FPInnovations’ Wildfire Operations Advisory group has asked its researchers to explore a method by which the performance of water-enhancing products can be repeatedly assessed in the laboratory. A new test method, known as the crib test, was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of water-enhancing products on burning woody fuel to simulate direct-attack aerial operations.
This report outlines the methodology for the crib test and describes the findings from performance evaluation tests conducted at the Protective Clothing and Equipment Research Facility (PCERF) at the University of Alberta.
The USDA Forest Service’s Qualified Product List (QPL) provides guidance on the range of permissible mix ratios for water-enhancer products. Due to the proprietary nature of water-enhancer products, there are several unknowns about the rheology of the permissible mix ratios.
This study focused on mapping the viscosity of various suppressant products as a function of their mix ratios. The results revealed a wide range of viscosities across products, with each product showing a different non-linear relationship with different mix ratios.
The results from this study can help understand the optimum viscosity range to achieve desired drop characteristics during aerial operations.
The aim of this study was to capture data on area-based water delivery systems, specifically in the context of logistics, systems differentiation, water delivery, and its localized effects. FPInnovations successfully collaborated with Fire & Flood to obtain this data. A two-day test was executed during which Fire & Flood set up their 4- and 12-inch systems and carried out sprinkler operations.
FPInnovations’ three-generation floor vibration-controlled design methods in NBCC and CSA O86 ensure market acceptance by consumers. Since 1990, there have been very few consumer complaints. This reinforces the use of wood as a quality building material and contributes to expanding market shares of wood construction in Canada.
Comme l'ont démontré le développement et la mise en oeuvre des codes des méthodes de conception de troisième génération pour lutter contre les vibrations des planchers, FPInnovations joue un rôle important au Canada et à l'échelle internationale dans les comités de codes et de normes visant à protéger les consommateurs et l'industrie du bois et contribue à la croissance continue du marché de la construction en bois à l'échelle mondiale.
This review explores the benefits, challenges, limitations, logistics, and cost-effectiveness of different management options to convert conifer-dominated stands to aspen-dominated stands. These alternatives can include overstory removal (harvesting, bulldozing, shear blading, prescribed burning) and site preparation (root trenching, drag scarification, broadcast burning) treatments. On sites where parent aspen trees are not present in the original stand, tree planting will be necessary albeit costly in comparison to regeneration by suckering. While extensive literature exists on the regeneration of trembling aspen through suckering, research on artificial establishment with seedlings and its requirements is still in its infancy and rapidly developing.
WoodST is capable of calculating heat transfer, charring rate, load-displacement curve as well as the time and mode of failure of timber structures exposed to fire, thus providing a cost-competitive solution for the fire safety analysis of timber structures. This InfoNote briefly introduces the development and verification of WoodST. Two applications of WoodST are also demonstrated.
WoodST est capable de calculer le transfert de chaleur, la vitesse de carbonisation, la courbe charge-déplacement ainsi que le moment et le mode de défaillance des structures en bois exposées au feu, offrant ainsi une solution à coût compétitif pour l'analyse de la sécurité incendie des ossatures en bois. La présente note d’information présente brièvement le développement et la vérification de WoodST. Deux applications de WoodST sont également présentées.
Hosted by Edouard Proust, this webinar presentation by David Bevly held on February 10, 2021 highlights an important component of FPInnovations' Transportation and Infrastructure group's work. The concept of truck platooning, inspired by pelotons of cyclists and originally developed for highway use to obtain fuel savings, utilizes technology to maintain the desired distance between trucks by controlling acceleration and braking, and the relative lateral position of the vehicles by steering, reacting faster than a driver can. Truck platooning has attracted the attention of the natural resources sector and its implementation is expected to increase the productivity of drivers. By allowing the operation of driverless following trucks replicating the path set by the human operated leader vehicle, the concept could help mitigate the workforce shortage that impact the sector while supporting the supply of lumber to mills across the country.
