Date
June 1999
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
56 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Oriented strandboard
Hardwoods
Adhesives
Series Number
E-3284
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Adhesives
OSB
High density hardwoods
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Surface deactivation of OSB strands during drying

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41882
Author
Barry, A.
Date
January 1999
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Date
January 1999
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
16 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Surface properties
Oriented strandboard
Series Number
CFS Simple Progress Report No. 34
E-3292
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Surface deactivation
OSB strands
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Modelling of drying rates in aspen logs during storage

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41889
Author
Brunette, Gilles G.
Date
April 1999
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Brunette, Gilles G.
Date
April 1999
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
7 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Simulation
Seasoning
Logs
Aspen
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Log Yard
Management
Seasoning - Computer simulation
Aspen
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Lignes directrices pour une utilisation efficace de la technologie de sciage selon la courbure

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41892
Author
Grondin, F.
Drouin, N.
Date
September 1999
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Grondin, F.
Drouin, N.
Date
September 1999
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
60 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Digitalization
Subject
Sawing
Series Number
E-3309
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
L'industrie du sciage est une composante majeure de l'économie canadienne. Avec les coûts croissants d'approvisionnement et la qualité décroissante de la matière première, cette industrie doit améliorer son procédé actuel ou chercher de nouvelles façons de récupérer davantage de chaque arbre. Étant donné que les opérations effectuées lors du procédé de sciage impliquent des décisions comportant plusieurs paramètres, l'utilisation de l'ordinateur s'avère de plus en plus avantageux. Dans le cadre de ce projet, des modèles ont été développés afin de simuler le sciage selon la courbure. Cette technique, de plus en plus répandue, permet de récupérer davantage de sciages de meilleure qualité. Avec la panoplie d'équipement de sciage courbe ayant chacun ses particularités, il devient difficile de savoir quelle technologie sera la mieux adaptée à nos besoins. L'utilisation de la simulation permettra de mieux comprendre cette technologie et de bénéficier de son plein potentiel.
Curve sawing
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Compte-rendu du séminaire sur la simulation dans l'industrie du sciage

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41900
Author
Grondin, F.
Drouin, N.
Bédard, P.
Goulet, P.
Date
October 1999
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Grondin, F.
Drouin, N.
Bédard, P.
Goulet, P.
Date
October 1999
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Digitalization
Subject
Simulation
Sawing
Optitek
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Optitek
Simulation
Sawing
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Notes de l'utilisateur pour la version beta du logiciel PEP

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41907
Author
McDonald, J. David
Date
July 1999
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
McDonald, J. David
Date
July 1999
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
6 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Digitalization
Subject
Saw mills
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Sawmill profits
Sawmill Efficiency
Documents
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PEP beta release user notes

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41908
Author
McDonald, J. David
Date
July 1999
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
McDonald, J. David
Date
July 1999
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
6 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Digitalization
Subject
Saw mills
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Sawmill profits
Sawmill Efficiency
Documents
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OSB adhesives hot pressing - model : cure kinetic module

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41910
Author
Sean, Trek
Date
January 1999
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Sean, Trek
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
January 1999
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
2 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Simulation
Pressing
Hot press
Series Number
CFS Simple Progress Report
E-3351
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Hot pressing
Simulation Model
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Improvements of the dynamic programming algorithm for tree bucking

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41915
Author
Grondin, F.
Date
January 1999
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Grondin, F.
Date
January 1999
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
26 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Digitalization
Subject
Simulation
Saw mills
Optimization
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Log bucking is one of the most important operations in the transformation of trees into lumber. A bad decision at this stage can jeopardize the optimal recovery in volume or in value. The problem of optimizing the recovery during the bucking process has been solved using, among others, the dynamic programming approach. By introducing certain assumptions into the dynamic programming algorithm formulation this approach becomes both more realistic and more efficient. The algorithm defined here is used in an integrated bucking-breakdown model. Example simulations demonstrate the computational speed improvements that result from the introduction of the assumptions.
Bucking
Optimization
Sawmilling simulation
Dynamic programming
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Textes des conférences prononcées dans le cadre du séminaire sur le sciage feuillu non conventionnel. AVAILABLE FROM: Quebec Wood Export Bureau (QWEB)

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41979
Contributor
Forintek Canada Corp.
Date
September 1999
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Contributor
Forintek Canada Corp.
Date
September 1999
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 v.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Hardwoods
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Lumber - Congresses
Hardwoods
Documents
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Evaluation of veneer drying strategies

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37492
Author
Troughton, G.E.
Date
March 1999
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Troughton, G.E.
Date
March 1999
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
8 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Veneer drying
Veneer
Drying
Series Number
W-1563
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
A literature review was made of publications on veneer drying. A discussion on the three types of air-circulation dryers, longitudinal, cross-flow and jet dryers is presented as well as other drying methods including platen, steam-press, radiofrequency (RF) and RF/vacuum drying. Good temperature control in veneer dryers such as in jet dryers using high temperatures in the green end and lower temperatures in the dry end will result in higher quality veneer with less surface inactivation. By maintaining a high humidity in veneer dryers, the following benefits result: faster drying rates, lower energy costs, less chance of surface inactivation and less chance of dryer fires. The following veneer drying benefits result by incising veneer on the lathe: faster drying rates and flatter veneer for easier handling on automated lay-up lines. Other important benefits include: fewer spin-outs at the lathe, less curl-up for the veneer near the core, especially spruce, higher veneer yields, reduced "blows" in plywood during pressing and improved preservative treatability of plywood. A drying strategy involving drying incised veneer to a uniform high moisture content and pressing this face incised veneer (15% m.c.) with dry core incised veneer (3% m.c.) using a moisture tolerant phenolic adhesive, could allow up to 30% reduction in pressing time.
Veneers - Drying
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Jointing technology for specialized panel applications

