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Impact de la vitesse de l'air sur le taux de séchage de l'épinette noire

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42328
Author
Normand, D.
Lavoie, Vincent
Date
October 2005
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Normand, D.
Lavoie, Vincent
Date
October 2005
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
16 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Transfer
Simulation
Seasoning kiln drying
Seasoning
Drying
Kilns
Heat transfer
Heat
Air
Series Number
Projet General Revenue no 4033
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
La circulation de l’air est essentielle (en séchage conventionnel et par déshumidification) pour le transfert de la chaleur nécessaire au réchauffement du bois, à l’évaporation de l’eau de surface et au transport de cette humidité. Plus la vitesse de l’air est élevée, plus le taux de transfert d’énergie à la surface du bois est grand. Ceci se traduit par une augmentation du taux d’évaporation de l’eau à la surface du bois Quel gain de productivité peut-on obtenir à la suite d’une augmentation de la vitesse de l’air de 100 pi/min? Cette étude a pour objectif de déterminer l’impact de la vitesse de l’air sur la productivité, la qualité et la consommation énergétique du séchage du bois de construction ÉPS de l’est du Canada. Initialement, le logiciel de modélisation Drytek a été utilisé pour étudier l’effet de la vitesse de l’air sur la productivité du séchage. Les résultats des modélisations du sapin baumier, du pin gris et de l’épinette noire ont démontré un effet positif sur la productivité à la suite de l’augmentation de la vitesse de l’air. Des essais de laboratoire ont été faits sur du bois de construction d’épinette noire 2x4x8’ provenant de la région du Lac-St-Jean au Québec. Ces essais utilisant le même programme de séchage dicté par la teneur en humidité ont été réalisés pour quatre vitesses de l’air différentes soit 300, 600, 900 et 1200 pi/min. L’étude a démontré que la vitesse de l’air a un impact sur la productivité du séchage d’environ 2 % par augmentation de 100 pi/min de la vitesse de l’air considérant une teneur en humidité initiale de 40 % et une teneur en humidité finale de 15 %. Les gains de temps de séchage ont été obtenus uniquement de l’état vert au point de saturation des fibres (PSF). Le PSF correspond à une teneur en humidité de 25 à 30 %. Mentionnons qu‘aucune diminution du temps de séchage n’a été observée sous le PSF à la suite de l’augmentation de la vitesse de l’air. Ainsi, une teneur en humidité initiale supérieure à 40 % procure des gains supérieurs à 2 % par 100 pi/min et une teneur en humidité initiale inférieure à 40 % procure des gains inférieurs à cette valeur. Les variations de teneur en humidité finale entre les pièces et à l’intérieur des pièces sont similaires pour les essais réalisés à différentes vitesses de l’air. Ceci révèle une qualité des sciages semblable entre les essais. De même, le gauchissement évalué visuellement dans les empilements ne montrait pas de différence significative. La consommation électrique spécifique du système de ventilation est respectivement de 0,1, 0,2, 0,6 et 1,0 kWh/kgeau évaporée pour les essais réalisés à 300, 600, 900 et 1200 pi/min. Cette consommation spécifique est applicable uniquement au séchoir de laboratoire utilisé. Des données industrielles préliminaires nous permettent de croire que la consommation électrique spécifique de l’épinette noire est 0,06, 0,11, 0,14 et 0,18 kWh/kgeau évaporée pour les séchoirs industriels les plus efficaces avec les mêmes vitesses de l’air respectives mentionnées plus haut. Ces valeurs sont à confirmer dans une deuxième phase du projet. Des calculs économiques relatifs aux gains en productivité obtenus par l’augmentation de la vitesse de l’air montrent qu’il est possible d’augmenter les revenus annuels pour une capacité de séchage donnée. Un gain en productivité d’environ 2 % par augmentation de 100 pi/min de la vitesse de l’air se traduit par une augmentation des revenus de 1$/Mpmp séché pour un différentiel de prix sec-vert de 50 $/Mpmp. L’augmentation passe à 2$/Mpmp pour un différentiel de prix sec-vert de 100$/Mpmp. Les coûts additionnels doivent cependant être soustraits de ces revenus potentiels pour obtenir le profit additionnel associé à l’augmentation de la vitesse de l’air. À titre d’exemple, la modification ou l’ajout de déflecteurs ou l’ajustement de l’angle des pales des ventilateurs peuvent procurer des augmentations de la vitesse de l’air à coût très minime pour l’entreprise. La modification ou l’ajout de déflecteurs n’entraînera pas d’augmentation de la consommation électrique significative puisque la même quantité d’air par unité de temps est déplacée. Le changement du système de ventilation pour un système plus puissant impliquera un certain coût en capital et une hausse de la consommation électrique par Mpmp séché. Les coûts additionnels d’opération reliés à ces changements devront être pris en considération avant de procéder à une modification. Il est possible d’optimiser la gestion de la vitesse de l’air en fonction de l’étape de séchage de façon à réduire davantage les coûts d’énergie électrique reliés au système de ventilation, En effet, la vitesse des ventilateurs peut être réduite lorsque la teneur en humidité du bois se situe sous le PSF. Une étude réalisée précédemment chez Forintek a démontré qu’il est possible de réduire la consommation électrique du système de ventilation sans affecter la productivité des séchoirs en abaissant la vitesse des ventilateurs sous le PSF. La présente étude confirme que sous le PSF aucun gain en productivité n’est réalisé par une augmentation de la vitesse de l’air. Les usines ayant déjà des vitesses de l’air élevées ont donc intérêt à baisser la vitesse de rotation en fin séchage pour profiter d’économies d’énergie non négligeables. La détermination du PSF et l’utilisation d’un variateur de vitesse sur le système de ventilation sont nécessaires pour réaliser les gains. Un logiciel a été utilisé dans le cadre de cette étude pour modéliser l’écoulement de l’air dans un séchoir expérimental de Forintek. L’écoulement de l’air dans le séchoir avec un empilement réel a été modélisé. Par la suite, la vitesse de l’air obtenue à la sortie de l’empilement par modélisation a été comparée à celle mesurée réellement dans le séchoir. Des valeurs similaires entre la modélisation et la réalité démontrent le potentiel d’un tel outil pour simuler des modifications au niveau de la géométrie d’un séchoir donné. L’impact direct d’une modification (ex : ajout de déflecteurs, angle des déflecteurs et du toit) sur l’écoulement de l’air pourrait être vérifié avant de procéder aux modifications du séchoir. En résumé, il est très important de considérer les points suivants lors d’une modification du système de ventilation:
Favoriser le passage de l’air dans les empilements. Il faut s’assurer d’avoir de bonnes pratiques de lattage et d’empilement et d’utiliser adéquatement les déflecteurs.
Optimiser l’angle des pales des ventilateurs, ce qui permet d’utiliser adéquatement la puissance installée des moteurs.
S’assurer de la disponibilité de l’énergie calorifique. En effet, la même quantité d’énergie calorifique sera nécessaire pour sécher la même quantité de bois, mais dans un intervalle de temps plus court.
Envisager l’utilisation d’un variateur de vitesse pour diminuer la ventilation en dessous du PSF. Cette mesure favorise la réduction de la consommation énergétique.
Considérer l’impact de la vitesse de l’air sur les systèmes de contrôle utilisant le DTAB (différence de température à travers le bois). La modification de la vitesse de l’air peut modifier les lectures des DTAB habituelles et nécessiter des ajustements des programmes de séchage. Des travaux supplémentaires s’avèrent nécessaires pour compléter les recommandations générées par ce projet. Dans la prochaine année, le sapin baumier et le pin gris seront testés pour déterminer le gain en productivité potentiel de l’augmentation de la vitesse de l’air pour ces essences. La gestion et l’utilisation de la consommation électrique des systèmes de ventilation industriels seront également approfondies. Les différents travaux seront réalisés en collaboration avec le Laboratoire des technologies de l’énergie d’Hydro-Québec à Shawinigan dans le cadre du programme ÉlectroBois II.
Seasoning - Kiln drying - Computer simulation
Air flow
Heat transfer
Documents
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Process, operational and quality control procedures : edging and resaw station

