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A soil bed test of the effect of CCA penetration on the performance of spruce and pine lumber

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41255
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
November 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
November 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
5 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Soil
Preservatives tests
Preservatives penetration
Preservatives chromated copper arsenate CCA
Preservatives
Preservation
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Picea
Penetration
Series Number
W-1811
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
An accelerated decay test was set up to compare the performance of CCA-treated western spruce and lodgepole pine lumber treated to various depths of preservative penetration. Short lengths of treated 2 x 4s and comparable untreated material were installed in a soil bed. After ten years of exposure, the CCA treatments were still sound, while the untreated material had failed due to decay. Deterioration of the central untreated zone on the buried end of some material was caused by failure of the field-cut preservative, not the CCA treatment.
Preservatives - Tests - Soil block
Picea - Preservation
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Preservation
Preservatives - Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)
Preservatives - Penetration - Tests
Documents
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Study of volatile organic chemical emissions from the pressing of composite panels

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5960
Author
Barry, A.
Lépine, R.
Lovell, R.
Corneau, D.
Date
March 2001
Edition
42026
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Lépine, R.
Lovell, R.
Corneau, D.
Date
March 2001
Edition
42026
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
23 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
VOC Volatile Organic Compounds
Pressing
Panels
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 23
E-3530
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Pressing
Composite panels
VOCs
Emissions
Documents
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Extending wood fibre supplies for OSB production : hybrid poplar

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub53050
Author
Brunette, Gilles G.
Knudson, Robert M.
Chen, Liheng
Date
July 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Brunette, Gilles G.
Knudson, Robert M.
Chen, Liheng
Date
July 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
74 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Populus
Oriented strandboard
Hybrid
Language
English
Abstract
Ten varieties of hybrid poplars from 7 year-old to 30 year-old plantations were evaluated for OSB production. The clones were chosen for their similarity with aspen as well as their impressive growth. Static bending tests on small solid wood speciments indicate that all poplar hybrids have lower modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) than aspen. Although the hybrid poplar varieties evaluated in this study generally had physical characteristics similar in aspen and the properties of the OSB panels made from them were good, manufacture of OSB using substantial quantities of hybrid poplar (i.e. 25% or more) will likely require adjustments to some processing steps.
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Characterizing aspen veneer for LVL/plywood products. Part 1. Stress grades of veneer|Characterizing aspen veneer for LVL/plywood products

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1157
Author
Wang, Brad J.
Date
July 2001
Edition
37589
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Brad J.
Date
July 2001
Edition
37589
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
14 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Veneer manufacturing
Veneer
Populus
Plywood manufacture
Plywood
Laminate product
Aspen
Series Number
W-1791
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
In this work, the properties of aspen veneer from two mills (A and B) were compared. The comparisons between the incised veneer and non-incised veneer for mill A were made in terms of veneer thickness, ultrasonic propagation time (UPT), density and MOE. The aspen veneer was further characterized for LVL/plywood products by tailoring veneer grades to the requirements of final veneer products. In addition, MOE-based veneer stress grading and UPT-based veneer stress grading were compared for the aspen veneer. The advantages of MOE-based veneer stress grading over UPT-based veneer stress grading were identified in terms of veneer grade MOE and volume breakdown. The main results are summarized as follows: 1) Aspen veneer properties change from mill to mill. The differences in aspen veneer density and MOE between mill A and B are significant with mill A producing denser and stronger aspen veneer. 2) For aspen veneer in the mill A, the distribution shapes of veneer thickness, UPT, density and MOE between the non-incised and incised veneer are quite similar. Although the differences in veneer thickness, UPT and density between the non-incised veneer and incised veneer are identified as significant, the difference in veneer MOE is not significant due to the effect of both veneer UPT and density. The incised veneer has a slightly higher variation in thickness and is also slightly thicker compared to the non-incised veneer. This could due to the change of lathe settings or the property variation of aspen species as indicated with the veneer density variation. 3) Of the aspen veneer from mill A, using the optimum UPT thresholds, about 27.5 ~ 30.9% can be extracted through veneer stress grading to make 2.0 million psi LVL; about 43.4 ~ 59.9% can be sorted out for 1.8 million psi LVL; and the remaining 12.6 ~ 25.7% can be used for 1.5 million psi LVL or for plywood. It was also found that the incised aspen veneer generates 3.4% less of top stress grade G1 but 16.5% more of stress grade G2 compared to the non-incised aspen veneer if performing the optimum UPT-based stress grading. 4) The MOE-based veneer stress grading not only results in a smaller variation in MOE of each grade, but also higher volume percentages of stress grades G1 and G2 compared to the UPT-based veneer stress grading. This smaller variation in MOE of each stress grade will be very beneficial to the industry and structural applications since higher design stress can be assigned for the wood structural components. Also the higher percentages of stress grades G1 and G2 with the MOE-based veneer stress grading has significant economical implications and should be recognized by the industry. 5) To maximize mill profits, veneer sheets need to be periodically sampled and analyzed using the VGrader software. The optimum grading thresholds for the specific veneer can be established for on-line veneer stress grading based on the current market and requirements of final veneer products, providing a real solution to characterize and make best use of the specific veneer for LVL/plywood products.
Veneers - Manufacture - Tests
Populus - Veneers
Plywood - Manufacture
Lumber, Laminated veneer - Manufacture
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Characterizing aspen veneer for LVL/plywood products. Part 2. LVL pressing strategies and strength properties|Manufacturing characteristics and strength properties of aspen LVL using stress graded veneer