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37503
Author
Andersen, Axel W.
Date
May 1999
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Andersen, Axel W.
Date
May 1999
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
11 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Joints
Series Number
Project No. 1965
W-1595
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Published literature on joining of panel products into larger sized sheets was collected and evaluated. Current technology can produce acceptable bending strengths and stiffness for oversized panels. This technology is at present commercially available in Canada. There is a small current market in Canada for these types of products which is being met by imports.
Glued joints
Panels, Joints, Glued
Documents
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A literature review on plywood warp and twist

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37504
Author
Andersen, Axel W.
Date
May 1999
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Andersen, Axel W.
Date
May 1999
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
7 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Plywood
Series Number
Project No. 1966
W-1596
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Warp and twist can be defined as any deformation of panel shape from a flat plane and frequently results from exposure to moisture or humid conditions. Warpage and twist is generally considered to be less of a problem for composite panels than for solid wood products since any movement in one layer tends to be counterbalanced by that of other layers. However increased consumer demand for specific panel thickness and face species and the need for panel manufacturers to control costs has resulted in some panel products giving less than optimum performance. While many research papers on composite panels discuss warp and twist few have featured these as the main objective. This study has attempted to review the current level of knowledge in published literature. The consensus opinion in the published material is that for a panel to resist warp and twist, the construction must be balanced in species, density, grain orientation, layer thickness and moisture level.
Defects - Warping
Plywood - Defects
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The effect of variable rim speed and feed speeds on the cutting accuracy of 5ft quadruple bandsaws

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37527
Author
Taylor, J.
White, J.
Date
February 1999
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Taylor, J.
White, J.
Date
February 1999
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
28 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Sawing
Process control
Series Number
W-1637
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This report covers three days of testing on the primary breakdown line at the Pope and Talbot sawmill in Spearfish, South Dakota. Significant increases in production were achieved by using variable speed drives on the feed system and quadruple bandmills. By selecting rim speeds that provide the better cutting accuracies, this increase can be obtained with little or no increase in sawing deviation. In addition variable pitch sawblades alleviated washboard problems at all rim speeds tested and showed a small improvement in cutting accuracy. There appeared to be some alignment problems with the quad that were temporarily overcome by shimming the guides.
Cutting - Process control
Sawing - Feed speeds
Documents
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Developing kiln drying schedules for the Alberta wood industry

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37757
Author
Garrahan, Peter A.
Date
March 1999
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Garrahan, Peter A.
Contributor
Alberta Department of Economic Development and Tourism
Date
March 1999
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Drying
Kilns
Alberta
Series Number
W-2192
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This project was initiated to provide technical assistance to the Alberta wood drying industry. The specific objective was to identify opportunities to improve product quality through modification of the drying schedules. Seven mills representing almost 50% of the solid, softwood lumber production in the province were selected for the project. All mills provided a great deal of cooperation and commitment to the project was excellent. In general, lumber drying operations in Alberta are in good physical condition and operating personnel have a sound knowledge of basic drying concepts. In general, drying schedules were found to be quite harsh. the specific concerns at most mills related to too rapid a heat-up rate and extremely low relative humidity at the end of the drying cycle. Most of the schedule modification called for more gradual and controlled heat-up rates with higher wet-bulb temperatures. The objective of this modification is to avoid setting up conditions othat promote variability in moisture content from board to board. Higher relative humidity is required at the end of the drying cycle to avoid over-drying faster drying boards. Achieving a reduction in final moisture content variability and a higher overall average moisture content should be the objective of drying schedule modifications. Mill visits were used not only to review drying schedules but also to conduct a brief inspection of drying practices and equipment. It would be unproductive to identify schedule modifications if there were obvious shortcomings in other areas of the operation that would make it difficult to implement or over-shadow the effect. The primary concern with drying equipment is the leakiness of the structures. A common recommendation to mills was to tighten up kiln doors and walls in order to retain more moisture in the kiln environment. Another area of concern was related to lumber handling operations. Most problems in this area could be addressed through educating and training staff working at stackers, handling material in the yard, or preparing loads for the kiln. Logging and log storage practices at all of the mills visited has a serious and detrimental impact on the drying operations. At most times of the year, operators are having to deal with a wood supply that has a mix of initial moisture content conditions. Most mills seem to manage the small percentage of balsam fir in their mix effectively. Some future gains may be achieved through refined presorting techniques that take into account initial MC variability as well as differing drying characteristics between species.
Kiln drying
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20 records – page 1 of 1.