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42331
Author
Goulet, P.
Date
March 2005
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Goulet, P.
Date
March 2005
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
23 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Quality control
Qualitative analysis
Process control
Series Number
General Revenue Project No. 3653
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Product quality control is performed by a majority of sawmills, but to varying degrees of intensity. It is more often done at the end of the process, generally in the planing mill once the products are ready for shipping. It is rarely based on standardized statistical quality control procedures specific to key sawmill processing stations. The general objective of this research project is to establish quality control procedures to ensure optimal operating efficiency of sawmill equipment at every major step in the manufacturing process. The results are presented in the form of a series of guidelines for specific procedures at target processing stations. These guidelines are intended for sawmill quality controllers and those in charge of process optimization. They are an excellent source of information for setting up a process control program. This report covers the edging and resaw station. The guidelines cover the following points:
Equipment fine tuning: this section provides a checklist of essential elements to ensure the equipment is running properly. Special attention is paid to the infeed, scanning and position systems on the machine.
Optimization of operations: this part addresses the role of the operator (in manual and optimized systems) and focuses on clarifying optimization parameters, an understanding and mastery of which are crucial to optimal machine operation.
Quality control: this section suggests simplified daily control procedures for critical equipment areas. The goal is to ensure top performance of the edging and resaw station.
Finally, the last section of the document provides a performance evaluation procedure for an optimized edger along with a comparison with industry standards.
Included in the appendices are forms for the various proposed procedures.
Quality control
Process control
Edgers
Documents
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Evaluation of short log processing equipment

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42332
Author
McDonald, J. David
Date
March 2005
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
McDonald, J. David
Date
March 2005
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
26 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Short wood
Processing
Logs
Series Number
General Revenue Project No. 4012
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Due to the scarcity of quality logs, the hardwood lumber manufacturing industry has been compelled to rely more and more heavily on lower grade or size logs, with a significant impact on the profitability of existing operations. Tests conducted in a conventional sawmill equipped with a carriage and a resaw show that the conversion of 6 and 7-foot short logs entails losses of $85/Mbf for hard maple and $103/Mbf for white birch. An additional sample of below grade hard maple logs, 8 feet and over in lengths, selected from previous studies, led to even more severe losses of $121/Mbf. Only the better quality below grade logs and those in diameter classes over 30 cm generated profits; unfortunately, such diameters represent only a very small percentage of the available resource. According to our simulations, a conventional mill cutting about 500 sawlogs per shift could include up to 70% hard maple short logs in its regular production before getting into a loss situation. If the same mill used short or below grade logs exclusively, it would have to process over 900 short logs or 725 below grade logs to reach the breakeven point. To generate a 10% profit, it would have to process some 1100 short logs or 900 below grade logs. Such productivity levels are only achievable with more linear manufacturing processes. Our simulations showed that the addition of a second production line equipped with an end-dogging carriage system to process 1300 hard maple short logs per shift would barely cover costs, profits being in the order of $9/Mbf, i.e. $181,000/year. The drastic escalation of production costs due to the second line limits the effect of greater productivity on the expected profitability of the mill. The second line would need to process 1800 maple short logs per shift for the mill to achieve 10% profits, i.e. $71/Mbf or $1.8 million/year. This level of productivity can be obtained with twin saws fed with a sharp chain rather then an end-dogging carriage system. Hardwood lumber producers should consider producing lumber that meets specific client requirements rather than simply meeting NHLA rules. Just by grading our lower grade boards on their better face to recover a certain percentage of clear cuttings instead of applying NHLA rules, we increased the value of our maple and birch products by $26/Mbf and $18/Mbf respectively with negligible impact on volume. Significantly greater gains are achievable. If the whole production was graded to NHLA rules on its better face, it would be possible to generate 31% more #1 Common & Better maple and 46% more #1 Common & Better birch. In addition, the percentage of sapwood boards would increase by 5% with both species.
Short logs
Processing equipment
Documents
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Log conditioning with radio frequency treatment in OSB manufacturing