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1158
Author
Wang, Brad J.
Date
August 2001
Edition
37590
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Brad J.
Date
August 2001
Edition
37590
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
41 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Veneer manufacturing
Veneer
Mechanical properties
Populus
Laminate product
Aspen
Series Number
W-1792
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
In this study, aspen veneer sheets were sampled from a Forintek member mill. Their attributes and properties were measured. Using the optimum stress grading strategy, aspen veneer was segregated into 3 distinct stiffness groups (stress grades G1, G2 and G3) and conditioned to 3 different moisture levels. An experimental design for 3-level four factors comprising veneer moisture content, veneer stress grade, mat pressure and glue spread (or resin level) was adopted. Based on the experimental design, LVL panels with different combinations of four factors were pressed until the target core temperature reached 1050C to achieve full cure followed by a stepwise decompression cycle. The LVL panel final thickness, density, compression ratio and relevant strength properties were measured. After that the effect of aspen veneer moisture, stress grade, mat pressure and glue spread and their relative importance on LVL compression behavior, hot-pressing and strength properties were evaluated using a statistical analysis program. The relationship between LVL panel properties and veneer properties was examined. Finally a method to enhance LVL modulus of elasticity (MOE) to make high stiffness LVL was discussed. From this study, the following results were found: Aspen veneer is capable of making LVL products meeting 1.8 and 2.0 million psi MOE requirements. Optimum veneer stress grading and proper pressing schedule are two important keys to the manufacture of high-stiffness aspen LVL products. Further, a possibility to make high-grade aspen LVL meeting 2.2 million psi MOE exists by proper veneer densification and optimum veneer stress grading. The roles of four factors affecting LVL pressing behavior and strength properties are quite different. Glue spread and mat pressure, rather than stress grade and veneer moisture content, are two main factors affecting hot-pressing time taken for the core to reach 1050C. With incised veneer, the moisture from the glue in the glueline affects the rise of core temperature more pronouncedly than the moisture in the veneer, and is more critical to the cure of the glue. High glue spread (44 lbs/1000ft2) not only significantly increases the hot pressing time taken for the core to rise to 1050C, but overall also decreases most LVL strength properties with the pressing schedule used. High mat pressure does not necessarily result in high LVL panel compression due to the high gas pressure that occurs in the core. Veneer stress grade and veneer moisture are the two predominant factors that mostly affect LVL strength properties. LVL panels assembled with high stress grade result in increases in both flatwise and edgewise MOE and MOR properties rather than shear strength either longitudinal or through-the-thickness. Further, using high stress grade veneer can help make more efficient structural systems in terms of both stiffness-to-weight and bending strength-to-weight ratios compared to using low stress grade veneer. High veneer moisture at 6% impairs all LVL strength properties except edgewise bending MOE. LVL compression ratio can help link veneer MOE with LVL panel edgewise bending MOE. Overall, every increase of 1% in LVL compression ratio would result in 1% increase in LVL and veneer MOE ratio. With regard to aspen LVL MOE enhancement, using high veneer stress grade gains slightly less than using low veneer stress grade. On average, every increase of 1% in aspen LVL compression ratio results in 0.82%, 1.05% and 1.20% increase in aspen LVL and veneer MOE ratio assembled with stress grades G1, G2 and G3, respectively. In practice, those conversion factors for any specific veneer can be derived based on the correlation between veneer MOE and MOE of target LVL/plywood products made with proper pressing schedules, and be further used to derive requested veneer MOE for each stress grade to perform the optimum veneer stress grading. Pressing schedules show significant effect on aspen LVL compression behavior and strength properties. Using a pressing schedule with step-wise decompression cycles following the core temperature to rise to 1050C, an excessive compression of LVL in the range of 13.5% to 27.6% is generated which results in high-stiffness LVL with an average MOE of approximate 2.0 million psi for all experiments. Although this pressing schedule has slightly longer pressing time and off-target LVL thickness than current commercial LVL pressing schedules, it helps enhance the strength properties of LVL. It is recommended that further work should include the effect of different decompression cycles and mat pressure on LVL panel compression ratio and strength properties.
Populus - Veneers - Strength
Veneers - Manufacture - Tests
Lumber, Laminated veneer - Manufacture
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Étude comparative du séchage du chêne rouge 4/4 po par le procédé sous vide à vapeur surchauffée et le procédé conventionnel