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Cette présentation de David Bevly a été organisée le 10 février 2021 par Edouard Proust. Elle met en lumière une composante importante du travail effectué par le groupe Transports et Infrastructures de FPInnovations. Le concept d’opération de camions en peloton est inspiré des pelotons de cyclistes et a été mis au point à l’origine pour des applications autoroutières avec pour objectif une réduction de la consommation de carburant. Les camions sont équipés d’une technologie permettant le contrôle de l’accélération, du freinage et de la direction offrant la possibilité de maintenir la distance de suivi entre les véhicules ainsi que leur positionnement latéral relatif. En autorisant la mise en œuvre de camions suiveurs entièrement autonomes et qui répliquent le tracé du camion de tête opéré par un chauffeur, le concept pourrait à terme aider à minimiser l’impact du manque de chauffeurs dans l’industrie tout en supportant l’approvisionnement en fibre des scieries à travers le Canada.
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The clean air initiative led by the British Columbia Ministry of Environment seeks to develop innovative methods to improve community air quality by utilizing harvest residues and minimizing the volume of fibre burned at roadside. Retaining processed tops as roadside oriented piles is proposed as an alternative to burning debris.
These burn trials have demonstrated that in this unique arrangement of fuels and interaction of site-specific variables, particular areas of the piles will be more vulnerable to ignition sources which can lead to sustained burning and high intensity fire behaviour. In addition to the low fuel moisture conditions, other fuel properties, such as the close proximity of piles, high volume of fine fuels (branches and needles) and orientation of piles to road all contributed to enhanced burning at this site.
Building high energy efficiency has become a must to reduce carbon emission from the built environment and to meet needs of consumers. Industrialized construction provides an effective way to produce highly insulated and airtight building envelopes to achieve superior building performance, such as Net Zero Energy. However, it is important that as other attributes (e.g., seismic, wind, fire, vibration, etc.) are being addressed, further research is needed to develop well rounded building envelope solutions. Meanwhile, improvement may be made in automated production equipment and software to optimize and monetize these solutions.
Il est devenu indispensable de construire des bâtiments à haute efficacité énergétique pour réduire les émissions de carbone dans l’environnement et répondre aux besoins des consommateurs. La construction industrialisée est un bon moyen de produire des enveloppes de bâtiment bien isolées et étanches à l’air et, par le fait même, d’accroître la performance énergétique des bâtiments (p. ex consommation énergétique nette zéro). Cependant, il est important de tenir compte d’autres attributs (p. ex. charges sismiques, vent, feu, vibrations, etc.). Il faudra poursuivre les recherches pour trouver des solutions durables en matière d’enveloppes de bâtiment. Entre-temps, il est possible d’améliorer l’équipement de production automatisée et le logiciel qui l’accompagne afin d’optimiser et de rentabiliser ces solutions.
This new study aims to generate hygrothermal, particularly moisture-related performance data for light wood-frame walls meeting the R22 effective (RSI 3.85) requirement for buildings up to six storeys in the City of Vancouver. The overarching goal is to identify and develop durable exterior wood-frame walls to assist in the design and construction of energy efficient buildings across the country. Twelve test wall panels in six types of wall assemblies are assessed in this study. The wall panels, each measuring 4 ft. (1200 mm) wide and 8 ft. (2400 mm) tall, form portions of the exterior walls of a test hut located in the rear yard of FPInnovations’ Vancouver laboratory. This report, second in a series on this study, documents the performance of these wall assemblies based on the data collected over 19 months’ period from October 2018 to May 2020, covering two winter seasons and one summer.
Computer modelling is an essential part in the analysis and design of mid- and high-rise residential and commercial buildings as well as long-span structures. It is also a valuable tool in the optimisation of wood-based products, connections, and systems. An FPInnovations’ survey shows that practicing engineers are unfamiliar with timber structure modelling, and researchers generally lack resources for advanced modelling of timber systems. Furthermore, wood analysis and design modules currently implemented in a few structural analysis software are usually not suitable for complex or hybrid timber structures. This does not bode well given that performance-based design which is the future direction of building codes and material standards will rely even more on demonstrating the structural performance through computer modelling. In this project, a modelling guide for timber structures is being developed by FPInnovations with a global collaborative effort involving experts in various areas, with the aim of (a) assisting practicing engineers apply computer modelling to timber structures; (b) enriching researchers’ resources for advanced computer modelling of timber systems; and (c) assisting software companies to identify the gaps and upgrade their programs accordingly to accommodate advanced computer modelling of timber structures.