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42352
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Wan, Hui
Kendall, J.
Date
July 2005
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Wan, Hui
Kendall, J.
Date
July 2005
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
24 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Strandboards
Radio frequency
Oriented strandboard
Orientation
Logs
Series Number
General Revenue Project No. 4492
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
In North America, log conditioning during winter for stranding and veneer peeling purposes is traditionally conducted using water ponds. Some disadvantages associated with pond thawing of logs have been observed by the composite wood industry. Some of the disadvantages include lack of flexibility in terms of wood species, moisture content, and log diameter; reduced strand or veneer quality (due to uneven cooking caused by differences in log size); changes in wood chemical characteristics (due to acid accumulation in the ponds); and pollution (due to micro-organism growth). A trial with radio frequency (RF) heating for log thawing was conducted in 2004 at the Laboratoire des technologies de l’énergie (LTE) of the Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Québec in Shawinigan, Québec. A total of 10 batches of frozen aspen log (-20oC) were treated with a pilot-scale RF kiln installed at the LTE. Each batch contained 9 to 11 logs (4 feet long) with three levels of log diameters (5-6, 10-12, or >12 inches) and two levels of moisture content (MC) (60% or 100%). In addition to log diameter and MC, power density based on wood volume in the batch (15, 22.5, or 30 kW/m3) was used as another main variable of RF treatment. The main objective of this preliminary study was to explore a fast and environmentally friendly method for conditioning aspen logs for use in OSB production. The main findings of this preliminary study indicate that, compared with conventional pond heating, RF heating could greatly reduce log thawing time for those aspen logs with diameters over 5 inches. The energy consumption for RF heating was similar to that of conventional log conditioning with water spray. The quick log thawing method seems to be more promising for veneer peeling, a process that normally requires larger diameter logs. In the study, the energy transfer efficiency was defined as the percentage of calculated energy in the wood (heat absorption by log) over the measured energy consumption of the RF equipment (total energy input by RF generator) when heating logs from -20oC to about 0oC for all logs in the batch. An increase in RF power level from 7.5 to 20 kW significantly improved energy transfer efficiency from 23% to 64% among 10 batches of logs. Test results reveal that the energy transfer efficiency very closely mirrored RF generator energy conversion efficiency. This means that the best energy efficiency results can be obtained when operating the generator near maximum power, resulting in less energy being lost when the main power was converted to RF power. The tests also revealed that at 22.5 and 30 kW/m3, lower MC wood thawed faster compared with higher MC wood. This is consistent with the fact that higher MC wood has a higher mass and a higher average heat capacity. Some uneven heating and thawing rates were noticed within a given log and between logs in any given batch. The uniformity was influenced by RF power density, log MC variation, and log piling patterns. Adjustments to the spacing between logs and the distance between the log pile and RF electrode seemed to somewhat improve the uniformity of heating and thawing. Based on this preliminary study, it is believed that RF treatment is a promising alternative to traditional pond conditioning for log thawing. To investigate the potential of this method, additional research would be necessary. Recommendations for further study are: (1) explore log thawing at greater RF power densities; (2) explore different piling strategies and electrode geometries to improve heating uniformity; (3) evaluate the wood chemical and mechanical properties and their impact on OSB properties; (4) test other wood species or mixed species; and (5) explore the feasibility of RF treatment of wood for plywood manufacturing. Acknowledgements First of all, we would like to thank Mr. Sylvain Chenard, technician at the Laboratoire des technologie de l’énergie of Hydro-Québec, for his hard work, dedication and technical expertise. Special thanks is extended to Mr. Kuiyan Song, visiting professor from Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China, and Mr. Antoine Henry, technician at the Eastern Division of Forintek, for their assistance in the preparation and characterization of material, and for conducting experiments at Hydro-Québec, Shawinigan.
Oriented strandboard - Manufacture
Log conditioning
Radio frequency
Documents
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Synthèse du IWMS-17 : rapport de voyage (International Wood Machining Seminar) Rosenheim, Allemagne, 26-30 septembre 2005

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42353
Author
Laganière, B.
Date
October 2005
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Laganière, B.
Date
October 2005
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
96 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wood
Secondary woods
Saw mills
Processing
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Ce rapport de voyage est un résumé de la conférence IWMS-17 (International Wood Machining Seminar) tenue à Rosenheim en Allemagne du 26 au 30 septembre 2005. Le contenu des présentations orales et des posters pouvant servir à l’avancement de la recherche et à l’enrichissement des connaissances chez Forintek y est résumé. En plus, il y a eu des visites de scieries (2) et d’usines de seconde transformation (3). Tous les lieux visités sont présentés dans le document.
Machining
Secondary wood processing - Symposium
Sawmills - Germany
Documents
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Reducing density variation by manipulating strand geometry

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42374
Author
Chen, S.
Sean, Trek
Date
March 2005
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Chen, S.
Sean, Trek
Contributor
Forintek Canada Corp.
Date
March 2005
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
2 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Strandboards
Oriented strandboard
Orientation
Series Number
Simple Progress Report; 4489
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Oriented strandboard - Manufacture, Density
Documents
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Investigations to reduce strander knife wear

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42375
Author
Wan, Hui
Wang, X.
Date
March 2005
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wan, Hui
Wang, X.
Date
March 2005
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
2 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wear
Tool wear
Tools
Strandboards
Oriented strandboard
Orientation
Series Number
General Revenue
Simple Progress Report
4488
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Tools, Wear
Oriented strandboard - Manufacture
Documents
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Sawmill and harvester bucking efficiency

