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Glulam and CLT innovative manufacturing process and product development : industrial assessment of short joint profile for CLT and glulam products

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39820
Author
Grandmont, Jean-Francois
Date
April 2014
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
PDF
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Author
Grandmont, Jean-Francois
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service
Date
April 2014
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
11 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Joints
Glulam
Cross-laminated timber (CLT)
Fastenings
Series Number
Transformative Technologies Program
Project no.301007960
E-4873
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
The main objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of a short horizontal joint profile for glulam and CLT producers through an industrial assessment.
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New concepts in wood I-joist manufacturing and utilization : fire resistant wood I-joist

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39821
Author
Osborne, Lindsay
Date
May 2014
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
PDF
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Author
Osborne, Lindsay
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service
Date
May 2014
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Joists
Fire
Resistance
Series Number
Transformative Technologies
Project no.301007961
E-4876
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
The objective of the study is to identify current and available solutions for improving the fire resistance of wood I-joists. After an analysis and comparison of these technologies, the most promising solutions will be presented which will be suggested to wood I-joist manufacturers for potential further investigation.
Wood I-joists
Fire Resistant - Joints
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Innovative applications of RF pre-heating and heating for engineered wood product manufacturing

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39822
Author
Wang, Brad J.
Dai, Chunping
Date
April 2014
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Brad J.
Dai, Chunping
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
April 2014
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
34 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Heating
Laminate product
Lumber
Series Number
Transformative Technologies
W-3095
Language
English
Abstract
Several RF pressing trials were successfully conducted in the pilot plant at the Vancouver lab of FPInnovations, which aimed at thick LVL manufacturing, use of lignin-based PF resin as a binder and new plywood pressing method. A number of 3.5-in thick LVL billets were first RF-pressed for heavy-duty packaging applications with a pressing time of being shortened to about 25 min but with satisfactory bending MOE and MOR properties. Lignin PF resin (with 20wt% phenol replacement ratio) was prepared and used to make 13-ply spruce LVL. Compared to the control, there was no significant difference in both panel flatwise and edgewise bending MOE and MOR, as well as panel delamination resistance, when the lignin-based PF resin was applied. Further plywood RF heating trials with aluminum plate separation of panels demonstrated that the inclusion of the plates can help increase the thickness uniformity of plywood panels pressed with RF heating. Economic analyses were conducted to determine the benefits of RF pressing for manufacturing LVL and plywood, and RF preheating of plywood. For RF pressing of LVL preliminary calculations demonstrated that RF pressing would generate aoubt $3.0 million CAD operating profit per year. It would also have 3.3% higher internal rate of return (IRR) and 1.25 years shorter payback period. For RF pressing of plywood, preliminary calculations indicated about $1.0 million CAD increase in operating profit annually for the RF pressing option, yielding a payback period of 3.95 years for purchasing and installing the new RF equipment. For RF pre-heating of plywood, the analysis showed that an increase of $4.7 million CAD in operating profit can be achieved annually and payback period is only 0.4 year. However, some further pilot plant work is required to establish the maximum closed assembly time of pre-heated plywood panels for industrial applications. PF adhesive formulations may also need to be changed in order to prevent glue dry-out after preheating.
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Study to examine the effects of log moisture sorting on OSB manufacturing

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39823
Author
Groves, C. Kevin
Date
May 2014
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Groves, C. Kevin
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
May 2014
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
28 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Logs
Moisture content
OSB
Sorting
Series Number
W-3096
Language
English
Abstract
In the Canadian OSB industry raw log moistures are generally thought to be a significant factor effecting mill operation. In 2012/13 an FPInnovations study was carried out to better understand the effects of log moisture content on the manufacturing operations at a western Canadian OSB mill. The information collected was intended to assist the mill to make informed decisions on log yard management and harvesting and also to understand the best possible scenarios for producing a quality product as cost effectively as possible. Of particular interest was whether benefits could be made by processing dryer wood as a means of increasing dryer capacity but without incurring significant costs resulting from lower strand quality, especially fines and the associated costs of increased resin usage and panel density.
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New attributes and economic analyses of composite CLT and value-added appearance-based CLT