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42005
Author
Tremblay, Carl
Lavoie, Vincent
Savard, Marc
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Tremblay, Carl
Lavoie, Vincent
Savard, Marc
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
18 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Vacuum drying
Vacuum
Superheated steam
Steam
Drying
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service
E-3509
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Ce projet a pour objectif de fournir l’information nécessaire aux producteurs de bois du Canada pour évaluer la technologie du séchage sous vide à vapeur surchauffée (V/VS) et de comparer ce procédé au séchage conventionnel pour le chêne rouge 4/4 po en fonction du temps de séchage, de la qualité finale du matériau, de l’efficacité et des coûts du séchage. Cette étude fut divisée en deux parties. Dans un premier temps, trois charges de chêne rouge furent séchées à l’aide du séchoir V/VS du laboratoire de l’Est de Forintek dans le but de déterminer un programme performant en termes de temps et de qualité. Par la suite, deux essais comparatifs entre le séchoir V/VS et un séchoir conventionnel de capacité similaire ont eu lieu. Lors de ces essais, des mesures propres au temps de séchage et à la qualité du bois avant et après séchage furent effectuées : gauchissement des pièces, fentes et gerces dues au séchage, gradient de teneur en humidité final, retrait des dimensions, contraintes résiduelles (tests de fourchette). De plus, les consommations énergétiques des séchoirs par procédés conventionnel et sous vide à vapeur surchauffée furent mesurées. Finalement, les coûts de séchage selon chacun des procédés furent estimés dans le cadre d’une mise en situation industrielle. Un programme performant de séchage par procédé sous vide à vapeur surchauffée a pu être rédigé pour le chêne rouge 4/4 po. L’emploi de ce programme a permis de réduire le temps de séchage d’un facteur d’environ trois par rapport au séchage d’une charge similaire par procédé conventionnel. Les mesures effectuées dans le cadre d’un essai comparatif permettent de conclure à la similitude de la qualité finale du bois séché, d’une part, par le procédé sous vide à vapeur surchauffée et, d’autre part, par le procédé conventionnel. De plus, les résultats ont démontré qu’un séchage de qualité par procédé V/VS peut être effectué sans conditionnement en fin de séchage. La consommation énergétique totale du séchoir sous vide à vapeur surchauffée fut de 15% inférieure à la consommation du séchoir conventionnel lors du séchage de deux charges similaires de chêne rouge 4/4 po au laboratoire de l’Est de Forintek. Finalement, l’évaluation des coûts de séchage propres à chaque procédé dans le cas d’une production annuelle de 10MMpmp démontre un coût et un investissement initial requis légèrement inférieurs pour le procédé sous vide à vapeur surchauffée.
Red oak
Superheated Steam Drying
Vacuum Drying
Documents
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Étude sur le séchage du chêne rouge 8/4 po par le procédé sous vide à vapeur surchauffée