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42834
Author
Corneau, Yvon C.
Fournier, Francis
Favreau, Jean
Makkonen, Ismo
Date
June 2005
Material Type
InfoNote
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Corneau, Yvon C.
Fournier, Francis
Favreau, Jean
Makkonen, Ismo
Date
June 2005
Material Type
InfoNote
Physical Description
2 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Saw mills
Series Number
Technote ; 05-02E
TN559
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
The purpose of this joint Forintek - FERIC study was to compare the value recovery of a sawmill optimized bucking system with that of a harvester equipped with an optimized bucking software package. To reach this objective, a practical bucking test was conducted with a harvester. Several bucking simulations were performed using Forintek's Optitek optimization software as well as two bucking optimization software packages currently installed on commercial harvesters.
Sawmilling - Bucking
Documents
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Efficacité du tronçonnage à la scierie et en forêt à l'aide de multifonctionnelles

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42835
Author
Corneau, Yvon C.
Fournier, Francis
Favreau, Jean
Makkonen, Ismo
Date
June 2005
Material Type
InfoNote
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Corneau, Yvon C.
Fournier, Francis
Favreau, Jean
Makkonen, Ismo
Date
June 2005
Material Type
InfoNote
Physical Description
2 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Saw mills
Series Number
Technote ; 05-02E
TN560
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
L'objectif de ce projet réalisé conjointement par Forintek et FERIC visait à comparer le rendement en valeur obtenu d'un système de tronçonnage optimisé installé à la scierie avec celui d'une multifonctionnelle munie d'un logiciel d'optimisation du tronçonnage. Pour atteindre cet objectif, un essai de tronçonnage pratique a été réalisé à l'aide d'une multifonctionnelle. En outre, plusieurs simulations de tronçonnage ont été effectuées avec le logiciel d'optimisation Optitek de Forintek et deux logiciels d'optimisation du tronçonnage que l'on retrouve sur des multifonctionnelles.
Sawmilling - Bucking
Documents
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Analyse comparative des différents types de scanneurs d'équarris

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5403
Author
Bédard, P.
Fournier, Francis
Date
February 2005
Edition
42282
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Bédard, P.
Fournier, Francis
Date
February 2005
Edition
42282
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
18 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Trimming
Scanners
Optimization
Series Number
General Revenue 4497
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
On retrouve actuellement en milieu industriel diverses technologies de scanneurs d’équarris utilisant des configurations soit linéaires ou transversales pour l’optimiser le débitage secondaire. Puisque aucune donnée n’est disponible quant à la performance ou les avantages d’un système par rapport à un autre, Forintek a entrepris de réaliser une étude comparative. Un échantillon d’équarris a été mesuré dans des conditions industrielles avec trois scanneurs différents, un transversal et deux linéaires, ainsi qu’en laboratoire à l’aide de la technologie de rayon x, servant de référence. La comparaison des rendements obtenus avec chaque scanneur étudié a été réalisée par le biais de simulations à l’aide du logiciel Optitek. Comme la plupart des systèmes de positionnement d’équarris présentent un niveau de précision limité, des erreurs de positionnement ont été appliquées par simulation pour obtenir des résultats réalistes. Les résultats ont démontré que les erreurs de positionnement ont un impact majeur sur l’optimisation du débitage secondaire. Avec le niveau d’erreur moyen observé en industrie, aucune technologie de scanneur ne se démarque nettement des autres. Toutefois, en améliorant considérablement la précision des systèmes de positionnement, on pourrait observer la tendance suivante : le scanneur transversal s’avèrerait le plus précis avec un niveau d’efficacité de 2 % supérieur au système linéaire à 4 caméras, et ce dernier serait de 2 % supérieur au système linéaire à 2 caméras. La technologie du rayon x offrirait un excellent potentiel d’amélioration par rapport aux technologies actuelles puisqu’elle permettrait d’accroître l’efficacité du débitage de 6 % en ne considérant aucune erreur de positionnement.
Scanners
Breakdown, secondary
Trimming
Edging
Optimization
Documents
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Biological method to pre-dry lumber with wetwood