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39833
Author
Grandmont, Jean-Francois
Wang, Brad J.
Date
March 2014
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Grandmont, Jean-Francois
Wang, Brad J.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2014
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
44 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Composites
Laminate product
Timber
Value added
Series Number
Transformative Technologies Program
W-3097
Language
English
Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine new attributes and conduct economic analyses for composite CLT (CCLT) and value-added appearance-based CLT products manufactured with varying substitution of softwood lumber with structural composite lumber (SCL) and hardwood lumber. Incentives for including such materials could be aesthetic, structural and economic. Structural and aesthetic property assessments were carried out on prototype CLT panels. Multiple CLT panel configurations (17) were evaluated to assess the effects of including hardwood and SCL materials in the layups. Presence of hardwood in the panels’ configuration generally led to higher checking and density. Because of the higher shrinkage of hardwood, the bondline suffered from more delamination. A lower density hardwood (aspen) was included in some configurations and exhibited a greater direct compatibility with current Canadian manufacturing process. Changes to this process, such as selecting a hardwood specific adhesive may lead to improvements. SCL’s inclusion in the panels’ layup revealed to be fairly compatible with the current CLT manufacturing process. Both LVL and LSL products performed equally well or better than the reference lumber-made CLT panel for the bondline quality, dimensional stability and visual defects development. The efficiency of the manufacturing process of the prototype CLT panels was improved when EWP was included in the layup. The lesser amount of components and the readily flat surface of SCL may have a positive impact on the economics of CLT manufacturing due to an improved efficiency. Substitution products evaluated are characterized by a higher market price than lumber. CLT made from a combination of LSL or LVL and softwood lumber would cost about $100/m3 more to get the same return if there were no changes in the manufacturing. The burden of this cost increase would have to be offset by unique series of attributes that would add value for the customer and/or by a greater manufacturing efficiency.
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Glulam and CLT innovative manufacturing process and products development : effects of manufacturing parameters on the fire-resistance of CLT assemblies

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39850
Author
Grandmont, Jean-Francois
Dagenais, Christian
Osborne, Lindsay
Date
June 2014
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Grandmont, Jean-Francois
Dagenais, Christian
Osborne, Lindsay
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service
Date
June 2014
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
35 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Laminate product
Fire
Resistance
Series Number
301007960
E-4888
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
This study was part of a broader project entitled Glulam and CLT Innovative Manufacturing Process and Product Development. The main objective of the current study is to evaluate the effect of CLT panels manufacturing parameters on its fire resistance. More specifically: § To evaluate the effect of CLT manufacturing (gluing) parameters on the heat delamination resistance under standard fire conditions; § To improve the fire-resistance of the CLT panels.
Glulam
Laminated products - Fire resistance
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Développement d'une technologie de séchage par haute fréquence en continu pour améliorer la fabrication de produits à valeur ajoutée

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39873
Author
Lavoie, Vincent
Date
2014
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Lavoie, Vincent
Date
2014
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
13 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Drying
Kilns
Seasoning high frequency
Series Number
301007951
E-4896
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
CONTINUOUS PROCESS
HIGH FREQUENCIES
KILNS
DRYING
Abstract
Ce projet consiste à faire la démonstration à l’échelle semi-industrielle d’un procédé de séchage de précision par haute fréquence en continu développé pour améliorer la qualité des produits séchés à la fin de la première ou au début de la deuxième transformation du bois. Plus spécifiquement, les objectifs du projet sont de : Ø Concevoir, fabriquer et démontrer le fonctionnement d’un séchoir par haute fréquence en continu à l’échelle préindustrielle qui peut être intégré dans les usines de rabotage ou à l’entrée des usines de deuxième transformation; Ø Transférer la technologie à un intégrateur devenant le fournisseur de l’équipement pour l’industrie canadienne de la transformation du bois.
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OASIS : outil d'analyse du séchage et de stratégies de prétriage - Mise à jour

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39874
Author
Lavoie, Vincent
Date
2014
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Lavoie, Vincent
Date
2014
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
10 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Drying
Kilns
Sorting
Computer software
Energy
Costs
Series Number
301008028
E-4897
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Seasoning - Kiln drying - Computer simulation
Seasoning - Kiln drying - Cost
SORTING
ENERGY CONSUMPTION
Abstract
Les objectifs de ce projet consistent à : Ø Intégrer un module énergétique pouvant servir à démontrer la consommation énergétique thermique et ses coûts et également démontrer les gains énergétiques reliés à différentes stratégies de triage; Ø Intégrer une base de données générique pour les essences de l’Ouest canadien. Tel que présenté dans l’introduction, les objectifs initiaux relativement à l’intégration d’un module de reséchage et à la revue des pratiques de triage à travers le Canada ont été remplacées par la mise à jour du logiciel nécessaire et passant par une recodification du logiciel d’un langage Visual Basic à C#.
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Optimal log diameter sorting for veneer processing

