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Élément 5 : Développement de nouveaux procédés et technologies pour l'industrie des bois feuillus - Identification d'applications de la technologie de séchage haute fréquence en continu rentables pour l'industrie des bois feuillus

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39250
Author
Lavoie, Vincent
Kendall, J.
Date
January 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Lavoie, Vincent
Kendall, J.
Date
January 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
7 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Seasoning high frequency
Seasoning
Hardwoods
Series Number
Programme des technologies transformatrices ; Projet TT5.15
201000399
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Le présent projet fait partie l’initiative de recherche visant à améliorer la compétitivité de la filière feuillue de l’est du Canada et est financé par le Programme des technologies transformatrices de Ressources naturelles Canada. L’objectif est de déterminer en collaboration avec des industriels de l’industrie de transformation des bois feuillus quelles sont les applications de séchage par haute fréquence en continu les plus intéressantes à investiguer pour le développement futur de cette technologie. Il servira à élucider certains éléments technico-économiques (longueur des électrodes, estimation de coût d’achat, coût énergétique, etc.) en fonction de différentes applications potentielles.
Seasoning - High frequency
Hardwoods - Seasoning
Documents
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Developing structural wood composite products from MPB wood

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39273
Author
Hsu, W.H.E.
Wan, Hui
Xu, H.
Dai, Chunping
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Hsu, W.H.E.
Wan, Hui
Xu, H.
Dai, Chunping
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment.
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
18 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wood
Utilization
Insect killed
Series Number
W-2755
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Within the limits of this study, the results indicate that it is quite possible to develop new Engineered Structural Lumber products from MPB wood and to maximize its value for uses in traditional and next generation wood buildings. New product and processing technologies have to be developed first to convert severely dried and checked MPB wood into competitive structural lumber products. Further research and development, particularly in stranding technology for dry logs is recommended.
Dendroctonus monticolae
Insect-killed wood - Utilization
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Reduction of volatile organic compound emissions (VOC, odours) for indoor wood products

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39280
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
VOC Volatile Organic Compounds
Organic matter
Series Number
Value to Wood No. FPI-113E
Project No. 201001000
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Nanoparticles including four metal oxides and two nanoclays were used in a water based coating to compare their effectiveness as emission barriers for formaldehyde and VOCs. Initially five nanoclays (Cloisite 30B, Cloisite Na+, Nanocor 1.30E, Nanocor 1.33M, and nanocor 1.34TCN) were investigated, and based on the quality of their dispersion in water, two of them (Cloisite Na+, and Nanocor 1.30E) were selected. In addition to these two nanoclays, four nanoparticles (Al2O3, Alumina Ceramic (BYK, LPX 2193), nanosilica (Fumed silica Aerosil R7200) and titanium dioxide (Aeroxide P25)) were selected for their VOC off gassing barrier efficiency from particleboard products. Because the coating was water based, the particleboard samples were veneer finished to avoid samples swelling. To glue the veneers a in house UF resin formulated with high U/F ratio to reduce the veneer barrier efficiency as already reported in previous studies. Three loading ratios, 1%, 3% and 5%, of the nanoparticles were investigated but only the two extremes were reported. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed that the nanoparticles, including Al2O3, AlCeramic, and TiO2 were well distributed in the coating for both 1wt% and 5 wt% loading ratios. In these formulations, small aggregates were observed with a diameter of about 100-150 nm. It was smaller by about 50nm for the AlCeramic (1%). The Nanosilica and the two nanoclay samples did not disperse well in the coating; they showed larger aggregates with a diameter of about several microns. In terms of formaldehyde and other carbonyls compounds barrier efficiency, the coating containing the Cloisite Na+ performed the best followed by the samples finished with the nanosilica both at 5% loading. A decrease of these carbonyl compounds emission varied from 60% to almost 70% when 5% of Cloisite Na+ was used in the coating formulation after 7 days samples conditioning. An overall TVOC emission reduction up to 82% was observed when Cloisite Na+ was added to the coating compared to the veneered and uncoated particleboard sample. This barrier efficiency result is very encouraging for the coating industry and could be considered for technology transfer where optimum conditions for the mixing of nanoparticles with the coating as well as the coating application and curing could be achieved with automated and performing equipments. The technology transfer based on results obtained from this project is highly recommended due to its anticipated lifting the VOC emission barriers from some countries regulations such as CARB for the formaldehyde emission limits and a new legislation for formaldehyde, some particular VOCs and TVOC recently released as DRAFT Regulation, in France.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
Odours
Coatings
Nanotechnology
Documents
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Technical support for the heat treatment program

