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Enhanced termite resistance for borate-treated post-MPB lumber

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41386
Author
Morris, Paul I.
Ingram, Janet K.
Minchin, D.
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Morris, Paul I.
Ingram, Janet K.
Minchin, D.
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wood
Utilization
Termites
Preservatives boron
Preservatives
Insect killed
Series Number
W-2513
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
MPB-affected pine sapwood features increased permeability to preservative treatment. Selection of post-MPB lumber heavy to sapwood for preservative treatment may add value and allow access to new markets. A new process, developed in New Zealand has shown promise to deeply penetrate dry lumber with termiticides without using a pressure treating plant. Borates are one of the components used as a buffer and carrier but the levels are not necessarily sufficient to protect against Formosan termites without the carbon-based termitides in the formulation. Performance data are required to assure customers of product durability. Short lengths of heavily blue-stained post-MPB lodgepole pine lumber were pressure-treated with ACQ-D and borates targeting levels recommended for protection against attack by the Formosan subterranean termites. Additional samples were treated by the new dip-plus-kiln-conditioning process to borate levels less than recommended retentions, with and without the addition of organic termiticides. The boards were installed in field tests in Hawaii and Japan at sites with confirmed populations of Formosan subterranean termites, and will be monitored annually for termite attack to determine if the lower borate retentions with and without carbon-based termiticides are effective.
Termites - Control
Preservatives - Boron
Insect-killed wood - Utilization
Dendroctonus monticolae
Documents
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Detection of blue stain in lumber by visible and near infrared spectroscopy

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41400
Author
Stirling, Rod
Date
October 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Stirling, Rod
Date
October 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wood
Utilization
Stain fungal
Stain
Insects
Insect killed
British Columbia
Series Number
General Revenue Report Project No. 5824
W-2590
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
As a result of the activities of the mountain pine beetle which carries with it staining fungi, increasing amounts of bluestained wood are entering the marketplace. Bluestain is a visual defect caused by fungi that colonize the sapwood of trees, logs or lumber. Although typical bluestain fungi do not significantly impact mechanical properties, the wood is less desirable for appearance-grade applications. Bluestain is also associated with increased permeability, which could make it more suitable for preservative treatment. Methods are needed to identify stained lumber in the mill either to remove it from appearance grades or select it for preservative treatment. Detection of bluestain can be made visually, since it is an appearance grade defect. In industry, RGB colour coordinates are used to identify bluestained lumber. However beetle-affected wood from advanced grey stage trees is also anticipated to contain decay. Although the present research focuses on detecting bluestain only, a method of detecting both decay and stain would be preferable. Technology for detection of decay in pulp chips had been developed by Paprican and work is underway to evaluate its effectiveness on lumber. The present research describes efforts to develop an automated spectroscopic system for identification of bluestained lumber. A large visible/near infrared spectrometer from FPInnovations – Paprican Division was used to scan motionless bluestained and clear 2 x 4” lumber on four sides. These spectra were used to model observed visual ratings of bluestain intensity using multivariate statistical methods. A Partial Least Squares (PLS) model developed from the top and bottom spectra was able to differentiate degree of staining. A PLS model from the side spectra was not able to differentiate stained and clear wood.
Dendroctonus monticolae
Insects - Attack on wood - British Columbia
Insect-killed wood - Utilization
Stains - Fungal - Control
Documents
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Investigation of combination catalyst system for UF resin in particleboard and MDF manufacturing. Part IV. Evaluation of combination catalyst system as curing agent for UF resin in MDF panel manufacturing

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39090
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Wan, Hui
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Wan, Hui
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
109 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Resin
Particle boards
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 41
4926
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
This study was conducted in three phases to characterize a number of selected and optimized catalyst systems for pH of catalyst solution, gel time and curing behavior of resin by a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. These catalyst systems were also evaluated for bond quality by manufacturing medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels and testing the resulting panels for internal bond (IB) strength, modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE), 24-h thickness swelling (TS) and water absorption (WA), and free formaldehyde (FF) emission. In Phase I, four catalyst systems were selected to manufacture MDF panels with urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin having F/U molar ratio of 1.08 based on the previous study on the characterization of 24 catalyst systems (Wang and Wan 2008), including D-1 (ammonium chloride), F-10 (7.5 wt% ammonium sulfate + 2.5 wt% ammonium persulfate + 2.0 wt% urea + 88 wt% water), G-2 (7.5 wt% ammonium sulfate + 1.0 wt% aluminum sulfate + 1.5 wt% triethanolamine + 2.0 wt% urea + 0.5 wt% phosphoric acid + 87.5 wt% water) and G-4 (7.5 wt% ammonium sulfate + 1.0 wt% phosphoric acid + 1.5 wt% triethanolamine + 2.0 wt% urea + 88 wt% water). The test results of the panels indicated that combination catalyst systems G-4 and F-10 showed potential as substitutes for control catalyst D-1 (ammonium chloride). In Phase II, seven catalyst systems were selected and evaluated by manufacturing MDF panel with UF resin having F/U molar ratio of 1.08, including three control catalysts, D-1, F-10 and G-4. The three new catalysts were derived from formulations of F-10 and G-4 by introducing triethanolamine and phosphoric acid from G-4 into F-10 and adjusting their contents in the catalyst formulations, including B-1 (6.0 wt% ammonium sulfate + 2.0 wt% ammonium persulfate + 1.2 wt% triethanolamine + 0.8 wt% phosphoric acid + 2.0 wt% urea + 88 wt% water), B-2 (6.0 wt% ammonium sulfate + 1.0 wt% ammonium persulfate + 1.8 wt% triethanolamine + 1.2 wt% phosphoric acid + 2.0 wt% urea + 88 wt% water) and B-3 (6.0 wt% ammonium sulfate + 1.0 wt% ammonium persulfate + 1.5 wt% triethanolamine + 1.8 wt% phosphoric acid + 2.0 wt% urea + 87.7 wt% water). The new catalyst B-4 (7.5 wt% ammonium sulfate + 1.5 wt% triethanolamine + 1.0 wt% aminosulfonic acid + 2.0 wt% urea + 88 wt% water) was derived from the formulation of G-4 by substituting aminosulfonic acid for phosphoric acid. Based on the overall panel performance, the combination catalysts B-4 and B-1 seemed to be the most promising as substitutes for control catalyst D-1 (ammonium chloride). In Phase III, the combination catalyst B-1 was selected to further evaluate its potential against the control catalyst D-1 by manufacturing MDF panels with five different formulations of UF and MUF resins in terms of F/U molar ratio (1.10, 10.8, 1.05) and melamine content (0.1%, 2.5%, 5%). These five resins included Resin A (F/U 1.10/0.1% melamine), Resin B (F/U 1.08/0.1% melamine), Resin C (F/U 1.05/0.1% melamine), Resin D (F/U 1.08/2.5% melamine), and Resin E (F/U 1.08/5% melamine). The test results indicated that all five resins cured faster with B-1 than with D-1 in terms of shortened gel time and lower activation energy. Resin B and Resin C catalyzed by B-1 produced the overall best quality panels than other resins catalyzed by B-1 and D-1, which implies that B-1 would be more powerful for catalyzing UF resin curing and producing better bond quality compared with D-1. The study also implies that catalyst type and catalyst content should be properly adjusted according to resin formulation (such as F/U molar ratio and melamine content) in combination with pressing conditions (such as press time and temperature) in order to achieve the maximum bond quality in panels.
Catalysts
Resin
Particleboard
Fibreboard
Documents
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Investigation of combination catalyst system for UF resin in particleboard and MDF manufacturing. Part V. Evaluation of combination catalyst system as curing agent for UF resin in PB panel manufacturing