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42006
Author
Tremblay, Carl
Lavoie, Vincent
Savard, Marc
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Tremblay, Carl
Lavoie, Vincent
Savard, Marc
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
8 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Vacuum drying
Vacuum
Superheated steam
Steam
Drying
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service
Project No. 2293B
E-3510
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Ce projet a pour objectif de fournir aux producteurs de bois canadiens l’information nécessaire à l’évaluation de la technologie du séchage sous vide à vapeur surchauffée (V/VS) appliquée au chêne rouge 8/4 po en fonction du temps de séchage, de la qualité finale du bois et de la consommation énergétique du procédé. Deux charges de chêne rouge furent séchées à l’aide du séchoir V/VS du laboratoire de l’Est de Forintek dans le but de déterminer un programme performant en termes de temps et de qualité. Lors de ces essais, des mesures propres au temps de séchage et à la qualité du bois avant et après séchage furent effectuées : gauchissement des pièces, fentes et gerces provoquées par le séchage, gradient de teneur en humidité final, retrait des dimensions et contraintes résiduelles (tests de fourchette). La consommation énergétique du séchoir V/VS fut également mesurée lors des essais de séchage. Un programme performant de séchage par procédé sous vide à vapeur surchauffée a pu être rédigé pour le chêne rouge 8/4 po. L’emploi de ce programme permet une réduction du temps de séchage d’un facteur d’environ quatre par rapport au temps de séchage d’une charge industrielle par procédé conventionnel. Les résultats ont démontré qu’un séchage de qualité peut être accompli par le procédé V/VS en conservant une température de consigne relativement faible et une humidité relative de l’air élevée lors du séchage à une teneur en humidité du bois supérieure au point de saturation des fibres. Un conditionnement en fin de séchage ne fut pas nécessaire suite au séchage du chêne rouge 8/4 po par procédé V/VS. Finalement, les mesures de consommation énergétique ont démontré une consommation électrique supérieure à la consommation calorifique. Cette observation s’explique par les temps de séchage relativement élevés nécessaires au séchage du chêne rouge 8/4 po.
Red oak
Superheated Steam Drying
Vacuum Drying
Documents
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Étude sur le séchage de chêne blanc 8/4 po par le procédé sous vide à vapeur surchauffée

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42007
Author
Tremblay, Carl
Lavoie, Vincent
Savard, Marc
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Tremblay, Carl
Lavoie, Vincent
Savard, Marc
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
11 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Vacuum drying
Vacuum
Superheated steam
Steam
Drying
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service
Project No. 2293B
E-3511
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Ce projet a pour objectif de fournir l’information nécessaire aux producteurs de bois du Canada pour évaluer la technologie du séchage sous vide à vapeur surchauffée (V/VS) pour du chêne blanc 8/4 po en se basant sur des résultats obtenus en termes de productivité, qualité et consommation énergétique. Un essai de séchage fut effectué à partir d’un chargement principalement composé de pièces de qualité « Sélect & Meilleur ». La teneur en humidité initiale moyenne des pièces était de 53.1%. Lors de l’essai, des mesures propres au temps de séchage et à la qualité du bois avant et après séchage furent effectuées : gauchissement des pièces, fentes et gerces dues au séchage, gradient de teneur en humidité final, retrait en dimension et contraintes résiduelles (tests de fourchette). De plus, la consommation énergétique, calorifique et électrique, fut mesurée à l’aide de compteurs. Un programme ayant servi lors d’essais de séchage de chêne rouge 8/4 po par procédé V/VS fut utilisé suite aux bons résultats obtenus antérieurement. Un temps de séchage de 21.6 jours fut nécessaire pour abaisser la teneur en humidité du bois de 53% à 16%. Ce temps est sous-estimé étant donné un arrêt prématuré du séchoir et des humidités relatives réelles dans le séchoir en début de séchage plus basses que celles demandées. Les résultats ont démontré une augmentation non négligeable de gerces de surface et de fendillement interne lors du séchage. Une humidité relative inférieure à la consigne en début de séchage peut expliquer la problématique des fentes et des gerces. Le gradient de teneur en humidité final moyen de 12.3% s’explique par l’arrêt du séchoir à une teneur en humidité moyenne supérieure à celle visée. En l’absence de conditionnement, les tests de fourchette ont démontré un niveau de contraintes résiduelles faible. La consommation énergétique totale s’est élevée à 18 602 kJ/kgeau évaporée où 48% est attribuable à la demande thermique et 52% à la consommation électrique.
White oak
Superheated Steam Drying
Vacuum Drying
Documents
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Étude comparative du séchage de l'érable à sucre 4/4 po par le procédé sous vide à vapeur surchauffée et le procédé conventionnel