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39283
Author
Garrahan, Peter A.
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Garrahan, Peter A.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
4 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Treatment
Drying
Heat
Series Number
CFS Simple Progress Report No. 24
201000322
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Heat treatment
Lumber - Drying
Documents
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Novel non-contact adhesive application system

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39287
Author
Gingras, A.
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Gingras, A.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
14 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Joints
Gluing
Adhesives
Series Number
Value to Wood No. FPI-128E
E-4620
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Robatech’s glue application system for finger-jointer consists in a pumping unit and application heads with multiple nozzles intended for jetting glue directly into machined finger profiles. The novel system was tested onto a CRP 2000 finger-jointing machine located at the FPInnovation – Forintek laboratory with three types of glue onto 2 X 4 SPF blocks. For the first run test, the system was found fairly complicated to adjust, as much in terms of its positioning in reference to the finger profiles as for the amount of glue applied. The trial with standard PVA glue resulted with a too important quantity of glue unevenly applied. There were also issues with clogging as the injectors are air tight, but not the nozzles. The test with the modified PVA glue was interrupted shortly after beginning when the mixture turned into a foamy substance that could barely be sucked by the pumping unit. The delaminating test that was conducted for this run had 100% of the joints failing performance criteria. Following these results, the bending test scheduled was cancelled. In its initial format, the glue application system assembled by Robatech is not suitable for industrial use. The application head required some modification to be less tedious to adjust and the manufacturer was compelled to provide an elegant solution for the issues regarding clogging and application quality of the initial nozzle configuration. In the second trial, the system was much easier to set-up and the glue application was achieved in a more controlled fashion. There was no clogging issue as the type of glue used (Franklin Advantage 405) was more permissive in term of curing time. The delamination and bending tests for the second trial run had both positive outcomes. Following the results of the tests performed at FPInnovations with Robatech’s gluing system; the latter has proven to be a potential substitution for existing applicators. More testing with different glues and some improvements are be needed to fully proof the system. Robatech has proven to provide adequate solutions to issues following the first testing session and came up with more ideas as a result of the second trial run.
Finger jointed lumber
Glued joints - Finger
Gluing
Adhesives
Documents
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Kyoto Protocol : impact on wood products industry

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39288
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
11 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Pollution
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 15
E-4621
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Canada has recently published our national Kyoto Protocol final GHG reduction target and fixed at 17% reduction for 2020 based on year 2005 after Potsdam UN conference. In order to meet our national target, the federal government has put in place many plans to assist different industrial sectors in reducing their GHG emissions resulting from their activities. One of the last plans set by the Government called “Green Plan” for the Pulp and Paper sector provides incentives to convert the black liquor into green energy or invest in more efficient technology to reduce energy consumption or produce greener energy and consequently reduce or eliminate the fossil fuel energy, which is related to GHG emission. Up to 24 pulp mills have been qualified to submit projects under the program. The Plan has been very well accepted and contributes to maintain our competitiveness vis-à-vis US mills that have benefitted from a similar program by simply optimizing their existing burners. Proven technologies are now available for better conversion of the black liquor into energy and/or chemicals through gasification and mills should certainly consider these options. Black Liquor gasification can be used to produce methanol, dimethyl ester (DME) or Fisher-Tropsch Siesel (FTD). This technology also has strong potential synergies with power generation and could be an option for the pulp and paper mills generate additional revenues while providing a contribution to the production of substitutes for the fossil fuels used in transportation. Total greenhouse gas emissions in Canada were estimated at in 721 megatons of carbon dioxide equivalent (Mt of CO2 eq) in 2006 and 80% of these GHG are emitted from the production and transportion these fuels. Hence, conversion of biomass & black liquor by gasification could help in reducing emissions from transportation fuels and also potentially reduce indirect emissions by increasing power generation from the pulp mills. The forest sector is known as having a huge potential for GHG reduction and offsets, investing more in this sector as proposed by the federal Green Plan, could assist other sectors in meeting their GHG target through offsets generated by the wood industry sector.
Air pollution
Documents
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Investigation of combination formaldehyde scavengers for particleboard and MDF

