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Evaluation of the block shear resistance of glulam manufactured from borate-treated lamina without planing after treatment

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5793
Author
Stirling, Rod
Feng, Martin
Morris, Paul I.
Date
November 2015
Edition
40083
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Stirling, Rod
Feng, Martin
Morris, Paul I.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
November 2015
Edition
40083
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
18 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Gluing
Laminate product
Planing
Preservatives boron
Shear strength
Series Number
W3267
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Effective preservative treatments for Canadian glulam products are needed to maintain markets for mass timber on building facades, access markets with significant termite hazards, and expand markets for wood bridges. For all three applications, borate-treatment of lamina before gluing would be preferred as it would lead to maximum preservative penetration. However, the need to plane after treatment and prior to gluing removes the best-treated part of the wood, and creates a disposal issue for treated planer shavings. The present research evaluates the block shear resistance of glulam prepared from untreated and borate-treated lamina with a polyurethane adhesive. Borate treatment was associated with a small but statistically significant loss in median shear strength when evaluated dry; however, there was no difference between the performance of untreated and borate-treated samples when exposed to the vacuum-pressure soak/dry or the boil-dry-freeze/dry procedures. Further work is needed to modify the composition or application of the resin to improve shear strength for glulam applications and ensure consistent performance. However, overall, these data indicate that samples prepared from borate-treated lamina perform similarly in terms of block shear resistance to those prepared from untreated lamina.
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Impact of relaxed log grade specifications and multi-stem processing on value recovery from dead lodgepole pine stands

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub49808
Author
Lehmann, Bruce F.
Date
October 2015
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Lehmann, Bruce F.
Date
October 2015
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
28 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Digitalization
Subject
Lumber strength
Wood
Beams
Strength
Lumber
Language
English
Abstract
This study develops and tests a simple model for the effect of knots on MOR: assuming that a knot is hole in the cross-section of a board a strength ratio is calculated and the MOR is the product of the strength ratio and the strength (MOR) of clear wood. This knot model is based on the stresses being in the elastic range and ignores the effect of grain angle and the orthotropic properties of wood and so should not accurately predict either loads for initial failure or the loads at final failure, on which MOR is based. However, the predicted values of MOR for SPF and Douglas fir compare well to measured values. This lead to the conclusion that while the model is physically wrong, the results imply that the strength ratio of the knot model are related to the strength ratio at final failure, which usually occurs at the end of a crack that starts at the knot but propagates some distance along the board. A model for the strength of the remaining section at the end of the crack was developed and tested on six boards. Not only were the strength ratios for the remaining section model similar to those of the knot model, but the remaining section model predicted MOR values closer to the measured values than the knot model did. The task of future work is to predict the location of the initial crack, the path that it propagates and the strength of the clear wood.
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Technical feasibility of continuous drying systems for softwood lumber under canadian climate conditions

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub52670
Author
Oliveira, Luiz C.
Lazarescu, Ciprian
Date
March 2015
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
PDF
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Author
Oliveira, Luiz C.
Lazarescu, Ciprian
Date
March 2015
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
14 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Drying
Lumber
Softwood
Climate
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Softwood lumber producers have been using conventional drying systems (batch drying) for many years. The original premise of those systems was to design kilns that could dry large quantities of lumber at relatively low costs. Based on the evidence throughout the industry across Canada, those requirements have been historically met and the industry has greatly benefitted from the existing system for decades. Currently, however, due to environmental pressures, increased processing costs, more stringent quality and moisture content requirements and the need to improve productivity, softwood lumber producers must consider alternative ways to dry lumber to ensure their competiveness in traditional markets and to explore opportunities for entering new markets. Drying faster without compromising the quality of the final product will position Canadian lumber producers to achieve the aforementioned goals.
PDF
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Kiln drying of SPF dimension lumber

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub7505
Author
Oliveira, Luiz C.
Lazarescu, Ciprian
Star, Phil
Date
April 2015
Edition
49807
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Oliveira, Luiz C.
Lazarescu, Ciprian
Star, Phil
Date
April 2015
Edition
49807
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
17 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Lumber
Spruce Pine Fir
Drying
Moisture content
Language
English
Abstract
In British Columbia, due to the decline of lodgepole pine, mills should expect higher volumes of sub-alpine fir in their species mix. The impact on drying is significant. For example, drying times for green SPF (spruce, pine, sub-alpine fir) vary from 24 to 36 hours whereas drying times for sub-alpine fir can easily exceed 70 hours. In addition to longer drying times, the drying of species such as sub-alpine fir using current procedures often results in wet lumber and value loss can be higher than $100 per Mfbm. The potential annual impact for a typical BC mill is estimated to be in the range $1,000,000 to $1,500,000. Along the years, sawmills have invested millions of dollars in drying technology (conventional drying and green sorting systems) which, for the most part are efficient and relatively low cost. Thus, under the circumstances outlined above, sawmills urgently need to find ways to minimize the problems associated with the drying of sub-alpine fir that is, new procedures or combination of methods, to ensure maximum grade recovery at the end of drying and reduce drying times (increase productivity and lower processing costs). In addition, the pressure exerted by typical longer drying times for sub-alpine fir will impact the drying of spruce and pine. Thus, strategies to speed the drying for those two species are needed to maintain annual production targets. The main objective of this project is to evaluate several strategies using existing technology so that sawmills can readily implement them throughout their drying operations dealing with larger volumes of sub-alpine fir and for mills with kiln capacity constraints which could compromise their production targets.
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Drying speciality hem-fir and WRC products