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39091
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Wan, Hui
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Wan, Hui
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
96 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Resin
Particle boards
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 41
4926
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
To evaluate the catalytic influence of combination catalyst system on urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin curing rate and bonding quality, a number of catalyst systems were selected based on the previous test results of this project. These systems included D-1 (10.0 wt% ammonium chloride + 90.0 wt% water), F-10 (7.5 wt% ammonium sulfate + 2.5 wt% ammonium persulfate + 2.0 wt% urea + 88.0 wt% water), G-2 (7.5 wt% ammonium sulfate + 1.0 wt% aluminum sulfate + 1.5 wt% triethanolamine + 0.5 wt% phosphoric acid + 2.0 wt% urea + 87.5 wt% water), G-4 (7.5 wt% ammonium sulfate + 1.5 wt% triethanolamine + 1.0 wt% phosphoric acid + 2.0 wt% urea + 88.0 wt% water), B-1 (6.0 wt% ammonium sulfate + 2.0 wt% ammonium persulfate + 1.2 wt% triethanolamine + 0.8 wt% phosphoric acid + 2.0 wt% urea + 88.0 wt% water) and B-4 (7.5 wt% ammonium sulfate + 1.5 wt% triethanolamine + 1.0 wt% aminosulfonic acid + 2.0 wt% urea + 88.0 wt% water). These catalyst systems were first characterized for the curing behaviors of UF resin in the presence of the catalysts with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis and the chemical structures of the cured resin with CP/MAS 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The catalyst systems were then evaluated by manufacturing a series of particleboards. The resulting boards were tested for internal bond (IB) strength, modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE), 24-h thickness swelling (TS) and water absorption (WA), and free formaldehyde (FF) emission. This study was conducted in two phases. In Phase I, six catalyst systems (D-1, F-10, G-2, G-4, B-1 and B-4) were selected to manufacture particleboard with 1.2% catalyst content and a 170-second press cycle. The test results indicated that combination catalyst G-4 resulted in stronger particleboard than the other catalysts in terms of IB, MOR and MOE properties; catalyst type seemed to have a little influence on board water resistance and free formaldehyde emission. In general, G-4 seemed to be more powerful in catalyzing UF resin curing and producing stronger particleboard than the conventional catalyst D-1 (ammonium chloride) and the other four combination catalysts. In Phase II of this study, the combination catalyst G-4 was further evaluated by manufacturing particleboard against control catalyst D-1 with three press cycles (140, 155 and 170 seconds) and three levels of catalyst content (0.9%, 1.2%, and 1.5%). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that board manufacturing conditions had a significant influence on IB strength and free formaldehyde (FF) emission rather than on other board properties. G-4 resulted in better quality boards than D-1 in terms of consistently higher IB strength and lower FF emission under each board manufacturing condition. This study also showed that G-4 was more powerful in catalyzing UF resin curing than D-1; thus, using G-4 has great potential for cutting down press time and reducing catalyst content. The improved bond quality and durability of the UF resin catalyzed by G-4 is probably due to the improved chemical structure of the resin in terms of the greater degree of resin crosslinking.
Catalysts
Resin
Particleboard
Fibreboard
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Development of an improved method for analysis of panels with low formaldehyde emission

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39094
Author
Barry, A.
Dechamplain, F.
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Dechamplain, F.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
5 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wood composites
Wood
Panels
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 20
5763
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Formaldehyde emission
Wood composite panels
Documents
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Impact of Kyoto protocol on composite panel industries