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39289
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
4 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Particle boards
MDF
Air pollution
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 41
E-4623
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Scavengers
Documents
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Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part IV. Fire performance of OSB and ceiling tile

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39290
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
37 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
201000328 5764
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
To improve the flame resistance of oriented strand board (OSB) and low-density fiberboard (ceiling tile), a laboratorial study was carried out to coat the commercial OSB panel and ceiling tile with three commercial fire retardant coatings (WT-102, Safe-T-Guard®, RUFR-1000) and ceiling tile with nanoclay 1130E-modified commercial coating/paint. The commercial coating and paint without fire retardants were designed for ceiling tile application. The test results indicated that the 2 wt% nanoclay-modified coating and/or paint could effectively improve the flame resistance of ceiling tile in terms of the short after-flame time according to ASTM D 3801 and the high limited oxygen index (LOI) according to ASTM D 2863. The nanoclay-modified coating and/or paint performed similarly to Safe-T-Guard® regarding both after-flame time and limited oxygen index. In general, the OSB panel coated with RUFR-1000 performed better than those with WT-102 and Safe-T-Guard® in terms of lowered panel consumption, net flame advance, insulation value and char index according to ASTM D 3806. An increase in fire retardant coating rate improved the fire performance of OSB for all three commercial fire retardant coatings. Full title: Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part IV. Improvement of fire performance of OSB and ceiling tile via surface coating with commercial fire retardant coatings for OSB and ceiling tile and nanoclay-modified coating/paint for ceiling tile
Composite products
Panels
Fire Retardant Coatings
Nanotechnology
Documents
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Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part V. Improvement of fire performance of ceiling tile via surface coating with commercial fire retardant coatings

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39291
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
27 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
201000328 5764
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
To improve the flame resistance of low-density fiberboard (ceiling tile), a laboratorial study was carried out to coat the commercial ceiling tile with three commercial fire retardant coatings (WT-102, Safe-T-Guard®, RUFR-1000). In general, the surface coating of low-density ceiling tile with the three fire retardant coatings effectively improved the fire performance of the board. The ceiling tile coated with RUFR-1000 performed better than those with WT-102 and Safe-T-Guard® in terms of reduced panel consumption, net flame advance, insulation value, and char index according to ASTM D 3806.
Composite products
Panels
Fire Retardant Coatings
Documents
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Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part VI. Improvement of fire performance of OSB and ceiling tile via surface coating with Inortech fire retardant coatings

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39292
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
34 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
201000328 5764
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
A laboratorial study was carried out to evaluate the fire performance of two fire retardant base coatings (CB-533 and CB-534) and two fire retardant top coatings (CB-535 and CB-536). These base and top coatings were specially developed by Inortech Chimie Inc. for oriented strand board (OSB) and low-density ceiling tile applications. Six combinations of the base and top coatings were applied on OSB and ceiling tile specimens and all of the three-layer coated panels were tested for flame advance, panel consumption, insulation value and char index according to ASTM D 3806. The test results indicated that all coating combinations improved the fire performance of OSB and ceiling tile, as compared to the uncoated panels. The most effective coating against flaming was CB-534/CB-534 (three-layer base coating), followed by CB-534/CB-535 (two-layer base coating/one-layer top coating), among the six base/top coating combinations evaluated.
Composite products
Panels
Fire Retardant Coatings
Documents
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Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part VII. Improvement of fire performance of OSB panel via wood treatments with fire retardant, nano-particles and nanocrystalline cellulose