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39888
Author
Wang, Brad J.
Dai, Chunping
Date
May /2014
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Brad J.
Dai, Chunping
Date
May /2014
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
17 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Sortyards
Logs
Plywood
Sorting
Temperature
Series Number
W-3124
Language
English
Abstract
Log yard management has a significant effect on plywood/LVL manufacturing, particularly in the aspects of log conditioning, veneer processing and product quality. At present, log conditioning is seldom optimized due mainly to the variation of species and log diameter, log storage time and seasonal climate changes. The key objectives of this work were to: 1) develop a new computer program to simulate how log temperature and conditioning time change with regard to log diameter sorting and conditioning parameters; and 2) determine the optimal log diameter sorting points in order to achieve the best log conditioning for peeling. A new computer simulation program FPLogcon™ was successfully developed to simulate how log temperature and conditioning time change with regard to log diameter sorting and conditioning parameters in the plywood and LVL mills. Through computer simulation and two case studies, the benefits of log diameter sorting were successfully demonstrated and the log diameter sorting breakpoint was further optimized. For spruce in mill A, compared to no diameter sorting (control), the optimum diameter sorting could result in about 28.8% reduction in heating time, and about 17.5% increase in equivalent log volume within the target temperature range. For lodgepole pine in mill B, in the summer, compared to no diameter sorting (control), the optimum log diameter sorting breakpoint was 9-in, resulting in about 15% reduction in equivalent heating time (no change in equivalent log volume). In the winter, the optimum log diameter sorting point was 8-in, leading to about 4.5% increase in equivalent heating time along with an 11.6% increase in equivalent log volume within the target temperature range. For plywood/LVL mills, specific benefits of log diameter sorting will include increasing the uniformity of log temperature distribution and thus veneer quality, and reducing heating time and thus energy consumption, increasing lathe efficiency, and reducing downtime and spin-out rate during peeling. Mill results will be collected to validate the benefits of optimum log diameter sorting in the new fiscal year.
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Round robin test of structural wood adhesive according to CSA O112.9 standard

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39909
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Date
July 2014
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Date
July 2014
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
11 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Standards
Adhesives
Test methods
Series Number
Transformative Technology
E-4903
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
A round robin study using the CSA O112.9-10 standard was conducted with three (3) participating test laboratories in Canada as recommended by the Standards Council of Canada (SCC). The study included only the block shear test under three test conditions (dry, vacuum-pressure, and 9-cycle boil-dry-freeze). Test specimens were prepared using black spruce as substrate and phenol-resorcinol formaldehyde adhesive as the bonding agent. All participating test laboratories passed the shear test of the CSA O112.9-10 standard in which the requirements are based on quantile parameters (median shear strength, median and lower quartile wood failure). This finding showed that the block shear test method of this adhesive standard was reproducible among three well-known test laboratories in Canada, all of which have been qualified by the SCC for the ISO 17025 accreditation program. The test laboratories, however, exhibited some differences in terms of average shear strength and wood failure in the three test conditions. Some possible reasons were suggested for these differences.
Glue - Tests
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Élément 4 : Initiative de recherche sur les bois feuillus - Développement de nouveaux procédés et de nouvelles technologies pour le secteur des bois feuillus ; Meilleures pratiques pour éviter la formation de gerces et de fentes sur les produits de bois feuillus. Première partie - Gerces et fentes : causes et prévention

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39912
Author
Yang, D.-Q.
Normand, D.
Date
April 2014
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Yang, D.-Q.
Normand, D.
Date
April 2014
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
23 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Hardwoods
Lumber defects
Series Number
Programme des technologies transformatrices
Projet no TT4.3.03
Project no.201005167
E-4906
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Hardwoods - Defects
Control
Abstract
La formation de gerces et de fentes sur les produits du bois est un problème majeur pour les fabricants de produits de bois feuillus et les consommateurs. En effet, des gerces et des fentes peuvent se former sur les billes, les sciages verts et séchés et sur les produits finaux et ce, en cours de fabrication, de séchage, de transformation, d’entreposage et d’utilisation finale des produits du bois. De nombreux facteurs internes et externes influent sur la formation de gerces et de fentes. Signalons notamment l’essence, la teneur en humidité du bois, la méthode d’entreposage, les procédés de séchage, la température, l’humidité relative, la vitesse de l’écoulement de l’air et les rayons solaires. Bien qu’il soit impossible d’empêcher complètement la formation de gerces et de fentes, il est toutefois possible d’en limiter le nombre à un niveau acceptable par l’application de mesures appropriées. Parmi ces mesures, on compte non seulement les meilleures pratiques relatives à la récolte, à l’entreposage, au débitage et au séchage du bois, mais aussi l’utilisation de dispositifs mécaniques et le contrôle des conditions ambiantes de l’utilisation des produits finaux. Le présent rapport fait état de connaissances scientifiques sur la nature de différents types de gerces susceptibles de se manifester sur divers produits du bois, les conditions qui en favorisent la formation et les mesures de contrôle connexes.
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New concepts in wood I-joist manufacturing and utilization : innovative tool for continuous process finger jointing : the JAFA+