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39104
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
73 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Regulations
Pollution
Canada
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 15
4005
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
One can summarize the work conducted under the Kyoto protocol by extracting some paragraphs from the Montreal climate conference press release. Under the Kyoto Protocol, which entered into force 16 February 2005, more than 30 industrialized countries are bound by specific and legally binding emission reduction targets. As a first step, these cover the period 2008-2012. The Kyoto Protocol is now fully operational. The adoption of the Marrakesh accords formally launches emissions trading and the other two mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol. Carbon has now a market value. Under the clean development mechanism, investing in projects that provide sustainable development and reduce emissions makes sound business sense. The Joint Implementation (JI) adopted by the parties is one of the mechanisms which allow developed countries to invest in other developed countries and thereby earn carbon allowances which they can use to meet their emission reduction commitments. In addition to this, the clean development mechanism allows industrialized countries to invest in sustainable development projects in developing countries and thereby earn carbon allowances. “With these decisions in place, we now have the infrastructure to move ahead with the implementation of the Kyoto protocol” said Richard Kinley, head of the United Nations Climate Change conference. It sets solid basis for future steps to bring emissions down he added. All Kyoto Protocol Parties, including Canada, are now moving ahead to meet their GHG emission reduction commitments. In the past few years, Canada has developed and set strategies to meet our commitments. However, Canada has since changed for a new conservative government and a new strategy has been published first in April and the proposed greenhouse gas regulations are expected to be published in the Canada Gazette later this year, and the regulations finalized in 2009 to come into force as planned on January 1, 2010 according to the minister. During this fiscal year two Canadian provinces took important steps in regards to climate change by adopting regulations to reduce their respective GHG emissions. The province of BC has published its own green house gas reduction targets through the Bill 44 in which the province has set reduction targets by 2020 for 33% and 80% by 2050 relative to 2007 emissions levels for both. In 2007 the Quebec government announced the first carbon tax in Canada to Oil companies to pay a new energy tax of 0.8 cents a litre for gasoline distributed in the province and 0.938 cents for diesel fuel. The province has also adopted California’s greenhouse gas standards for new light-duty vehicles.
Composites
Air pollution - Canada - Laws and regulations
Carbon
Documents
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Optitek on-line for sawmill monitoring

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39105
Author
Bédard, P.
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Bédard, P.
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
39 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Digitalization
Subject
Scanners
Saw mills
Series Number
General Revenue Project No. 5335
5335
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
In the lumber industry today, process monitoring systems are still relatively uncommon, in comparison to other industrial sectors, where these systems are widespread and essential to profitability. We came up with the idea of adapting the Optitek sawmill simulator to serve as a monitoring and process control tool. The idea is to use the scanners at the entrance of processing lines to gather log profile data in order to create a simulated sawmill production data set, which can then be compared in real time to actual performance. One company, AbitibiBowater, was interested in this proposal and designated one of its sawmills as the site for a pilot project. The development and implementation of the Optitek monitoring system took two years. The first year focused primarily on project planning, adapting the Optitek simulator to operate in real time, and creating a web portal named Optitek Evolution. During the second year, the system was installed in the mill and began operating. In parallel, Optitek was used to create a complete model of the sawmill and the results were then confirmed through a series of tests conducted at the mill. The purpose of validation was to model mill performance as accurately as possible in order to efficiently monitor it. Tests at the mill allowed us to check the precision of log scanners, quantify log breakdown errors, and evaluate the actual performance of the sawmill. Key indicators, such as the consumption factor (m³/Mbf), economic performance ($/m³), as well as lumber distribution, were used to validate the model. Filtering was required to minimize the impact of log movement as logs passed through the scanners. After validating the system, mill personnel were trained in this new technology and monitoring began. An initial reference period allowed us to test the system to determine the correct monitoring frequency. However, we did observe some restrictions, given the mill’s operating procedures. Significant quantities of wood regularly enter or exit the mill, which significantly influences the performance indicators for a given shift. Consequently, it becomes impossible to generate reliable indicators over shorter time intervals (2 hours for example). For monitoring to be valid, as a minimum, it must be calculated on the basis of a moving average over eight hours, based on data collected every two hours. Other factors that affect the minimum monitoring period are batch-type operations and the accumulation capacity before trimming. Under ideal conditions, a sawmill operating without any transfer of wood outdoors, and on a "scan and set" mode, would be able to conduct accurate monitoring over a two-hour period or less.
Sawmilling
Scanners
Documents
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Supplementary fibre supplies for the manufacture of MDF and particleboard. Part V. Manufacture of HDF using different wood species

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39106
Author
Deng, James
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Wan, Hui
Zhang, S.Y. (Tony)
Date
May 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Deng, James
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Wan, Hui
Zhang, S.Y. (Tony)
Date
May 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Utilization
Mechanical properties
Saw dust
Particle boards
Series Number
General Revenue Report Project No. 5326
5326
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Experimental works were carried out to produce high density fibreboard (HDF) using wood furnish with different wood species and geometries that are particularly used in Eastern Canada. The furnish included mixed softwood sawdust, mixed hardwood sawdust, aspen chips and mixed hardwood chips. The fibre refining was carried out with MDF pilot plant at the steam pressure of 6, 7.5 and 9 bars with retention time of 2.5 minutes and refining speed of 2500 rpm. Ten different types of wood fibres under different refining process conditions were produced and a total of 36 HDF panels were made. Based on the results of this study, the following conclusions are made:
Under the same refining and hot pressing process conditions, different mechanical and physical properties of HDF panels were obtained with different raw materials. However, the properties of the panels were not consistently in favour of one particular type of the raw material.
With the same raw materials (60% softwood sawdust and 40% hardwood sawdust), the refining steam pressure had a strong impact on the panel properties. The properties studied were generally improved when the steam pressure was reduced from 9 bar down to 6 bar. This obvious difference in panel properties when using different refining steam pressures suggests that the required process conditions can be quite different for different raw materials and optimisation of the refining parameters are required for different types of raw materials.
There were no obvious differences in panel properties when using different sizes of raw materials with the same hardwood and softwood mixing ratio.
No obvious improvement in panel properties was observed with chemically pre-treated wood furnish under the process conditions used. However, speculation can be made that the UF resin was quite advanced and a higher degree of resin pre-cure occurred when using blowline resin blending and hot air drying with chemically pre-treated materials. That could be the major reason why we could not observe the improvement of the panel properties when using the pre-treatment or substantial reduction of IB and other properties when reducing hot pressing time.
Fibres
Manufacturing
Fibreboard
Particleboard - Strength
Sawdust - Utilization
Chips - Utilization
Documents
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Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part III. Small-scale fire testing methods for R&D use as alternatives to fire test standards specified in building codes : literature review