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39293
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
46 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
201000328 5764
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
A series of randomly oriented three-layer strand boards were manufactured in the lab with five commercial fire retardants (CROS 349, CROS 334, BUDIT 380, CROS 481A, ZB-467), six commercial nano-particles (Cloisite 30B, Cloisite Na+, Nano Al2O3, zinc oxide, zinc oxide anion, zinc oxide non) and a sodium form of nanocrystalline cellulose in the surface layer. The resultant strand boards were evaluated for fire performance in terms of flame advance, weight loss (right after fire test) and insulation value (after fire test and conditioning), and mechanical and physical properties of board such as internal bond (IB) strength, dry and wet modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE), and 24-h thickness swelling (TS) and water absorption (WA). It was observed that when applied at 6% for liquid form (for CROS 349, CROS 334, BUDIT 380) or 3% for powder form (for CROS 481A, ZB-467) on a dry wood basis, all fire retardants had an influence on board mechanical/physical properties and fire performance as well (in terms of insulation values rather than net flame advance and weight loss right after fire test). CROS 334 and BUDIT 380 performed better than others in terms of improved insulation property. In consideration of both board mechanical/physical properties and fire performance, BUDIT 380 would be optimal for strand board, while CROS 349 and CROS 334 also showed the potential for further investigation. The use of 2% nano-particles in both dispersion and powder forms on a dry wood basis had no big influence on board fire performance. Cloisite 30B and Cloisite Na+ slightly improved the board fire performance in terms of reduced flame advance, but had a negative impact on board mechanical properties. All nano-particles also improved board insulation property at 0-inch test position. It is expected that an increase in application level of nano-particles would help to improve board fire performance. Application of 1% nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) in sodium form on a dry wood basis via spraying improved board mechanical/physical properties and also slightly improved board insulation property (rather than flame advance and weight loss). It is expected that an increase of NCC content in wood treatment would allow further improving board performance with regard to mechanical/physical properties and/or fire performance in terms of insulation property.
Composite products
Panels
Fire Retardant Coatings
Nanotechnology
Documents
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Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part VIII. Improvement of fire performance of OSB panel via post-treatment with fire retardants, nano-particles, nanocrystalline cellulose and woven glass fiber

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39294
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
E-4628
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
To improve fire performance of oriented strand board (OSB), a laboratorial study was carried out to post-treat commercial OSB panel with phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin containing various fire retardants (FR), nano-particles (NP) and nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). The post-treatment also included the laminating of OSB panel with woven glass fiber (WGF) and with the same PF resin as a binder. The resultant OSB panels were tested for fire performance in terms of net flame advance, panel consumption, insulation value, and char index. The test results indicated that the post-treatment improved the fire performance of OSB panel in terms of reduced net flame advance (up to 29%), panel consumption (up to 29%), insulation value (up to 17%), or char index (up to 33%), as compared to the untreated OSB panel. No treatment performed consistently better than others with regard to all fire properties measured, but laminating OSB panel with WGF appeared to be the most effective treatment for protecting OSB against flaming, which resulted in net flame advance decreased by 29%, panel consumption by 29%, and insulation value by 17%. An increase in the loading level of fire retardant from 10 to 15 parts or nano-particle from 5.3 to 13.1 parts per 100 parts of PF did not seem necessary for further improving fire performance for all additives. Besides WGF, the post-treatments leading to apparently improved fire performance included: (1) fire retardant BUDIT 380 (10 parts/100 parts PF) and nano-particle Cloisite 25A (13.1 parts/100 parts PF) in terms of lowered net flame advance (25% and 24%, respectively); (2) nano-particle Nanofil®SE 3000 (5.3 parts/100 parts PF) in consideration of lowered panel consumption (18%); (3) fire retardant CROS 481A (15 parts/100 parts PF) with respect to lowered insulation value (16%); and (4) fire retardant CROS 349 (10 parts/100 parts PF) (33%), fire retardant CROS 334 (15 parts/100 parts PF) (33%) and nano-particle Nano Al2O3 (13.1 parts/100 parts PF) (31%) with regard to reduced char index. In addition, this study showed that coating OSB with PF alone also seemed to be effective approach for protecting OSB panel against flaming as well, indicated by the lowered net flame advance (20%), panel consumption (13%) and char index (28%).
Composite products
Panels
Fire Retardant Coatings
Nanotechnology
Documents
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Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part IX. Improvement of fire performance of OSB panel via wood treatment and resin modification with glass fiber, fire retardants and nano-particles