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42008
Author
Savard, Marc
Lavoie, Vincent
Tremblay, Carl
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Savard, Marc
Lavoie, Vincent
Tremblay, Carl
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
9 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Vacuum drying
Vacuum
Superheated steam
Steam
Drying
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service
Project No. 2293B
E-3512
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Le séchage sous-vide à vapeur surchauffée (V/VS) fait intervenir un vide partiel pour réduire la température d’ébullition de l’eau et ainsi accélérer la vitesse de séchage. L’énergie thermique est transmise au bois sous forme de vapeur d’eau surchauffée qui est circulée à travers les empilements de bois à l’aide de ventilateurs. Cette étude a comme objectif de fournir l’information nécessaire aux producteurs de bois canadien pour évaluer cette technologie non-traditionnelle et de comparer le séchage V/VS et le séchage conventionnel pour l’érable à sucre 4/4 po. Deux paquets d’érable à sucre pré-séchés à l’air ont été utilisés pour comparer les deux procédés de séchage. Pour chacun des paquets, vingt pièces ont été choisies au hasard et mesurées pour évaluer le gauchissement, le retrait, les fentes et les gerces. Chacun des paquets fut séché simultanément dans deux séchoirs de laboratoire de taille similaire : un séchoir V/VS et un séchoir conventionnel. À la fin du séchage, en plus de la répétition des mesures effectuées avant le séchage, des échantillons furent prélevés pour déterminer la teneur en humidité finale, le gradient de teneur en humidité et le niveau de contraintes résiduelles. Pour une teneur en humidité finale comparable, le procédé de séchage V/VS a permis de réduire le temps de séchage de plus de la moitié comparativement au lot séché conventionnellement. Aucune différence significative n’a été observée par rapport au gauchissement et aux gerces et fentes après séchage. Le gradient moyen de teneur en humidité des vingt pièces séchées par le procédé V/VS est nul. Ce qui est validé par le niveau de contraintes résiduelles après séchage qui est plus faible avec le procédé V/VS. La consommation énergétique fut mesurée à l’aide de deux compteurs de consommation électrique. Un total de 11 972 kJ/kgeau évaporée fut utilisé par le séchoir V/VS, soit 79% en énergie thermique et 21% en énergie électrique (pompe à vide, ventilateurs de circulation de la vapeur surchauffée, ventilateur de l’unité de condensation et compresseur d’air pour les valves pneumatiques). Ces valeurs sont représentatives du séchage V/VS d’érable à sucre 4/4 po pré-séché à l’air.
Sugar maple
Superheated Steam Drying
Vacuum Drying
Documents
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Étude comparative sur le séchage de l'érable à sucre 8/4 po par procédé sous vide à vapeur surchauffée et conventionnel

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42009
Author
Lavoie, Vincent
Savard, Marc
Tremblay, Carl
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Lavoie, Vincent
Savard, Marc
Tremblay, Carl
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
10 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Vacuum drying
Vacuum
Superheated steam
Steam
Drying
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service
Project No. 2293B
E-3513
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Cette étude a pour objectif de fournir l’information nécessaire aux producteurs de bois du Canada pour évaluer la technologie du séchage sous vide à vapeur surchauffée (V/VS) pour de l’érable 8/4 po. en se basant sur des résultats obtenus en termes de productivité, qualité et consommation énergétique. Elle a également pour but de comparer le séchage sous vide à vapeur surchauffée (V/VS) et le séchage conventionnel de ce même produit selon les critères de productivité et de qualité. Deux charges homogènes destinées au séchage selon les procédés sous vide et conventionnel furent préparées à partir d’un empilement commun. La teneur en humidité initiale moyenne des pièces des deux charges était de 28%. Lors de chaque essai, des mesures propres au temps de séchage et à la qualité du bois avant et après séchage furent effectuées : gauchissement des pièces, fentes et gerces dues au séchage, gradient de teneur en humidité final, retrait en dimension et contraintes résiduelles (tests de fourchette). De plus la consommation énergétique du procédé sous vide, calorifique et électrique, fut mesurée à l’aide de compteurs. Le programme de séchage utilisé pour le procédé conventionnel fut tiré de Boone et al. (1993) tandis que celui utilisé pour le procédé sous vide provient du fabricant Iwotech. Le séchage des deux chargements fut arrêté lorsque toutes les pièces servant au contrôle atteignirent une fourchette de teneur en humidité finale de 7 ± 1.5%. Le temps de séchage de 7.6 jours obtenu par procédé sous vide représente une réduction considérable d’un facteur de 2.2 par rapport au procédé conventionnel et ce, pour une qualité comparable des produits après séchage. Les résultats relatifs au gauchissement, aux gerces, au gradient de TH ainsi qu’au niveau de contraintes résiduelles, démontrent un séchage de très bonne qualité pour les deux procédés. La consommation énergétique totale du procédé sous vide s’est élevée à 11 307 kJ/kgeau évaporée où 58% est attribuable à la demande thermique et 42% à la consommation électrique.
Sugar maple
Superheated Steam Drying
Vacuum Drying
Documents
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Engineered wood flooring constructions