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39109
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
June 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
June 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
11 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
5764
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Wood belongs to the natural bio-composites of plant origin containing cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and other compounds. When exposed to fire or any other high intensity heat sources, wood, being a natural polymer, is subject to thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) and combustion depending on the environmental conditions. Combustion accompanied by heat release and chemiluminescence occurs when wood is in direct contact with air and with a physical, chemical or microbiological stimulus associated with heat release. There are increasing concerns about the fire performance of engineered wood products (EWP) and wood composite products such as oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium density fiberboard (MDF) and high density fiberboard (HDF) panels. Wood composite panels, like structural wood products, should have certain fire retardant properties with respect to both safety and the environment. It is believed that this issue will get more attention in the near future as environmental regulations are developed and the requirements of end-users change. A Canadian Forest Service (CFS) project in the Composites Program, entitled “Development of Fire Retardant Composite Panels (Project No. 5764),” was initiated in 2007. The aim of the project is to develop fire retardant OSB panel and low-density fiberboard (FB) through the modification of wood furnish and/or adhesives using fire retardants and nano materials, and to improve the fire performance of panel surface coatings by using fire retardant coatings and paints. As part of the project deliverables, a series of literature reviews on different aspects of fire performance for wood and composite wood products has been conducted. So far, two literature review reports have been issued: Part I. Fire-Performance Requirements for Composite Wood Products and Standard Fire Tests for Demonstrating Compliance with those Requirements - Literature Review and Part II. Proprietary Fire Retardant Treated Wood and Composite Wood Products - Literature Review. In this current report (Part III), the literature review was focused on describing a number of small-scale fire tests that can be used for research and development purposes as alternatives to the standard fire tests referenced in building codes in Canada and the United States. The literature review was conducted by Mr. Leslie R. Richardson, retired senior research scientist and Group Leader of Building Systems – Fire Program of FPInnovations – Forintek Division. It is believed that this literature review will be an invaluable guide for acquiring information on fire performance requirements and standard fire test methods for wood and composite wood products. The full literature review is available in Appendix.
Fire retardants
Composite products
Panels
Documents
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Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part II. Proprietary fire retardant treated wood and composite wood products : literature review

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39110
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
June 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
June 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
73 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Materials
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
5764
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Wood belongs to the natural bio-composites of plant origin containing cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and other compounds. When exposed to fire or any other high intensity heat sources, wood, being a natural polymer, is subject to thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) and combustion depending on the environmental conditions. Combustion accompanied by heat release and chemiluminescence occurs when wood is in direct contact with air and with a physical, chemical or microbiological stimulus associated with heat release. There are increasing concerns about the fire performance of engineered wood products (EWP) and wood composite products such as oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium density fiberboard (MDF) and high density fiberboard (HDF) panels. Wood composite panels, like structural wood products, should have certain fire retardant properties with respect to both safety and the environment. It is believed that this issue will get more attention in the near future as environmental regulations are developed and the requirements of end-users change. A Canadian Forest Service (CFS) project in the Composites Program, entitled “Development of Fire Retardant Composite Panels (Project No. 5764),” was initiated in 2007. The aim of the project is to develop fire retardant OSB panel and low-density fiberboard (FB) through modification of wood furnish and/or adhesives using fire retardants and nano materials, and to improve the fire performance of panel surface coatings by using fire retardant coatings and paints. As part of the project deliverables, this report presents a review of the current literature focused on the identification of proprietary fire retardant-treated wood and wood-based products, plywood, oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard, hardboard and fiberboard, low-density fiberboard panels suitable for use as interior ceiling finish, and other composite wood products used in construction of buildings, and the identification of potential new manufacturing processes for such products. The literature review was conducted by Mr. Leslie R. Richardson, retired senior research scientist and Group Leader of Building Systems – Fire Program of FPInnovations - Forintek Division. It is believed that this literature review will be an invaluable guide for acquiring information on fire performance requirements and standard fire test methods for wood and composite wood products. The full literature review is available in Appendix.
Fire retardants
Composite materials
Panels
Documents
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Supplementary fibre supplies for the manufacture of MDF and particleboard. Part IV. Effect of different raw materials on wood acidity and resin reactivity