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39295
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
34 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
201000328 5764
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the fire performance of randomly oriented strand boards manufactured with two fire retardants (FR: CROS 349 and BUDIT 380), two nano-particles (NP: Nanofil®9 and Cloisite 25A), woven glass fiber (WGF) and glass fiber (GF). These materials were only used in wood strands for panel surface layer. Liquid/powder phenol-formaldehyde (PF) combination system was used as binder. In case where the nano-particle was used, it was also incorporated into the surface powder PF resin. All resultant strand boards were evaluated for fire performance in terms of flame advance, panel consumption, insulation value and char index according to ASTM Standard D 3806-98, and mechanical and physical properties of boards such as internal bond (IB) strength, modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE), and 24-h thickness swelling (TS) and water absorption (WA) according to CSA Standard O437.1-93. This study showed that the use of FR, WGF and GF did not seem to have apparent impact on panel performance but NP did in terms of overall panel performance. With respect to all fire properties evaluated, no single treatment appeared to perform consistently better than others. However, laminating strand board with WGF was proven to be the most effective way to protect strand board against flaming in terms of reduced net flame advance and panel consumption. Treatment of strands with two fire retardants appeared to be also a promising method for improving board fire performance next to WGF. The two nano-particles used and the fire retardant BUDIT 380 performed better than other materials with respect to lowered insulation value of strand board. In addition, the two nano-particles and the fire retardant CROS 349 resulted in better fire performance strand board than did other materials in terms of lowered char index.
Composite products
Panels
Fire Retardant Coatings
Nanotechnology
Documents
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Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part X. Improvement of fire performance of ceiling tile via fiber treatment with glass fiber, fire retardants and nano-particles

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39296
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
32 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
201000328 5764
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
A laboratorial study was carried out to improve the fire performance of low-density fiberboard (ceiling tile) by incorporating various commercial fire retardants (FR), nano-particles (NP) and glass fiber (GF) into fibers during the mat forming process. Five FR (CROS 349, CROS 481A, CROS 334, Optibor, Polybor), two NP (Nano Al2O3 and Cloisite 25A) and one GF were examined. The ceiling tiles were evaluated for mechanical properties (transverse load at rupture and modulus of rupture) according to CAN/ULC-S706-09 and ASTM C 209-07, and fire performance (flame advance, panel consumption, insulation value and char index) according to ASTM D 3806-98. An element analysis of aluminum (Al) in a ceiling tile made with Nano Al2O3 was performed to evaluate the chemical distribution in fibers. The test result indicated that Nano Al2O3 only penetrated into the top layer of the panel. Based on this result, it was expected that the chemical penetration was likely limited on the top layer when other NP and FR were used. Thus, the procedure employed in this work for incorporating an additive into fibers would not cause any leaking problem which in turn might contaminate the white water and possibly destroy the bacteria used in the cleaning of the water for recycling. Addition of an additive in ceiling tiles showed some negative impact on the transverse load at rupture or modulus of rupture (MOR) of the panels, depending on each individual additive used. The use of FR at 10-15 wt% on dry fiber weight significantly improved the fire performance of ceiling tiles in terms of reduced net flame advance by 81%, 59% and 57% respectively, and lowered panel consumption by 56%, 29% and 40% respectively, as observed for CROS 481A, CROS 349 and CROS 334. FR Polybor also resulted in reduced net flame advance by 46%, but it caused more reduction in board strength than other additives: by 41% for transverse load and 17% for MOR. The insulation values of ceiling tiles were reduced by 20% for NP Cloisite 25A, 10% for Nano Al2O3 and 7% for FR Polybor when these additives were applied at 5 wt% based on the dry fiber weight. Adding GF (10% by weight) or NP Cloisite 25A (5% by weight) in ceiling tiles also lowered the char index by 35%. This study also showed that no additive could perform consistently better than others in terms of both mechanical and fire properties of ceiling tiles. By taking board mechanical properties into account, it can be concluded that three FR (CRSO 349, CROS 481A, CROS 334) showed potential for protecting ceiling tiles against flaming regarding lowered net flame advance and panel consumption. One nano-particle (Cloisite 25A) also showed potential in terms of reduced insulation value and char index.
Composite products
Panels
Fire Retardant Coatings
Nanotechnology
Documents
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Development of an improved method for analysis of panels with low formaldehyde emission (Part B)