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42010
Author
Lefebvre, M.
Blanchet, P.
Beauregard, R.
Date
April 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Lefebvre, M.
Blanchet, P.
Beauregard, R.
Date
April 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wood flooring
Wood
Series Number
E-3514
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Engineered Wood Parquet Flooring (EWF) are gaining in popularity since they appeared in Europe in the 70’s. In 1999, two third of the wood parquet installed in Europe was EWF. For the same year, a third of the wood parquet flooring installed in USA was EWF. Even if EWF captured this important market share, the knowledge on the product and its behaviour is very limited. Hygrometric condition variations, which happen in transition from summer to winter conditions in North America can induce hygromecanical deformation and permanent fatigue in the composite material which can result in a decrease of the mechanical performance of the glue line. The objectives of this study were to support the development of strong Engineered Wood Parquet Flooring industries in Canada, to increase the knowledge on engineered wood parquet, to develop engineered wood parquet flooring made with Canadian wood products components and to become competitive in performance with actual products in the market. Methodology has been developed to determine the performance of EWF and their glue line. In accordance with the manufacturing parameter in this study, the best construction was made of a 4 mm sugar maple surface layer, a 8 mm heart of white birch core layer and a 2 mm yellow birch veneer as backing layer. Varnish appears to play an important role in the performance of EWF by reducing the cupping deformation by 50 percent. Finally, the best adhesive to bond the EWF layers was found to be a polyurethane adhesive for the stability and strength of its glue line following ageing cycles.
Wood flooring
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Surface deactivation of OSB strands during drying

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42027
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
27 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Surface properties
Oriented strandboard
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 28
E-3531
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Surface deactivation of wood strands due to drying at elevated temperatures was evaluated by different techniques. The ability of resin to spread over the strands was estimated by measuring the contact angle between the resin droplet and the strand surface. Contact angles were measured by the Wilhelmy tensiometry balance and by the Sessile drop goniometer methods. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) was also used to follow chemical changes of the strand surface in terms of carbon and oxygen content and in terms of oxygen to carbon (o/c) atomic ratio as a function of the drying conditions. Three series of strands were used in this study: multiple-pass dried strands, conveyor-dried strands, and lab-made strands. The first two series of strands were industrially produced ready and dried for panel production. Drying schedules varied from freeze-drying to temperatures of 200°C. Wilhelmy advancing contact angles (2a) as measured on the mill dried strands increased with the increase of post drying temperature while the receding angle (2r) decreased with the first series of strands but increased with the second series. ESCA analysis of these same samples showed a transportation and deposition of extractives from the inner layers to the outer surface of strands. Surface oxidation due to the high temperature drying conditions could also contribute to this surface chemical composition variation. Sessile drop results from the lab-made strands showed excellent correlation with resin viscosity, contact angles for any wood type increased in the order of the resin viscosity i.e. PF face (110 cP)< PF core (170 cP)< UF (320 cP). Contact angles also increased in the following order for any given resin: southern yellow pine
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OSB adhesives hot pressing - model : cure kinetic module

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42028
Author
Sean, Trek
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Sean, Trek
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
13 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Simulation
Pressing
Hot press
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 27
E-3532
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
The work described in this report involved examination of the development of IB strength in OSB panels as a function of pressing parameters and mat moisture content. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used in the design the experimental work employing a Box-Behnken design with four (4) variables (platen temperature, pressing time, moisture content (MC) of the face layers of the mat and face/core ratio). Results showed that the relationship between the study parameters and IB strength fits very well the form of quadratic polynomials. Within the limits studied, it was found that increasing the pressing time and/or temperature could significantly improve the IB strength in OSB panels. Also, the study showed that bonding strength is improved by reducing mat moisture content. The work is also involved with the effect of resin kinetic on the bonding strength development. Several commercial phenol formaldehyde core resin were selected and characterised with a thermal analysis technique (DSC) to compare the chemical reactions and curing behaviour. The automated bonding evaluation apparatus or slap-shear test was employed to evaluate strength development of the selected adhesives as function of time, temperature and furnish moisture content. Test results showed that within the limits studied, increasing the pressing time and/or temperature could significantly improve the bonding shear. Also, the study showed that furnish moisture content and energy activity of the resin have limited effect on the bonding strength. The study on the development IB strength as a function of resin energy activity, pressing temperature, pressing time and mat moisture content at the face layers, showed a significant effect of pressing time and temperature on the IB strength of the panel. Also resin with high activity energy was found to provide panel with low IB.
Hot pressing
Simulation Model
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Fire resistance of finger-joined lumber