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39113
Author
Deng, James
Wang, X.
Wan, Hui
Zhang, S.Y. (Tony)
Date
July 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Deng, James
Wang, X.
Wan, Hui
Zhang, S.Y. (Tony)
Date
July 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
12 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Resin
Particle boards
Acid
Series Number
General Revenue Report Project No. 5326
5326
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
A study was carried out to characterize the raw materials and their corresponding wood fibres produced in an industrial MDF mill. Six raw wood materials with the typical mixture of softwood and hardwood species used in the mill and six fibre samples were collected. The characterization was carried out to test the pH, acid buffer capacity and UF resin gel time in the presence of wood flours either from raw wood or wood fibres. The conclusions are made based on the testing results:
Variations of pH, acid buffer capacity and UF resin gel time (in the presence of wood) existed between different batches of raw wood materials and wood fibres.
There was no obvious linear correlation between raw wood and its corresponding wood fibre in terms of their pH, acid buffer capacity and the gel time of UF resin.
With the six wood fibre samples studied, there was no obvious correlation between pH and acid buffer capacity, or between pH and UF resin gel time. This suggests that pH would not be a good indicator to predict the UF resin reactivity with various wood fibres.
To some extent, a linear correlation existed between the acid buffer capacity of the wood fibre and the gel time of UF resin. However, it would not be practical to use the acid buffer capacity to predict the UF resin reactivity with wood fibre due to the tedious test procedure, which is a result of the technology currently used. However, with limited test samples and within a short period of time (six wood / fibre samples within 12 days), no large variations were observed for pH, acid buffer capacity and gel time. Further study might be needed if the raw material differences for a longer time period and the seasonal effect are required.
Fibreboard - Manufacture
Particleboard
Fibres
Acidity
Resin
Documents
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Entrées d'équarrisseuses au débitage secondaire - Phase III

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39115
Author
Bédard, P.
Date
August 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Bédard, P.
Date
August 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
22 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Scanners
Sawing
Series Number
Projet General Revenue no 4910
4910
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Cette étude a été réalisée pour évaluer la performance des technologies de débitage secondaire dans les scieries. Deux équarrisseuses-débiteuses récentes et opérationnelles ont été retenues pour effectuer des tests pratiques et simuler leur taux d’efficacité réel et théorique. Un échantillon d’équarris de 4 pouces d’épaisseur et 12 pieds de longueur a été scanné en usine, en format 3D, pour réaliser les travaux. Deux lots d’équarris similaires ont été créés pour tester les équipements et réaliser les simulations. Les technologies d’équarrisseuse-débiteuse étudiées se décrivent comme suit : les deux systèmes sont alimentés linéairement et pourvus de scanneurs 3D (caméras-laser) pour l’optimisation du débitage. L’équipement A effectue le sciage courbe naturel avec un mécanisme de pré-positionnement auto-centreur. L’optimisation du positionnement se fait en translation seulement (décentrage parallèle à l’axe de coupe). Cette machine utilise des têtes d’équarrissage coniques et des scies circulaires guidées. L’équipement B effectue pour sa part le sciage courbe calculé et l’optimisation du positionnement se fait aussi bien en alignement qu’en translation. Il utilise des têtes d’équarrissage cylindriques et des scies circulaires guidées. Le sciage courbe naturel permet de suivre des courbures plus prononcées sans restriction (R=500po), alors que le sciage courbe calculé est normalement restreint (R=1 500po), mais ce paramètre est réglable. Plus la valeur de R est petite, plus la courbe suivie est prononcée. En pratique, les deux technologies ont obtenu le même rendement et ont généré des revenus équivalents. Le taux d’efficacité des deux systèmes se chiffre à 98 % (en termes de revenus) selon le niveau de performance simulé avec Optitek. La qualité des copeaux des deux types de têtes d’équarrissage s’est avérée similaire selon les proportions de petits copeaux indésirables (3/16 po et particules fines) obtenus au tamisage. La précision de sciage en général a été excellente, l’écart-type s’est maintenu sous 0,020 pouce. Seules quelques pièces provenant des têtes coniques (équipement A) ont généré des bouts minces en biseau, ce qui a affecté la précision de sciage des pièces extérieures. Il est possible qu’un mauvais alignement de la machine en soit la cause. Un niveau de performance théorique optimal a été simulé pour les deux technologies. On assume ainsi que le positionnement physique des équarris lors du débitage, devrait se faire avec une précision de 0,200 pouce ou mieux. Si l’équipement A, en sciage naturel, était pourvu d’un système d’optimisation du positionnement en translation et alignement, son rendement aurait pu atteintre 407 pmp/m³, ce qui indique un potentiel d’amélioration de revenus de 5,1 % par rapport à sa performance actuelle. L’équipement B, en sciage courbe calculé (avec un R=1 500po), a pu atteindre 396 pmp/m³ d’où une amélioration potentielle de 2,8 % en revenus. Le principal défi des manufacturiers d’équipements est donc d’accroître la précision du positionnement des équarris lors du débitage.
Scanners
Canters
Sawing - Breakdown
Documents
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Effet de la hauteur de bille et de la température sur la qualité de surface et des copeaux produits par une équarrisseuse-déchiqueteuse - Phase V