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39297
Author
Dechamplain, F.
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Dechamplain, F.
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
13 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Pollution
Panels
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 20
201000329
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
In April 2008, the State of California adopted an airborne toxic control measure (ATCM) to reduce formaldehyde emissions from composite wood products, proposed by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), part of the California Environmental Protection Agency. Phase 1 started in January 2009, and at the end of the implementation, in July 2012, formaldehyde emission limits will range between 0.05 and 0.13 ppm, depending on the type of products, based on the ASTM E 1333 Large Chamber Method. These new limits are in the order of the limits of detection of the current analytical methods presently used, and rendered the chromotropic acid reaction, on which the ASTM E 1333 is based, with a limit of detection of 0.01 ppm less precise. The use of Near Infrared technology was investigated in 2009/2010. This analytical technique was not initially considered to be sensitive enough to measure formaldehyde emissions at very low levels. Recent developments in the broadband sources of near infrared radiation available and the type of detectors used have contributed in recent years to improve spectral stability and sensitivity. Some instruments have recently been tested in Europe and equipment suppliers claim that these systems can be used for online monitoring of formaldehyde emissions. This analytical technique is not recognized at this time by Canadian and US regulatory authorities and more testing was required to demonstrate the system’s reliability. Commercial products with very low free formaldehyde have been tested in 2009 with NIR sensors and results have been correlated with the ASTM E 1333 Large Chamber test results. At least one Canadian panel manufacturer has already expressed interest in running a mill trial. Results will be presented to regulatory authorities.
Air pollution
Formaldehyde
Panels
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Quantifying benefits of best turner optimizer setting and new log rotation technologies

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39734
Author
Brdicko, J.
Orbay, L.
Date
December 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Brdicko, J.
Orbay, L.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
December 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
54 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Optimization
Lumber manufacturing
Logs
Series Number
W-3031
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This project focuses on the affect of errors that exist in log rotation systems for optimized double length infeed (DLI) log breakdown lines common to the sawmills in North America. The potential value recovery increase that could be achieved by adjusting log turner optimizer settings and/or PLC programming, to match the actual machine centre log rotation capability, is estimated. The potential of the newest commercially available log rotation systems to improve accuracy of log rotation and thus, increase product value recovery are also estimated.
Using both analytical and experimental data, the loss in lumber value that can occurr due to errors between the desired opitmized log rotation angle and the actual rotation angle are simulated. Five log rotation systems are investigated from the theoretical “perfect” system with accurate settings and no errors down to older, poorly maintained, systems with incorrect settings and large errors in rotation performance.
The work done here provides new knowledge about the importance of using accurate values of log turner settings and/or making suitable adjustments of the log turner PLC, to select best rotation angle and minimize rotation errors. The increase in value recovery and ROI that may be achieved in a particular mill will depend on the magnitude of differences between the current values of log turner settings and their correct values and/or the quality of the adjustments of the log turner PLC. The results presented here show that in typical sawmills the optimal adjustment to log turner settings and/or PLC may increase value recovery in 0.5% - 1.5% range and a ROI over 1,250%, using $20,000 cost of determining the adjustment. Replacing older, worn out, log turning systems with the newest conventional systems may increase value recovery in 0.5% - 1.2% range and ROI in 80% - 190% range. Replacing conventional log turning systems with the newest systems utilizing advanced technologies may increase value recovery in 1.2% - 2.4% range and ROI in 100% - 240% range.
The appendendices mentioned in the report are found at this link:
\\fpinnovations.lan\structure\Commun_Common\Publications\WP/3031_Appen.pdf
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Élément 5 : Développement de nouveaux procédés et technologies pour l'industrie des bois feuillus - Évaluation de procédés de débitage axés sur les besoins de la deuxième et de la troisième transformation