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42290
Author
Yang, D.-Q.
Date
March 2005
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Yang, D.-Q.
Date
March 2005
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
44 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Yeasts
Wetwoods
Seasoning
Bacteria
Series Number
General Revenue 4030
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Wetwood, or water pocket, has higher moisture content and lower permeability than normal wood, which cause serious problems for lumber drying. The high moisture content of wetwood usually requires relatively long periods for adequate drying; consequently, it causes a high risk for developing checks, splits, crook, bow and twist of lumber in kiln drying. These problems have not been solved by any physical, chemical or mechanical methods yet. Using biological method to pre-dry lumber containing wetwood is a new concept introduced in this project. Wetwood is formed by bacteria growth inside normal wood. Some fungi are able to kill bacteria and to utilize foetid liquid produced by these micro-organisms. Consequently, the permeability of wetwood can be increased and the lumber drying rate can be improved. The present project intends a research on biological method to pre-dry lumber containing wetwood, and to evaluate efficacy and economic benefit of such a biological treatment. Trees of balsam fir, sub-alpine fir and aspen were felled and cut into lumber. Isolation of causal agents was conducted from wet pockets of these wood species by using peptone agar and malt extract agar media. A total of 319 cultures were obtained from the wetwood of these three wood species. Three bacteria and two yeasts were isolated from balsam fir wetwood, 2 bacteria and 1 yeast were more frequently isolated from aspen wetwood, and 2 bacteria and 5 yeasts were obtained from sub-alpine fir. Two bacteria were isolated from the wetwood of all 3 wood species: Shigella sonnei and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Other bacteria and yeasts isolated were identified as Aerococcus viridans, Chryseomonas luteol, Candida boidinli, C. zeylanoides, Cryptococcus albidus, C. laurentii, C. terreus, and Rhodotorula mucileginosa. In addition to these identified bacteria and yeasts, two other yeasts isolated from balsam fir and sub-alpine fir wetwood were unabile to be identified. Six bacteria and yeast isolates were re-inoculated on normal wood of balsam fir; they were A-a (a bacterium isolated from aspen and identified as Shigella sonnei), A-c (a yeast isolated from aspen and identified as Cryptococcus laurentii), B-a (a bacterium isolated from balsam fir and identified as Shigella sonnei), B-c (a mixture of 2 bacteria isolated from balsam fir and identified as Shigella sonnei and Aerococcus viridans), Y-2 (an unidentified yeast isolated from balsam fir), and SaB-2 (a bacterium isolated from sub-alpine fir and identified as Shigella sonnei). The result showed that all of these micro-organisms caused wetwood formation on inoculated normal wood samples in 2 weeks. This result indicates that wetwood formation in trees is not caused by only 1 micro-organism but is more likely caused by several species (either bacteria or yeasts) that can colonise well in the wood of trees. The moisture contents (MC) of the inoculated wood blocks increased from 41.2% to 220-240 %, whereas the MCs of the control samples submerged in a liquid culture medium without inoculation reached only 110%. When control samples were dried to a MC of 13%, the inoculated wood samples still had MCs between 80% and 105%. This result indicates that drying lumber containing wetwood will take double the time required to dry normal lumber without wetwood. An antagonist test using fungal candidates was conducted on agar plates. In this test, 6 potential fungal antagonists and 6 wetwood causal agents (WCA) were used. The six fungal antagonists were Gliocladium roseum (Forintek bioprotectant), a white isolate of Ophiostoma piliferum (Cartapip), a white isolate of Ceratocystis resinifera (an anti-sapstain biological agent produced by Chantal Morin at Laval University), Oidium sp.A (a white fungus in Deuteromycetes isolated from Jack pine logs, DP3/5B-3a, 1998), Oidium sp. B (a white fungus in Deuteromycetes isolated from balsam fir logs, DF3/1B-1b, 1998), and Phaeotheca dimorphospora (a biological control agent of tree disease from Laval University). The six wetwood causal agents were A-a (a bacterium isolated from wetwood of aspen), A-c (a yeast isolated from wetwood of aspen), B-a (a bacterium isolated from wetwood of balsam fir), Y-2 (a yeast isolated from wetwood of balsam fir), SaB-2 (a bacterium isolated from wetwood of sub-alpine fir), and SaY-4 (a mixture of a yeast and a bacterium isolated from wetwood of sub-alpine fir). The results showed that Oidium sp.A and Oidium sp.B were the most effective against all 6 WCA inoculated; they reduced growth of the WCA in 7 days and completely absorbed colonies of WCA in 11 days. G. roseum, O. piliferum, and C. resinifera were moderately effective against 5 WCAs, but not effective on bacterium A-a that was isolated from aspen wetwood. P. dimorphospora was the least effective against any of these WCA. The three promising fungal antagonists, Oidium sp., G. roseum and the white isolate of O. piliferum, selected from agar plate test were used for a following antagonist test on balsam fir wetwood blocks in the laboratory conditions. This test was conducted on small wetwood samples (2 x 4 x 1 inch) in incubators at 25°C and two relative humidity ranges (100% and 75% RH). The results showed that all these three fungi were able to establish on wood surfaces and able to reduce wetwood contents. At 25°C and 75% RH, Oidium sp. was the most effective to reduce wetwood content in samples, followed by G. roseum, and then by O. piliferum. G. roseum and Oidium sp. not only reduce wetwood content, but also inhibit mold growth and wood stain, compared with untreated control samples. At 25°C and 100% RH, the moisture contents of treated and untreated samples were not changed in any week of the testing period. This result indicates that biological pre-dry wetwood samples should not be conducted at this high relative humidity condition. A test was conducted to investigate the ability of Oidium sp., the wetwood control candidate, against sapstaining fungi on wood. The results showed that if balsam fir wood wafers were inoculated with Oidium sp. 3 days before the staining fungi, no staining fungi grew on these samples. If wood wafers were inoculated with Oidium sp. and staining fungi at the same time, samples were covered by both Oidium sp. and the staining fungus Ophiostoma piceae in a ratio of 50 to 50%. If wood wafers were inoculated with the staining fungi 3 days before Oidium sp., samples were absolutely covered by the staining fungus and fully stained.
Wetwood
Seasoning - Predrying
Yeasts
Bacteria
Biological Control
Fungi
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Strand shape factors as a tool to assess OSB process and properties. Part III. Relationship between flaking parameters and strand shape

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub7896
Author
Knudson, Robert M.
Chen, Siguo
Chow, Gordon
Date
August 2005
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Knudson, Robert M.
Chen, Siguo
Chow, Gordon
Contributor
Alberta Research Council
Date
August 2005
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
61 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Mechanical properties
Strandboards
OSB
Oriented strandboard
Orientation
Series Number
General Revenue Project No. 2322
Location
Vancouver, BC
Language
English
Abstract
This project was carried out in three parts. Part one was to collect strands from commercial OSB mills and quantify how the strand shape mixtures found in the different mill samples impact OSBpanel properties. Part two quantified the impact of strand shape distributionon OSB production processes and panel properties. Part three, which is described in the this report, was carried out to determine whether relationships could be established between strand manufacturing condistions and strand shape. The reasoning behind the work was that if relationshiups could be established, strand shape factor could become a tool for OSB manufacturers to usein controlling strand quality and troubleshooting strand manufacturing problems.
Documents
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Manufacture of MDF using a powder resin