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39120
Author
Laganière, B.
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Laganière, B.
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
21 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Chippers
Series Number
Projet General Revenue no 2663
2663
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Cette étude a servi à mesurer l’effet de la position verticale et de la température des billes sur la qualité des copeaux et de la surface sur une tête conique d’équarrisseuse installée sur le banc d’essai dans les laboratoires de FPInnovations à Québec. Les billes ont été élevées respectivement de 1, 2 3 et 3,5 po à partir de la plus basse position relative à la tête de l’équarrisseuse (position 0 po). La tête était équipée de 6 ensembles de couteaux : chaque ensemble était constitué d’un couteau de finition qui dresse la forme de l’équarri et d’un couteau long qui fragmente le bois en copeaux. La vitesse linéaire des couteaux était de 1200 m/min et la bouchée de 22,2 mm. La température des billes était de 20°C en condition normale (ou dégelée) et de -30°C en condition gelée. Cent trente-cinq billes d’épinette noire (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.) de diamètre moyen de 15 cm au fin bout ont été transformées. La profondeur de coupe était de 1 po tout le long de la bille. Un côté de la bille a été utilisé pour la condition gelée, et l’autre côté a servi pour la condition dégelée. La température a un effet significatif sur la qualité des copeaux et de la surface. La proportion de particules fines est considérablement plus élevée en condition de gel (4,1 % à 8,8 %) comparativement à la condition normale (1 % à 1,7 %). La proportion des copeaux dans toute classe de tamisage est plus variable en condition de gel qu’en condition de dégel. La qualité de surface a diminué en condition de gel : les arrachements sont plus grands. La proportion de classe de produits est sensiblement la même en condition dégelée qu’en condition gelée. Si on tient compte que toutes les pièces du test ont le potentiel d’être Premium, les pertes monétaires dues à la perte de classe, à l’éboutage et au contenu de particules fines variaient de 6,2 % à 8,3 % en condition de gel, comparativement à des pertes de 4 % à 6,7 % en condition normale. En pratique, environ 30% peut se qualifier Premium ; les pertes monétaires en condition de gel variaient alors de 1,4% à 2,3% et celles en condition normale variaient entre 1,2% à 2%. La hauteur de la position de la bille dans la tête d’équarrisseuse a un effet significatif sur la qualité des copeaux et de la surface. Lorsque les billes sont élevées dans la tête, la proportion de particules fines augmente, alors que la proportion des particules de grandes dimensions diminue, et cette variation est plus importante en condition de gel. En conditions normale et de gel, la qualité de surface est la meilleure dans le test 3, soit 2 po au-dessus de la position la plus basse. La qualité de surface diminue autant en élevant qu’en baissant la bille par rapport à cette position. Des tests préliminaires à une hauteur de 4 po ont provoqué des arrachements très sévères, au point où les billes n’ont pu être transformées en sciages : il y a donc une limite à hausser les billes dans l’équarrisseuse. Le fait d’abaisser la bille de 4 po à 3,5 po a réduit considérablement les arrachements et permis de pouvoir tester cette position de bille. L’ajustement de la hauteur de la position de la bille dans l’équarrisseuse est donc critique. L’angle de coupe du couteau de finition à la position 2 po est de -13° à l’entrée et de 30° à la sortie de la bille. L’angle de coupe du couteau long est de 57° à l’entrée et de 100° à la sortie. L’amplitude de ces angles devrait en principe donner des résultats comparables pour des têtes d’équarrisseuses de diamètres différents. Des tests doivent cependant valider cette hypothèse. Les résultats de cette étude permettront aux utilisateurs d’ajuster la hauteur de la position de leur tête d’équarrisseuse de façon appropriée, en tenant compte de l’effet de la température des billes.
Chippers
Documents
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Optimisation de la vitesse de l'air dans les séchoirs

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39122
Author
Lavoie, Vincent
Normand, D.
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Lavoie, Vincent
Normand, D.
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
19 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Optimization
Drying
Air
Series Number
Projet General Revenue no 5364
5364
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Optimization
Drying
Air flow
Documents
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Enduit à la découpe pour prévenir les fentes de retrait du bois de feuillus

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39123
Author
Yang, D.-Q.
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Yang, D.-Q.
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
41 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Lumber
Series Number
Projet General Revenue no 5366
5366
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
La formation de fentes de retrait à la découpe constitue l’un des défauts les plus fréquents et se traduit souvent par une dépréciation importante de la valeur du bois de sciage. La méthode habituelle pour prévenir les fentes de retrait consiste à appliquer un enduit à la découpe. Cependant, l’efficacité des enduits sur différentes essences n’est pas établie hors de tout doute, et les résultats escomptés ne sont souvent pas atteints. Ce projet vise à évaluer l’efficacité des différents enduits pour prévenir la fente de retrait et à optimiser le processus d’application à la découpe ainsi que sur des composants d’essences de feuillus. Des billes, des sciages à l’état vert et des composants séchés d’érable à sucre et de bouleau jaune ont été utilisés aux fins de cette étude. Cinq enduits commerciaux produits au Canada et aux États-Unis ont été évalués, et deux méthodes d’application ont été mises à l’essai. L’application d’enduit a été effectuée sur 120 billes fraîchement coupées, 200 planches et 100 composants par essence en 2006 puis sur 140 billes par essence en 2007. Les résultats de cette étude montrent que tous les enduits utilisés sont en mesure de réduire efficacement l’apparition de fentes de retrait sur les billes, les sciages et les composants. Le meilleur traitement a réduit la formation de fentes de retrait sur les sciages et les composants jusqu’à 100 % et jusqu’à 80 % sur les billes, et ce, pour une période de huit semaines. Le niveau d’efficacité des produits varie selon l’essence, le type de produit du bois, la période de traitement, la méthode d’application et les conditions de stockage. Aucun des produits ne s’est complètement démarqué des autres, et ce, pour l’ensemble des conditions de ces tests.
Defects
End coating
Documents
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Optimisation de la gestion des cours à bois des scieries

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39143
Author
Goulet, P.
Date
June 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Goulet, P.
Date
June 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
8 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Simulation
Saw mills
CAD Computer aided design
Design
Series Number
Projet General Revenue no 5334
5334
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
L’objectif principal de ce projet est d’évaluer la possibilité pour les scieries canadiennes d’utiliser des techniques et des outils de simulation pour optimiser la gestion des cours à bois débités. De façon plus spécifique, la présente étude vise à évaluer les gains potentiels de l’amélioration de la gestion des paquets de bois verts bruts, c’est-à-dire des paquets de bois qui circulent entre la scierie et les unités de séchage. Il peut être avantageux pour les gestionnaires de scieries d’optimiser l’emplacement des paquets de bois sciés en considérant : leur destination suivante dans le procédé (séchage, rabotage ou expédition) et les paramètres des équipements de manutention, tels que leur capacité de charge, leurs différentes tâches, leur vitesse. Comme il n’existe pas de solution logicielle déjà toute prête pour simuler les cours à bois de scierie, nous avons modélisé le fonctionnement de la cour à bois à l’aide d’un simulateur de flux général, en l’adaptant au processus de la scierie à l’étude. Après avoir reproduit le fonctionnement typique de la cour à bois dans le simulateur, nous l’avons utilisé afin de tester les effets des changements au design de la cour. Nous avons quantifié l’impact du changement de l’emplacement de certains types de produits pour réduire l’utilisation des équipements roulants. Une réduction de près de 10 % de la distance parcourue a été obtenue pour une des chargeuses sous étude en modifiant l’emplacement de seulement huit types de produits. Cette réduction représente environ 16 000$ par année pour la scierie étudiée. En effectuant rigoureusement l’analyse des emplacements de chaque type de paquet, il existe un potentiel de réduction de coût pouvant atteindre 50 000 $ sur une base annuelle, et ce sans aucun investissement en capital.
Sawmills - Design - Computer simulation
Documents
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Évaluation des systèmes automatisés de classification pour sciages résineux