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39300
Author
McDonald, J. David
Drouin, M.
Date
January 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
McDonald, J. David
Drouin, M.
Date
January 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
28 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Saw mills
Efficiency
Series Number
Programme des technologies transformatrices ; Projet TT5.15
201002820
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Ce projet de recherche propose aux scieries de bois feuillus un système de tri des sciages complémentaire aux normes de classification des sciages de la NHLA qui permettrait de mieux répondre aux besoins spécifiques des usines de deuxième et de troisième transformation. Les gains en valeur et en rendement matière potentiels liés à l’établissement d’un tel système ont été évalués de même que le mode de débitage le mieux adapté à ces besoins. Un échantillon de 179 billes de bouleau jaune de 8 et 9 pieds de longueur a été séparé en deux lots et débité en sciages de 4/4 selon les modes de débitage sélectif et en plot modifié. Les sciages produits ont été évalués par un système de vision automatisé qui a permis de simuler le débitage secondaire en fonction de paniers de produits destinés à différents secteurs de la deuxième/troisième transformation. Les secteurs considérés sont le plancher, l’escalier, l’armoire de cuisine, la moulure, le meuble, le panneautage et la palette. Le tri des sciages en fonction du débitage secondaire a été effectué selon deux scénarios d’optimisation. Le premier visait à diriger les sciages vers le secteur permettant d’atteindre le meilleur rendement tout en respectant les approvisionnements actuels en sciages de qualité NHLA. Le deuxième scénario était similaire au premier avec la particularité de permettre, selon certaines restrictions, l’attribution des sciages de qualité inférieure vers des secteurs qui n’avaient pas l’habitude d’utiliser les sciages de basse qualité. Les résultats démontrent que cette avenue est envisageable puisque les deux scénarios d’optimisation du tri des sciages ont permis d’augmenter les rendements matière de 5,6 % à 87,9 % selon le secteur visé. Seul le secteur du meuble a connu une baisse de rendement qui se situe autour de 6 % pour les deux scénarios évalués. Une réduction de 53 $ à 1 728 $ des coûts d’approvisionnement en $/Mpmp de composants produits a également été obtenue pour l’ensemble des secteurs à l’exception de l’escalier où une hausse de 53 $ a été notée lors du premier scénario. Ces changements ne devraient pas avoir d’effet négatif sur la productivité des usines de deuxième et de troisième transformation puisque le nombre de sciages requis pour produire Mpmp de composants a diminué dans la majorité des secteurs. Quant aux modes de débitage utilisés, aucune différence significative n’a été établie par rapport au rendement matière obtenu par secteur. Malgré le fait que certaines étapes restent à franchir avant que ce type de production voie le jour en industrie, cette approche s’avère prometteuse. Elle permettra à l’industrie des bois feuillus d’améliorer son rendement matière global et de devenir une industrie davantage axée sur les besoins du client.
Sawmilling - Efficiency
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Élément 5 : Développement de nouveaux procédés et technologies pour l'industrie des bois feuillus - Établissement de liens entre les besoins des utilisateurs et la qualité des sciages requis