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5591
Author
Feng, Martin
Deng, James
Date
March 2005
Edition
37741
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Feng, Martin
Deng, James
Date
March 2005
Edition
37741
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
65 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Toxicity
Synthetics
Polymers
Pollution
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
4529
W-2179
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The objective of this project was to help Forintek members to reduce formaldehyde and VOC emissions from MDF mills and increase resin efficiency. Five novel blending methods were examined: 1. Post-dryer air-suspension blending with a PF powder resin (resol). 2. Post-dryer air-suspension blending with a PF powder resin and a liquid PF resin (resol). 3. Post-dryer air-suspension blending with a UF powder resin. 4. Post-dryer air-suspension blending with a UF powder resin and a liquid UF resin. 5. Refiner blending with a PF powder resin (novalac) The following conclusions and recommendations are made: It is feasible to produce MDF panels from blending powder PF resin (resol) with wood fibre at 8% MC & 5% wax using a post-dryer air-suspension blender. Combination of liquid and powder PF resins at a ratio of 1:1 appeared to work better. The thickness swell and water absorption were significantly lower than those obtained from panels bonded with liquid PF or powder PF alone. It is feasible to produce MDF panels from blending powder UF resin with wood at 7% MC & 5% wax using a post-dryer air-suspension blender. Similar to the case of PF resin, the combination of liquid UF and powder UF at a ratio of 1:1 appeared to work better than liquid UF or powder UF alone. Unlike PF powder resin, however, UF powder was softened quickly by moisture, causing some blender build-up. There is room for improving UF powder resin performance by resin formula modification and the reduction of its water solubility. It is feasible to produce MDF panels from blending a novalac resin with wood in a MDF refiner. Further exploration of this novel blending method in Forintek's MDF pilot plant is recommended. Results from this project shoed that there are new possibilities for the next generation of MDF blending. These new methods will be able to overcome the disadvantages and preserve or even enhance the advantages of the existing blending methods. This project has demonstrated that, by changing the physical properties of a resin, it is possible to develop an improved MDF blending system. Using a powder resin in a post-dryer blending system may dramatically reduce resin consumption and formaldehyde emission from the MDF mills. The combination of a liquid resin with a powder resin is another possibility. In this case, perhaps a certain amount of liquid resin is delivered to a post-dryer mechanical blender or post-dryer air-suspension blender or via the blowline to produce some tack in the fibre while a powder resin is blended with the fibre in this post-dryer mechanical blender or post-dryer air-suspension blender. The powder resin may also be delivered at the end section of the tube dryer. Because the powder resin is blended after the dryer, the loss of resin efficiency can then be greatly reduced. The authors believe that there is great potential for technological advancement in this area. In order to explore the full potential of powder resin blending in MDF manufacturing, joint research with a reputable blending equipment manufacturer is highly recommended.
Polymers, Synthetic
Fibreboard
Air pollution - Sources
Formaldehyde - Toxicity
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Monitoring and control systems for veneer drying

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5603
Author
Dai, Chunping
Xu, H.
Wang, Brad J.
Yu, C.
Date
August 2005
Edition
37762
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Dai, Chunping
Xu, H.
Wang, Brad J.
Yu, C.
Date
August 2005
Edition
37762
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
23 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Seasoning
Measurement
Series Number
General Revenue Report Project No. 3973
3973
W-2210
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
A new green veneer moisture measurement method was developed based on the principle of light transmission. Compared to current radio frequency (RF) moisture measurement, the new method shows improved accuracy in green veneer MC detection for regular softwood veneer. As well, an off-line portable veneer testing system was developed based on the light transmission, which was successfully used in the mill trials to evaluate the accuracy of current green veneer moisture sorting. Meanwhile, a laboratory dry veneer moisture measuring system was successfully modified to measure the variation of dry veneer MC. Further a pilot-scale veneer dryer was upgraded to simulate the mill drying conditions. These developments ensure us to promptly transfer the technologies to the industry. The effect of drying temperature, air flow velocity and air humidity on dry veneer final MC was investigated. It was found that drying at high temperature was faster than at the low temperature. The difference in final MC between low temperature drying and high temperature drying was greater when the initial MC was higher. However, the variation of final MC was smaller with low temperature drying compared to high temperature drying. The effect of air velocity was more apparent when the initial veneer MC was higher. When the initial veneer MC was below 70-80%, the effect of air velocity on veneer drying was very small, which may indicate that for heart veneer drying, the velocity was not a dominant factor whereas for sap and light-sap veneer drying, the air velocity played a significant role. In general, the effect of air humidity on veneer drying was drying temperature dependent. At low drying temperature, low humidity helped veneer drying. In contrast, at a drying temperature higher than 150 °C, the effect of air humidity on veneer drying rate was not significant. However, to improve the veneer drying quality and material recovery, high humidity could be used to reduce veneer brittleness for easy handling. During stacking period, the moisture spread from the wet area to the dry area. The variation of MC between and within veneer decreased with the stacking time before reaching an equilibrium state. The equilibrium MC depended on the initial MC of veneer and stacking conditions. Compared to lower temperature stacking, the higher temperature stacking accelerated the moisture spread. Therefore, the allowable maximum MC of wet spot on veneer before stacking could be determined based on target dry veneer MC, ambient temperature (season) and stacking time. A hot stacking model was developed to simulate the change of veneer MC during hot stacking. The prediction results agreed well with the experimental results. This model will be incorporated into the existing VDry models to simulate the effect of post-drying on final veneer MC. It is recommended that the light green veneer moisture scanner should be further developed for industrial applications. The VDry model is a useful tool which should be applied for mill customization and optimization.
Moisture content - Measurement
Seasoning
Documents
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Diagnostic system for backup rolls