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39144
Author
McDonald, J. David
Date
September 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
McDonald, J. David
Date
September 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
18 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Digitalization
Subject
Softwoods
Grading
Automatic control
Series Number
Projet General Revenue no 5768
5768
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Les tests réalisés dans le cadre de ce projet ont généré des résultats sur la performance d’une nouvelle génération d’optimiseurs fabriqués par la compagnie Comact pour automatiser les opérations d’éboutage et de classification des sciages après rabotage. Ce système automatisé de classification communément appelé « GradExpert » est muni de caméras lasers pour la détection de défauts géométriques et de caméras couleurs pour la détection de défauts visuels. Deux échantillons de sciages de ÉPS séchés rabotés en provenance de l’est du Canada et un troisième contenant des sciages séchés rabotés de pin lodgepole affectés par le dendroctone du pin ont été utilisés pour évaluer l’efficacité de ce système automatisé de classification. Nos résultats indiquent que la technologie utilisée par Comact pour traiter de l’aspect géométrique des sciages permet de classifier avec une précision étonnante les défauts tels que la flache, l’omission, le grain arraché et les courbures. Nos résultats stipulent une efficacité de 92,7 % lorsque le système automatisé traite ce type de défauts. La technologie de vision utilisée pour identifier et traiter les défauts visuels comme les nœuds, les fentes les roulures, la carie, les trous de vers et certains défauts de fabrication a donné des résultats inférieurs, mais tout de même satisfaisants. Seuls les résultats obtenus lors de la détection de la coloration, des cassures transversales, de la déviation du fil et du bois de compression ont été moins probants. L’efficacité de détection des défauts visuels a été évaluée à 64,2 %. Des résultats similaires ont été obtenus avec les sciages affectés par le dendroctone du pin, ce qui laisse présumer que ce type de matériel peut être traité adéquatement avec ce système automatisé. Des tests ont également été réalisés afin de comparer la performance d’une opération de classification semi-optimisée équipée d’un classeur linéaire en interaction avec un poste de classification manuelle et le système automatisé de la compagnie Comact. Selon nos résultats, le système automatisé GradExpert a commis près de quatre fois moins d’erreurs que le système semi-optimisé. Pour ce qui est de l’efficacité en volume et valeur, le système automatisé GradExpert a obtenu une note presque parfaite, soit une efficacité de 99,9 % en volume et 99,5 % en valeur, alors que le système semi-optimisé a généré respectivement 104,1 % et 96,4 % du volume et de la valeur optimale de l’échantillon. Les pertes en valeur ont été réduites de façon considérable. Elles sont passées 13,30 $/Mpmp pour le système semi-optimisé à seulement 1,90 $/Mpmp pour le système automatisé, soit un gain de 11,40 $/Mpmp. Basé sur une production au rabotage de 100 MMpmp et sans tenir compte d’une réduction anticipée de personnel, ce gain représente un surplus annuel de 1,14 millions de dollars.
Lumber - Defects
Grading - Automation
Softwoods
Documents
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Secondary breakdown canter infeeds - Phase III

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39148
Author
Bédard, P.
Date
August 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Bédard, P.
Date
August 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
21 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Sawing
Series Number
General Revenue Project No. 4910
4910
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
This study focused on the evaluation of sawmill secondary breakdown technology performance. Two recent and operational canter-gang edger machine centres were selected in order to conduct mill trials and to simulate their actual and theoretical efficiency. Three-dimensional in-mill scans of a sample of 4-inch wide and 12-foot long cants were carried out to this end. Two batches of similar cants were produced to test the equipment and perform the requisite simulations. The study canter-gang edgers (machine centres A and B) can be described as follows: the machine centres have linear infeed systems and are equipped with 3-D scanners (laser cameras) for breakdown optimization purposes. Machine centre A performs natural curve sawing and incorporates a self-centering pre-positioning mechanism. Positioning optimization is achieved in translation only (off-centering parallel to the cutting axis). This machine centre uses conical canter heads and guided circular saws. Machine centre B performs calculated curve sawing; positioning optimization is achieved with respect to both alignment and translation. It is equipped with cylindrical canter heads and guided circular saws. Natural curve sawing allows for sawing along the sharpest curvature without restriction (R=500 in.), whereas calculated curve sawing is usually restricted (R=1,500 in.) although this parameter is adjustable. The smaller the R-value, the greater the sawing curvature. In practice, the two technologies achieved the same product yield and generated equivalent earnings. Each system posted an efficiency rate of 98% (in terms of earnings) according to the level of performance simulated with Optitek. The two types of canter heads produced chips of similar quality based on the proportion of undesirable chips (3/16 in. and fine particles) after screening. In general, sawing accuracy was excellent; the standard deviation was constantly below 0.020 in. The conical heads (machine centre A) produced only a few pieces with thin bevelled ends, which affected the sawing accuracy of outside pieces. In all likelihood, this was the result of poor machine alignment. A theoretical optimal performance level was simulated for both canters. Thus, one assumes that the physical positioning of the cants during the breakdown process should result in an accuracy of 0.200 in. or better. If machine centre A had been equipped with a positioning optimization system in alignment and translation, its volume recovery would have been 407 fbm/m³. This corresponds to a potential for increased earnings of 5.1% compared with actual machine centre performance. Machine centre B (R=1,500 in.) yielded 396 fbm/m3. This corresponds to a potential for increased earnings of 2.8%. Therefore, the main challenge facing equipment manufacturers consists of increasing cant-positioning accuracy during breakdown operations.
Canters infeeds
Sawing - Breakdown
Documents
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Effet de l'entreposage des billes d'épinette noire sur l'écorçage à anneau et sur l'équarrissage-déchiquetage