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42032
Author
Richardson, L.R.
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Richardson, L.R.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
3 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Resistance
Series Number
CFS Simple Progress Report No. 8
E-3537
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Fire resistance
Finger-joined lumber
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Study of volatile organic chemical emissions from an MDF pilot plant

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42042
Author
Barry, A.
Date
April 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
April 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
2 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
VOC Volatile Organic Compounds
MDF
Series Number
CFS Simple Progress Report No. 24
E-3548
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
VOC
MDF
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Wood hardening for value-added uses

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5557
Author
Dai, Chunping
Feng, Martin
Date
March 2001
Edition
37569
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Dai, Chunping
Feng, Martin
Contributor
Alberta Innovation and Science
Date
March 2001
Edition
37569
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
26 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wood
Seasoning high frequency
Seasoning
Populus
Aspen
Series Number
W-1752
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
In this report, a comprehensive literature review on wood hardening has been conducted. In addition, a Japanese wood densification method that uses compression and RF heating has been applied to densify Aspen lumber from Alberta. The main conclusions are: 1. Wood can be densified through compression under heat as evidenced by the Japanese compression method. 2. The densified Aspen lumber can be as hard and strong as known hardwoods such as Oak and Beech. Problems, however, exist: arcing associated with RF heating, property variation associated with arcing and micro fracturing, also dimensional fixation. 3. Wood can also be densified and hardened by resin impregnation. This approach has been extensively covered by a literature review including a number of recent patents. 4. The Induriteä process can also be considered as an impregnation process, which has been commercialized in New Zealand and claimed to be environmentally sound. 5. Very little work has been done on the densification and hardening of Aspen, an important wood species in the province of Alberta. Based on the results of this study, an approach of combining the advantages of both wood densification using conventional heating and resin impregnation is recommended to be explored for the hardening of Alberta wood species, particularly Aspen. Reasons for the recommendation are given in this report.
Densification
Seasoning - High frequency
Compreg
Populus - Compression wood
Modified woods
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Effect of veneer incising on strength properties of Douglas-fir LVL/plywood products

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5559
Author
Wang, Brad J.
Chan, K.L.
Date
May 2001
Edition
37576
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Brad J.
Chan, K.L.
Date
May 2001
Edition
37576
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
13 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Veneer
Mechanical properties
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Pseudotsuga
Plywood manufacture
Plywood
Laminate product
Series Number
W-1764
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Veneer incising at the peeling lathe, a new technology developed at Forintek, has been increasingly applied in Canadian softwood plywood mills. Significant benefits include reducing veneer curl-up and spin-outs and increasing veneer recovery. However, a comprehensive study of the effect of veneer incising on the conventional hot-pressing process has not been undertaken so far. As part of the work on optimization of LVL/plywood hot pressing process, this report investigated the effect of veneer incising on the strength properties of Douglas-fir LVL/Plywood products. Lightly-incised Douglas-fir veneer peeled with a Forintek mini-lathe was used in comparison to non-incised Douglas-fir veneer. The three veneer moisture levels considered were 0%, 3% and 6%. The number of plies for plywood and LVL panels were 5 and 13, respectively. A mixed-level experimental design was employed. Using a statistical software program, JMP, the importance of factors affecting Douglas-fir LVL/plywood hot-pressing and strength properties were identified. Also the t-test was used to test the significance of the difference in panel mean strength. The results showed that: 1. For Douglas-fir species, the lightly-incised veneer (similar to that now used at mills) does not significantly affect the conventional hot pressing times for 1) 5-ply plywood panels if the target core temperature is 115 0C and 2) 13-ply LVL if the target core temperature is 105 0C, compared to non-incised veneer. The hot-pressing time increases with increase in veneer moisture content ranging from 0 to 6% for 5-ply plywood. 2. For Douglas-fir veneer, no occurrences of blows were observed after unloading the press even with 5-ply plywood panels at 6% veneer moisture content. Under the same conditions, the compression ratios of 5-ply plywood and 13-ply LVL using the lightly-incised veneer are slightly larger compared to non-incised veneer. Also higher moisture veneer results in higher panel compression ratio. 3. For 5-ply Douglas-fir plywood, there are no significant differences in plywood bending MOE and shear strength (lap-shear) between non-incised and lightly-incised veneer at either 0% or 3% veneer moisture content. However, at 6% veneer moisture content, the differences in mean plywood bending MOE and shear strength between non-incised veneer and lightly-incised veneer were identified significant; the mean bending MOE of 5-ply plywood using the lightly-incised veneer is about 10% higher compared to the non-incised veneer; on the contrary, the shear strength (lap-shear) of 5-ply plywood using the lightly-incised veneer is about 20% lower compared to the non-incised veneer. On a statistical basis, there is no significant difference in plywood mean bending MOR between non-incised veneer and lightly-incised veneer at each of the three moisture content levels. 4. For 13-ply Douglas-fir LVL, there is no statistical difference in edgewise bending MOE and MOR between the incised veneer and non-incised veneer at 3% veneer moisture content. Based on the limited number of replicates, the block shear strength through-the-thickness using the lightly-incised veneer is found to be approximately 10% higher compared to the non-incised veneer and this difference is found to be significant on a statistical basis. But the difference in block shear strengths parallel to grain between the incised veneer and non-incised veneer is not significantly different.
Veneers - Incising
Plywood - Manufacture
Lumber, Laminated veneer - Manufacture
Pseudotsuga menziesii - Strength
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Fundamentals of OSB thickness swell