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5604
Author
Dai, Chunping
Thomas, T.
Date
August 2005
Edition
37765
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Dai, Chunping
Thomas, T.
Date
August 2005
Edition
37765
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Veneer cutting
Veneer
Process control
Series Number
General Revenue Report Project No. 3974
W-2219
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
A lathe monitoring system has been developed and successfully tried in a mill. The system can measure the position, the hydraulic driving pressure and contact pressure of the backup rolls, the position and the hydraulic driving pressure of the roller bar, the position and contact pressure of the knife carriage against the peeler block and the driving torque of the spindle motor. Some of the monitored data points required additional sensors which were then connected to and then downloaded directly from the lathe controller, i.e., PLC and VME. The results showed that the lathe parameters vary significantly with time and knife position. The backup roll offsets control the lathe performance and peeling quality, particularly spin-out rate and veneer thickness variation. The best results seemed to come from the combination of tighter outer offset and looser inner offset. Further work is needed to fine tune the software program for user-friendly data analyses. More mill tests are required to understand the interactions between the backup rolls, the roller bar, the knife and the block.
Lathes
Process control
Veneers - Cutting, Rotary
Documents
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Optimization of gluing, lay-up and pressing for Mountain Pine Beetle plywood

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5607
Author
Wang, Brad J.
Dai, Chunping
Wharton, S.
Date
December 2005
Edition
37806
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Brad J.
Dai, Chunping
Wharton, S.
Date
December 2005
Edition
37806
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
54 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wood
Veneer
Utilization
Plywood manufacture
Plywood
Laminate product
Insect killed
Gluing
Series Number
MPBI Project 8.08
W-2328
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The objective of this project was to investigate the possibility of increasing the value recovery from the Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB)-attacked Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) logs by adjusting the plywood manufacturing process specifically for the beetle-killed resource. The project addressed veneer grading, gluing, panel lay-up and hot pressing. This project was a follow up to an earlier study that demonstrated by segregating MPB logs, the productivity and material recovery could be improved at the early stages of production through narrower veneer clipping width, more accurate moisture sorting and higher drying productivity (Wang and Dai 2004). Based on the comparative results between the MPB veneer and non-affected control veneer from pilot plant tests and mill trials, this study found that the MPB veneer is denser and stronger than the control veneer from typical white wood mix. As long as manufacturing parameters are properly adjusted in drying, grading, gluing and hot-pressing, segregating MPB logs provides an opportunity to manufacture higher stiffness laminated veneer lumber (LVL) and plywood products with superior dry and wet gluebond performance for such applications as wood I-joists, headers and beams, flooring, decking and concrete forming. This could further offset to a large degree the reduction in material recovery and some appearance-based plywood products in the Japanese market. As well, this practice of segregation will become extremely important for recovering the highest value since the MPB-killed wood will be greater than 25% of total log supply in the mill with most of it being grey stage materials. The plywood production was affected by MPB logs as follows: The MPB veneer is lower in moisture content (MC), more brittle, and more difficult to handle. It also contains various degrees of bluestain. To increase material recovery and panel gluebond performance, veneer overdrying needs to be minimized. The machine vision technology currently used by some plywood/LVL mills cannot differentiate defects within the bluestained area. To improve veneer visual sorting, the existing vision systems can be upgraded to mask the effect of bluestain or to segregate the bluestained veneer from the non-stained veneer using a saturation color index. Compared to the control veneer, the MPB veneer is higher not only in dry bonding strength but also in wet bonding strength, measured by shear strength and percent wood failure. In the meantime, the MPB veneer is about 10% higher in average modulus of elasticity (MOE) and 20% higher in stress grade outturns, which can translate into more than $1.5 million additional savings for the mill annually when processing 10% of MPB-killed logs. To achieve optimum gluebond performance and minimum manufacturing cost for MPB plywood, glue spread can be kept at the same level as currently used by control plywood. However, the pressing time of 5-ply MPB plywood should be lengthened by about 10% compared to that used by 5-ply control plywood. As well, the assembly time should be reduced to about 10-15 min, keeping veneer temperature as low as possible. Furthermore, 5-ply plywood manufacturing trials and 13-ply LVL preliminary tests demonstrated that the MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR) of MPB plywood and LVL are about 15% and 20% higher than those of control plywood and LVL, respectively. As a result, the MPB veneer is more suitable for making higher stiffness LVL and specialty structural plywood products. By implementing this product strategy, the value recovery from the beetle-killed resource can be dramatically increased.
Insect-killed wood - Utilization
Gluing
Lumber, Laminated veneer
Plywood - Manufacture
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Documents
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Développement d'un logiciel de tronçonnage optimisé pour les tiges de bois feuillus