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5779
Author
Grandmont, Jean-Francois
Precosky, Alex
Date
April 2014
Edition
39819
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
PDF
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Author
Grandmont, Jean-Francois
Precosky, Alex
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service
Date
April 2014
Edition
39819
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
9 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Joists
Series Number
Transformative Technologies Program
Project no.301007961
E-4872
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
The objective of this project was to update the JAFA, an innovative tool developed by FPInnovations aimed at providing valuable information for manufacturing finger jointed lumber in a continuous process.
PDF
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Characterizing thickness and roughness of green and dry veneers with new laser-based measurements

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5780
Author
Wang, Brad J.
Zhang, H.
Groves, C. Kevin
Zhou, G.
Wu, L.
Date
May 2014
Edition
39834
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Brad J.
Zhang, H.
Groves, C. Kevin
Zhou, G.
Wu, L.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
May 2014
Edition
39834
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
21 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Measurement
Thickness
Veneer
Series Number
W-3098
Language
English
Abstract
A new laser-based system was successfully developed in the pilot plant for veneer thickness and roughness measurements. This system was tested for both green and dry spruce veneer. The comparisons were made between the green veneer measurement and dry veneer measurement, and between the laser-based system measurement and actual digital measurement. A linear mixed effect model was used to estimate the within-sheet and between-sheet variations of veneer thickness and roughness and their causes. A good correlation was found between the laser-measured thickness and caliper-measured thickness. The laser-measured average roughness could also capture the trend of veneer surface roughness determined by the visual classification. Thus, the new laser-based system can be a useful tool for measuring both veneer thickness and roughness. For veneer thickness, the within-sheet variation seemed to be larger than the between-sheet variation, and the laser-based measure had a larger variation than the digital-based measure for both green and dry veneer sheets. With the green veneer, higher veneer moisture content and density would lead to a larger difference between the two measurements. The laser-based method tended to classify more "thick" sheets than the digital-based method, but this tendency was not obvious with the dry veneer. Such tendency also became negligible by factoring in either veneer moisture content or density. Thus, in the real applications, the accuracy of the new laser system can be improved for measuring green veneer thickness with a calibration of moisture content and/or density. For veneer roughness, the within-sheet variation was again larger than the between-sheet variation, and the dry veneer had a larger variation than the green veneer. Further, the tight side variation was generally larger than the loose side variation. The above information is deemed useful for establishing an overall veneer quality criterion for industrial applications. Further work is scheduled to adopt the new laser-based system for real-time measurement of green veneer thickness and roughness.
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Assessment of combustibility parameters of structural composite lumber

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub3149
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Date
March 2014
Edition
39807
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
PDF
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Author
Dagenais, Christian
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment
Date
March 2014
Edition
39807
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
16 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Structural composites
Lumber
Fire
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
The present work aims at evaluating the combustibility characteristics (i.e. reaction to fire) of structural composite lumber (SCL) when tested in compliance with the cone calorimeter standard ISO 5660 [7, 8, 9]. More precisely, this study evaluates the heat release rate, total heat release, mass loss, effective heat of combustion, smoke obscuration as well as the presence of toxic gases when SCL products are tested in conformance with ISO 5660. Moreover, this study is solely focused on SCL elements that are thick enough to act as semi-infinite solids (thermally thick solids), as opposed to typical thin combustible finish products. Tests data are also compared to those obtained for visually-graded solid wood specimens of the SPF species group.
Combustibility
Composite Lumber
Laminated products - Fire resistance
Structural Composites - Properties
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Analysis of full-scale fire-resistance tests of structural composite lumber beams

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub3316
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Date
October 2014
Edition
39980
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service
Date
October 2014
Edition
39980
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
14 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Fire
Resistance
Testing
Structural composites
Beams
Series Number
E 4914
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
The key objective of this study is to analyze full-scale fire-resistance tests conducted on structural composite lumber (SCL), namely laminated veneer lumber (LVL), parallel strand lumber (PSL) and laminated strand lumber (LSL). A sub-objective is to evaluate the encapsulation performance of Type X gypsum board directly applied to SCL beams and its contribution to fire-resistance of wood elements. The test data is being used to further support the applicability of the newly developed Canadian calculation method for mass timber elements, recently implemented as Annex B of CSA O86-14.
Structural Composites - Properties
Beams - Fire resistance
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