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub7665
Author
Oliveira, Luiz C.
Lazarescu, Ciprian
Star, Phil
Date
March 2015
Edition
52668
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Oliveira, Luiz C.
Lazarescu, Ciprian
Star, Phil
Contributor
BC Coastal Forest Industry
Date
March 2015
Edition
52668
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
24 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Drying
Hem-Fir
Kilns
Steam
Temperature
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This project evaluated a number of opportunities to coastal producers related to kiln drying issues such as drying practices related to high-value products, drying with superheated steam vacuum and internal core temperature monitoring for large timbers during the heat-up phase. In summary, this project included several laboratory studies to evaluate the using superheated steam/vacuum (SS/V) for drying 7/8”x 6, green western red cedar lumber, and 8x8 and 5x(5,6,7,8,9,10,12) Douglas-fir timbers. SS/V drying yielded faster drying schedules when compared to the results obtained in industrial conventional kilns. The results obtained from the SS/V drying of WRC indicated the potential benefits of technology for drying specialty products especially when compared to drying times obtained with conventional drying (longer than 7 days). However, the results obtained also emphasize the importance of green sorting that is, sorting prior to drying to optimize drying times and reduce the variation of final moisture content. For large cross section Douglas-firs the drying times were between 3 and 14 days depending on the severity of the drying schedule and initial moisture content distribution. The influence of moisture content and cross section during the early and late stages of the heating process were evaluated on 5x5, 6x6 and 8x8 Douglas fir timbers. Thermodynamic equilibrium was reached after 20 hours regardless of moisture content or cross section size. The knowledge is intended to be used to design conventional drying schedules for large cross section timbers.
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Technologies to reduce energy consumption of lumber drying operations

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub7666
Author
Oliveira, Luiz C.
Lazarescu, Ciprian
Star, Phil
Date
March 2015
Edition
52671
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
PDF
Ajoutez cet article à votre liste de sélections pour demander le PDF - Add this item to your selection list to request the PDF
Author
Oliveira, Luiz C.
Lazarescu, Ciprian
Star, Phil
Date
March 2015
Edition
52671
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
12 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Drying
Lumber
Energy
Reduction
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
According to the last forecasts released by BC Hydro, in 20 years the demand for electricity in B.C. will increase about 40%. A typical sawmill in Canada has between 4 and 8 kilns which operate on a constant basis throughout the year. Each kiln dries on average about 16 to 20 kiln charges per month and every kiln charge is on average 250 Mfbm of lumber (based on 2-inch thickness). A typical crossshaft kiln is equipped with fifteen 25 hp motors (approximately 18 kW) so the total installed power per kiln is about 270 kW. Kilns operate an average of 660 hours per month. Thus, mills with drying operations such as in the example above will consume a significant amount of electricity to dry their required production.
PDF
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Performance of borate-treated glulam and LVL after eight years in an accelerated above-ground field test

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub40029
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
June 2015
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
June 2015
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
58 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Composites
Laminate product
Preservatives
Preservatives boron
Series Number
Field Performance of Durable Wood Products
Language
English
Abstract
Glulam and laminated veneer lumber protected by a combination of treatment with borate by two processes, and a film-forming coating, were exposed outdoors in an above-ground field test using a modified post and rail test design. After eight years’ exposure, early to moderate decay was found in untreated test units, while those which were borate-treated by either method were generally sound up to six years and showed greatly reduced decay at eight years.
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Performance of preservative-treated glulam after six years in an accelerated above-ground field test

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub40036
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
June 2015
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
June 2015
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
23 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Composites
Laminate product
Preservatives tests
Series Number
W3214
Language
English
Abstract
Glulam manufactured from laminating stock of three species pre-treated with ACQ-D or CA was exposed outdoors in an above-ground field test using a modified post and rail test design. After six years’ exposure, early to moderate decay was found in untreated test units, while those which were preservative-treated were completely sound.
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Field tests of treated thin-lamina glulam after five years of exposure

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub40062
Author
Morris, Paul I.
Ingram, Janet K.
Date
October 2015
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Morris, Paul I.
Ingram, Janet K.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
October 2015
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
21 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Composites
Laminate product
Preservatives tests
Series Number
Field Performance of Durable Wood Products
W3260
Language
English
Abstract
Field tests of untreated and preservative-treated glulam beams in outdoor exposure, in ground contact and above ground, were inspected for decay after five years. Copper azole and ACQ-D-treated material was in excellent condition, while moderate to severe decay was present in untreated non-durable material. Early stages of decay were also noted in yellow cedar glulam in the above-ground test. Using galvanized rather than stainless steel fasteners appeared to have a protective effect against decay in untreated material, supporting the hypothesis that zinc from the sacrificial coating on galvanized bolts inhibits germination of basidiospores.
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9 records – page 1 of 1.