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39309
Author
McDonald, J. David
Date
January 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
McDonald, J. David
Date
January 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
23 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Saw mills
Efficiency
Quality control
Qualitative analysis
Series Number
Programme des technologies transformatrices ; Projet TT5.15
201002820
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Ce projet de recherche propose des regroupements de sciages dont les caractéristiques dimensionnelles et qualitatives permettront de fabriquer des composants mieux adaptés aux besoins des secteurs du plancher, de l’armoire de cuisine, du meuble, de l’escalier et de la moulure. Nos résultats révèlent que les regroupements des sciages basés sur leurs dimensions offrent de meilleures opportunités que lorsqu’ils sont basés sur la qualité. À cet effet, l’analyse du procédé de mise en composants des secteurs indique qu’il est possible, dans bien des cas, de réduire de 1/16 de pouce la dimension cible en épaisseur des sciages de 4/4 et 5/4 sans contrevenir aux exigences des différents utilisateurs. Cette réduction représente un gain de rendement en volume d’environ 3.8 %, soit l’équivalent de revenu additionnel de 130 000 $ pour une scierie qui produit annuellement 5 MMpmp. La production de sciages à largeurs variables convient à la plupart des secteurs, sauf celui du plancher. D’autres secteurs comme celui de la moulure pourraient tirer profit de petits volumes de sciages à largeur fixe qui conviennent aux largeurs de moulures les plus populaires. Les scieries auraient également avantage à regrouper séparément par qualité les sciages de longueur de 4 et 5 pieds et ceux de 6 pieds et plus pour effectuer leur mise en marché. Les sciages longs qui sont très en demande pourraient être vendus avec une surprime alors que les sciages courts seraient vendus à moindre coût dans des secteurs tels que l’armoire de cuisine et le meuble où de forts pourcentages de composants sont fabriqués à des longueurs inférieures à 4 pieds. L’utilisation d’un système de tri axé sur la couleur et complémentaire aux normes de classification NHLA s’avère une option intéressante pour augmenter la valeur du panier de produits. Le secteur de la moulure, de l’escalier et de l’armoire de cuisine sont les plus susceptibles d’être preneur pour ce type d’approvisionnement. La classification des sciages à partir de la belle face est également à considérer pour alimenter les secteurs qui s’approvisionnent de qualité de sciages 2 et 3 Commun et dont le revers des composants usinés n’est pas apparent. Selon ces critères, le secteur du plancher et en partie celui du meuble pourraient tirer avantage à se procurer des sciages classifiés à partir de la belle face. La récupération de sciages de 4 pieds dont les rendements en débits clairs sont autour de 75 %, de même que la production de sciages de largeur inférieure à 3 pouces ou de longueur adaptée à un secteur donné, pourraient également susciter l’intérêt de certains utilisateurs. Il est indéniable que tous ces regroupements devront se faire par l’entremise de relations d’affaires et de dialogues soutenus entre le fournisseur et les clients pour répondre adéquatement à leurs besoins. De plus, l’utilisation d’un système de vision s’avère incontournable pour le développement de classes de qualité qui tiennent compte à la fois de la dimension, de la coloration et des défauts admissibles pour un composant donné.
Sawmilling - Efficiency
Lumber - Quality control
End uses
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Hardwood Initiative - Part 5: Development of new processes and technologies in the hardwood industry - Identification of profitable continuous radio frequency drying applications for the hardwood industry

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39315
Author
Lavoie, Vincent
Kendall, J.
Date
January 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Lavoie, Vincent
Kendall, J.
Date
January 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
6 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Seasoning high frequency
Seasoning
Hardwoods
Series Number
Transformative Technologies Program ; Project No. TT5.15
201000399
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
This project was undertaken as part of the research initiative designed to enhance the competitiveness of hardwood industry in eastern Canada. Project funding was provided through Natural Resources Canada's Transformative Technologies Program. The objective was to determine, in consultation with manufacturers of hardwood products, which continuous radio frequency drying applications warrant additional investigation to further the development of this technology. The project was designed to shed light on various technical and economic considerations (electrode length, acquisition cost estimate, energy costs, etc.) for various potential applications.
Seasoning - High frequency
Hardwoods - Seasoning
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Development of two-stage thermo-reforming technology for the manufacturing of cup-shape fibreboard. Part I. Investigation of effects of different resin systems and secondary hot pressing on panel properties

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39320
Author
Deng, James
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Deng, James
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
18 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Resin
Pressing
Series Number
201003063 Task 11
E-4649
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Fibreboard - Manufacture
Resin
Pressing
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