Forest fuel treatments are applied across a broad range of ecosites in Alberta and Canada, with an overarching goal of managing hazardous fuel buildup to mitigate wildfire. These treatments use various manual and mechanical processes to achieve fuel treatment objectives. Planning and application of a specific forest fuel treatment technique is often shaped by several factors, including objectives of the fuel treatment, availability of resources (personnel and equipment), and commitment to using local resources (socio-economics). In addition, site conditions in certain ecosites will favour the application of some treatment techniques over others.
With the broad nature of numerous fuel treatment techniques applied over a wide range of environmental conditions, it is difficult to document all treatments and develop comparative productivity and cost evaluations. This summary of fuel treatment studies accesses current research to present relevant findings and identify knowledge gaps in research on stand-level fuel treatment productivity.
Through the Forestry 4.0 program, FPInnovations is investigating and testing telecommunication technologies for the forestry industry, this includes the application of TV White Space (TVWS) technology. TVWS radios operate in the frequency spectrum between 450 to 698 MHz and the majority of this spectrum is unlicensed and not acquired through federal government auctions. A short-term field trial was conducted in Central Québec forest operations in December 2020.
Cost-effective connectivity will bridge the gap between the forest and the rest of the supply chain. Operational efficiency, flexibility and worker safety will be improved by enabling instant communication with currently isolated logging operations. This report summarizes the findings and results obtained in this first operational trial aimed at quantifying the scope of mobile connectivity through this new technology.
Par l’initiative Foresterie 4.0, FPInnovations trouve et met à l’essai des technologies de télécommunication pour l’industrie forestière tel que la technologie TV White Space (TVWS). Les radios TVWS opèrent dans le spectre de fréquence de 450 à 698 MHz et la majorité de ce spectre est non-licencié et pas acquis par l’entremise des enchères du gouvernement fédéral. Un essai sur le terrain à court terme a été réalisé dans une exploitation forestière du centre du Québec en décembre 2020.
Une connectivité rentable comblera la division entre la forêt et le reste de la chaîne d'approvisionnement. L'efficacité opérationnelle, la flexibilité et la sécurité des travailleurs seront améliorées en permettant une communication instantanée avec les opérations d'exploitation forestière actuellement isolées. Ce rapport résume les constats et résultats obtenus lors de ce premier essai opérationnel visant à quantifier la portée d’une connectivité mobile grâce à cette nouvelle technologie.
Modified oxygen consumption calorimetry was used to track the seasonal flammability of black spruce and tamarack. Age class related samples were collected for both species from May to September at research site in central Alberta. These samples were assessed for their differential heat release using test equipment at the Protective Clothing and Equipment Research Facility (PCERF) at the University of Alberta.
The test method was able to successfully quantify the differences in seasonal flammability between black spruce and tamarack. Data showed the age-related flammability differences were less pronounced, with the exception of new growth samples early in the season.
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry’s (AAF) Wildfire Management Branch recently contracted two Sikorsky S-61N heavy helicopters. Both helicopters are equipped with an external tank (max. volume 1000 U.S. gallons) and have on-board injection systems that are capable of mixing class A foams and water-enhancers.
Currently, there is limited data on comparative drop footprints of foam and water-enhancers (suppressants) for these heavy helicopters. To fill this knowledge gap, AAF has asked FPInnovations to conduct drop tests in different wildland fuel environments. This study focuses on mapping the drop footprints of water, foam, and water-enhancers in black spruce stands at specific flight parameters.
Reduced surface evaporation rates are marketed as a competitive advantage by water-enhancer manufacturers. In this report, a new test method is developed and applied to quantify the evaporation rates of various commercially available water-enhancer products in a controlled environment. These quantified evaporation rates were then compared to the evaporation rate of water which served as the benchmark.