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39156
Author
Laganière, B.
Date
October 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Laganière, B.
Date
October 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
15 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Bark
Series Number
Projet General Revenue no 5336
5336
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Cette étude a mesuré l’effet de l’entreposage des billes d’une durée de 20 mois sur la qualité de l’écorçage à anneau et sur la qualité du débitage par une équarrisseuse-déchiqueteuse à tête conique. L’écorçage a été réalisé en usine tandis que le débitage a été fait sur le banc d’essai d’équarrisseuse dans les laboratoires de FPInnovations à Québec. Les billes ont été écorcées et débitées à l’état frais et après des périodes de 5, 7 11, 15 et 20 mois d’entreposage. L’écorceuse à anneau est de marque Nicholson (A5, 17 po, 6 pastilles) et la vitesse d’alimentation utilisée de 69 m/min (225 pi/min). La tête de l’équarrisseuse (Ø 14 po, 6 couteaux) a une vitesse linéaire de couteau de 1220 m/min (4000 pi/min) et une vitesse de rotation de 1300 tr/min. La bouchée est de 22,2 mm (7/8 po). Les billes ont été écorcées et débitées à température ambiante ; les paramètres d’écorçage sont les mêmes que ceux utilisés lors de la production. 141 billes d’épinette noire (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.) de diamètre moyen de 14,7 cm au fin bout, de teneur en humidité (base anhydre) de 79,3 % et de densité basale de 393 kg/m3 ont été transformées. Les patrons de débitage (4x4, 4x5, 4x6 et 6x6) ont été utilisés afin d’obtenir le meilleur rendement matière de chaque bille. Les plus grandes pertes de teneur en humidité sont survenues après 5 et 7 mois d’entreposage ; par la suite la teneur en humidité est demeurée semblable et au-dessus du point de saturation des fibres. La proportion de grandes particules de copeau (7/8 et 1 1/8 po) a augmenté après 5 et 7 mois d’entreposage, tandis que la proportion de particules plus fines (3/16 po et fines) a diminué. La qualité d’écorçage est demeurée constante dans les 11 premiers mois d’entreposage ; la perte en volume de bille a oscillé entre 0,7 % et 1,1 %. Par la suite, les pertes en volume de billes ont augmenté à 2,3 et 2,7 % (à 15 et 20 mois). Ces pertes sont attribuables à la détérioration des billes par la coloration et la carie qui ont fait leur apparition après 15 et 20 mois d’entreposage. L’aubier était totalement affecté tandis que le duramen l’était sur une grande partie. De même, le lien entre le bois et l’écorce s’est grandement détérioré entre les mois 11 et 15. De grands lambeaux d’écorce tombaient lorsque les billes étaient manipulées ; l’absence d’écorce rendait l’aubier encore plus exposé à la pression des outils d’écorceuse, ce qui provoquait plus d’arrachement de bois. La proportion des pièces classée Premium 1/32, 1/16 et 1/8 en ce qui a trait à l’arrachement maximal de bois est restée semblable tout au long de l’étude, et ce, malgré la détérioration des bois aux mois 15 et 20. Les pertes monétaires ont très peu progressé lors de 11 premiers mois d’entreposage, elles sont passées de 1,86 % à 2,2 %. Par la suite, les pertes monétaires sont passées de 2,8 % à 3,1 %, principalement à cause de la carie et de la coloration qui sont apparues après 11 mois d’entreposage et sans cette détérioration, la qualité de débitage serait restée similaire. Dans les conditions de cette étude, on peut affirmer que la rentabilité commence à être affectée après 11 mois d’entreposage des billes.
Barking
Documents
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Optimizing sawmill wood yard management

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39157
Author
Goulet, P.
Date
June 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Goulet, P.
Date
June 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
8 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Saw mills
Efficiency
Series Number
General Revenue Project No. 5334
5334
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
The primary objective of this project was to assess the potential for Canadian sawmills to use simulation techniques and tools to optimize lumber yard management. More specifically, this study aims at assessing the potential benefits of improving the management of green lumber inventories, that is to say the wood supplies that circulate between the sawmill and the kilns. Sawmill managers can benefit from optimizing the location of lumber stockpiles by considering the next phase of the lumber manufacturing process (drying, planing or shipping) and the handling equipments’ parameters, such as load capacity, tasks and speed. In the absence of off-the-shelf software to simulate sawmill lumber yards, we have developed a lumber yard operating model using a general purpose simulation software application adapted to the study sawmill situation. We first simulated the typical lumber yard operation, and then used the model to assess the effects of modifying lumber yard design. We quantified the impact of changing the location of certain types of products to reduce the use of wheeled lumber handling equipment. By changing the location of only eight types of products a 10 % reduction in the distance travelled by one of the loaders used in the study resulted. This represents yearly savings of approximately $16,000 for the study sawmill. A thorough analysis of the location of each type of lumber stockpile shows a potential annual savings of up to $50,000. Furthermore, this level of performance can be achieved without any capital investment.
Sawmilling - Efficiency
Lumber yard
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