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5981
Author
Corneau, Yvon C.
Giroux, Y.
Date
February 2005
Edition
42279
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Corneau, Yvon C.
Giroux, Y.
Date
February 2005
Edition
42279
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
9 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Digitalization
Subject
Computer software
Optimization
Hardwoods
Series Number
General Revenue 4011
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Le Ministère des Ressources naturelles du Québec (MRN) et les membres de l’industrie des bois feuillus de Forintek ont fortement recommandé l’implication de Forintek dans le développement d’un logiciel d’optimisation du tronçonnage des tiges de bois feuillus. Des évaluations préliminaires ont démontré que l’optimisation du tronçonnage des tiges de bois feuillus pouvait augmenter jusqu’à 30 % la valeur des produits. Suite à la demande du MRN et des membres de Forintek, FERIC et Forintek ont présenté des projets de recherche sur l’optimisation du tronçonnage des tiges de bois feuillus visant l’élaboration d’une stratégie de tronçonnage pour maximiser la valeur des produits finis et le développement d’un logiciel de formation pour améliorer l’efficacité des responsables du tronçonnage des tiges de bois feuillus. Forintek dispose d’une importante banque de données renfermant plusieurs études de rendement complétées dans des scieries de bois feuillus. Cette banque de données a servi à développer une matrice de la valeur des produits selon la qualité des billes et des billons pour deux essences, soit l’érable à sucre et le bouleau jaune, qui y étaient représentés en quantité suffisante. La grille de classification utilisée est celle de Petro parce qu’elle s’appuie sur des recherches sur la qualité des billes de bois franc du Laboratoire des produits forestiers de l’Est et est aussi en conformité avec les rapports publiés par le Service forestier des États- Unis. La grille de classification du MRN pour les bois feuillus a aussi été intégrée au logiciel vu son utilisation par l’ensemble des scieries du Québec possédant des CAAF. Toutes les données de rendement en volume et en valeur des produits et des sous-produits de la base de données de Forintek ont servi à monter un chiffrier Excel pour calculer automatiquement la valeur des produits pouvant être générés à partir d’une solution de tronçonnage proposée. On peut se servir de cet outil pour comparer le rendement en valeur de plusieurs solutions théoriques pour identifier celle qui maximisera la valeur des produits. Pour faciliter l’utilisation de cet outil de travail, nous avons programmé un Microflex, soit un petit ordinateur très robuste, pour maximiser l’efficacité lors des travaux terrain. Une étape importante pour l’optimisation du tronçonnage des tiges de bois feuillus a été complétée dans le cadre de ce projet de recherche. Les industriels et les manufacturiers possèdent maintenant un outil qui génère la valeur des produits et des sous-produits de l’érable à sucre et du bouleau jaune selon deux grilles de classification des billes : celle de Petro et celle du MRN. Tous les intrants dans la feuille de calcul peuvent être modifiés ce qui permet à l’utilisateur d’y intégrer ses propres qualités de billes et les résultats de tests de rendement en volume et en valeur effectués à l’interne. L’établissement de la valeur des billes selon la qualité servira à la formation des préposés au tronçonnage, à établir des priorités de tronçonnage mais aussi à dicter le coût maximum pour l’achat des bois ronds. Combiné à un système de lecteurs capables de localiser les défauts sur le tronc des arbres, un manufacturier pourrait réaliser l’optimisation du tronçonnage feuillu Une copie du rapport, les feuilles de calcul pour l’érable et le bouleau jaune ainsi que des instructions sur comment procéder se retrouvent sur le site Web de Forintek.
Bucking
Optimization
Software
Hardwoods
Documents
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Fungi on re-wetted KD [kiln-dried] lumber

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5895
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Bartlett, K.
Date
October 2005
Edition
41336
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Bartlett, K.
Date
October 2005
Edition
41336
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Growth
Series Number
Project No. 3669
W-2229
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Public confidence in traditional wood framing has been shaken due to reports of early building envelope failures and subsequent water and mold damage. This was fueled by sensationalistic media reporting on adverse health effects of mold. Although mold growth and envelope failures are not limited to wood frame buildings, wood has been closely scrutinized because construction of low-rise residential units in North America commonly uses wood framing. There is a need to identify the causes of blemishes found on kiln-dried (KD) framing lumber and to compare the fungal components with microorganisms reported from indoor air studies. The major objective of this work was to identify the fungal genera which predominate on a selection of re-wetted kiln-dried wood substrates. Nineteen different wood substrates (including green wood) were organized in stacks exposed to natural weather conditions, in stacks kept in closed containers under constant humidity and temperature conditions, and in stacks half-submerged in water. The test pieces were sampled at the time of set up, at 4 weeks, and at 24 weeks. The assessed fungal flora were compared to the flora reported from green wood and from indoor air quality studies of buildings with post-construction water damage. Since several methods are available to assess lumber disfigurement, ranging from visual inspection to quantitative chemical tests, this study also compared clean and "stained" wood by using culture, visual assessment, and quantification of ergosterol over time.
Moulds
Fungi - Growth
Moisture content
Documents
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Impact of drying on flake degradation

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5997
Author
Sean, Trek
Cheng, L.
Date
March 2005
Edition
42376
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Sean, Trek
Cheng, L.
Date
March 2005
Edition
42376
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
2 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Strandboards
Oriented strandboard
Orientation
Drying
Series Number
General Revenue
Simple Progress Report
4487
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Oriented strandboard - Manufacture
Drying
Documents
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Potential for the optimisation of hardwood sawmills

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42291
Author
McDonald, J. David
Date
February 2005
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
McDonald, J. David
Date
February 2005
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Digitalization
Subject
Trimmers
Saw mills
Efficiency
Series Number
General Revenue 3240
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
The tests within the scope of this project assessed the efficiency of manually operated carriage, edging and trimming work stations. Simulations also demonstrated how optimization equipment used to evaluate the shape of logs or lumber affected the efficiency of these work centres. Our evaluation of manually operated workstations revealed a high error rate at the log carriage as well as at edging and trimming stations. Operator performance varies greatly and operators generally tend to focus on volume, at the expense of value. For a sawmill with an annual production of 10 MMfbm, a complete elimination of these errors could generate additional income in the range of $200,000 for the log carriage, and $500,000 to $700,000 for the edging and trimming stations. Most of the losses occurring at the carriage could be avoided by installing a 3-D optimization system, which would result in a payback period of less than two years. Moreover, these calculations do not include any increases in productivity that such a system would also provide. However, this is not the case for optimization of the trimming and edging stations. Given that current technology cannot yet identify appearance defects, only some of the current losses could be avoided if these stations were optimized. Our results show that edging and trimming stations optimized solely for wane could yield returns on investment in the order of 25.3% and 2.3%, respectively. For a 10 MMfbm sawmill, these percentages correspond to $126,000 in additional income for the edging station, but only $15,400 in additional income for the trimming station. The operator’s ability to step in and change the optimizer solution was not taken into consideration in evaluating the samples. Therefore, the additional income generated by optimizing the edging and trimming stations must lie somewhere between the income generated by optimizing solely for wane and that generated by optimizing for all defects. However, there is less interest in optimizing secondary breakdown stations because of high equipment purchase and installation costs (up to $800,000). In this context, only edging stations requiring increased productivity would benefit from this technology, which can operate at speeds greater than 25 boards per minute.
Sawmilling - Efficiency
Edgers
Trimmers
Documents
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