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5562
Author
Dai, Chunping
Zhou, X.
Hirschberg, M.
Date
July 2001
Edition
37584
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Dai, Chunping
Zhou, X.
Hirschberg, M.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
July 2001
Edition
37584
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
39 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Swelling
Strandboards
Shrinkage
Oriented strandboard
Orientation
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 29;2284
W-1784
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Reducing thickness swell is the most critical and challenging problem facing oriented strand board (OSB) manufacturers. This is especially important for new end applications for OSB including sub-flooring, web stock and concrete forming. To address the thickness swell problem for OSB, the present report discusses the fundamentals of thickness swell in Part 1 describing in detail the dimensional stability of wood strands under the interactions of heat, moisture pressure and time, develops a statistical model in Part 2 and finally in Part 3, develops a new practical patented radio-frequency method to reduce thickness swell in OSB. It is recommended that the statistical models generated from the present study should be combined with some of the earlier work by Hsu (1994) and Sean (1997) to form a comprehensive computer software for OSB manufacturers.
Oriented strandboard
Swelling and shrinkage
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Modeling of OSB hot pressing processes

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5563
Author
Dai, Chunping
Yu, C.
Wang, Brad J.
Date
July 2001
Edition
37585
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Dai, Chunping
Yu, C.
Wang, Brad J.
Date
July 2001
Edition
37585
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
18 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Strandboards
Simulation
Panels
Oriented strandboard
Orientation
Series Number
W-1785
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This report reviews firstly some of the recent work on modeling mat consolidation. For the first time, the concept of elasto-plastic behaviour of composite mats under pressing is introduced. The implications of the mat elasto-plasticity on formation of vertical density profile is analyzed. Finally, theoretical models, which capture such mat deformation behaviour and mat heat and moisture transfer are developed. Both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) models are capable of accurately predicting variations in mat temperature, gas pressure, moisture content and vertical density profile during hot pressing. Typical predictive results from the 2-D and 3-D models are presented and compared. Based on these comparisons, because of the complexity of the 3-D model, it is recommended that the 2-D model is sufficiently accurate enough to be used for simulating commercial OSB pressing.
Oriented strandboard
Panels - Production - Computer simulation
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An investigation into chipped surface quality problems at canter lines

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5565
Author
Wang, A.
Szathmary, G.
Date
September 2001
Edition
37595
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, A.
Szathmary, G.
Date
September 2001
Edition
37595
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
28 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Studs
Saw mills
Equipment
Sawing
Quality control
Qualitative analysis
Series Number
2166
W-1807
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to investigate and record the principal problems associated with chipped surface quality at canter lines and evaluate degrade and value losses due to these problems. Mill measurements were conducted in five member sawmills in British Columbia to evaluate the value losses and lumber degrades due to chipped surface defects. The test lumber was sampled from the planing mills to identify the chipping losses and main problems. The five types of chipped surface defects influencing lumber grade are: knot tear-out; failure to remove chipped spline channel; torn grain without knots; scalloping; and chipped thin end. Average value losses for all mills were $11.4/MBF and $12.6/MBF in freezing and non-freezing conditions respectively. Removing the non-freezing data from one mill changed this to $11.4/MBF and $9.0/MBF respectively. Knot tear out caused 60% of lumber to be degraded. On average, over 55% of knots had tear-out. 42.3% of trim length was caused by failure to remove chipped spline channel.
Sawing - Quality control
Defects - Knots
Sawmilling studies
Sawmills - Equipment
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