The widespread availability of genomics data and molecular tools for pathogen detection and identification provides scientists and regulators a powerful toolbox for pathogen monitoring. However, this raises questions and concerns regarding the use of these tools in import and export of forest commodities. Discussions around implementation and standardization have highlighted knowledge gaps around their efficacy and suitability in wood and their applicability to forest commodities. This study compared detection efficacy of various emerging tools on artificially infected forest and wood commodities, focusing on Phytophthora pathogens, an important group of invasive and sometimes difficult to detect species. In situ detection was more sensitive than traditional isolation, and for some methods, 100% of infected samples were positive. Detection efficacy varied by tissue type and detection method. The data generated from this study is important in addressing knowledge gaps around pathogen detection in wood.
Nail-laminated timber (NLT) is a large built-up member often used as interior structural members for floors, roofs, walls, and elevator/stair shafts. Because prolonged wetting of wood may cause staining, mould, excessive dimensional change
(sometimes enough to fail fasteners), and even result in decay and loss of strength, construction moisture is an important consideration when building with NLT. This document aims to provide technical information to help architects, engineers, and builders assess the potential for wetting of NLT during building construction and identify appropriate actions to mitigate the risks.
Le bois lamellé-cloué (NLT – Nail-laminated Timber) est un élément massif composé de bois de sciage souvent utilisé comme élément de structure intérieur pour les planchers, les toits, les murs et les cages d'ascenseur/escalier. Étant donné que l’humidification prolongée du bois peut provoquer des taches, de la moisissure, des variations dimensionnelles excessives (parfois suffisantes pour provoquer la défaillance des attaches), et même la pourriture et la perte de résistance, l'humidité est un facteur important à prendre en compte lors de travaux de construction avec du bois lamellé-cloué. Le présent document vise à fournir de l’information technique pouvant aider les architectes, les ingénieurs et les constructeurs à évaluer les risques d’humidification du bois lamellé-cloué pendant la construction de bâtiments et à prendre les mesures appropriées pour atténuer ces risques.
Large volumes of forest products are traded internationally. With this comes an increased risk of moving forest pathogens associated with these products. To protect both forest health and international trade, prevention or control of pest movement and establishment needs to be done using approaches which result in minimal trade interruption. Rapid, economical, and accurate detection, identification and risk assessment of pathogens is one of the key aspects of successful management. Significant developments in the last two decades in genomics has enabled more accurate and rapid detection of pathogens. However, many of these techniques have not been thoroughly tested in wood and lack associated standards governing their use in a regulatory setting. There are ongoing concerns that these new methods will add regulatory compliance costs to industry and other stakeholders, or that they will be used improperly and unduly limit market access. To address these concerns, it is critical that the capabilities and limits of these tools are well understood by both industry and international regulators, and that standards are developed to govern their use to help reduce the threat of pests while minimizing the impact to trade. This report summarizes current technologies and suggests ways forward.
Midply shear wall, which was originally developed by researchers at Forintek Canada Corp. (predecessor of FPInnovations) and the University of British Columbia, is a high-capacity shear wall system that is suitable for high wind and seismic loadings. Its superior seismic performance was demonstrated in a full-scale earthquake simulation test of a 6-storey wood-frame building in Japan. In collaboration with APA–The Engineered Wood Association and the American Wood Council (AWC), a new framing arrangement was designed in this study to increase the vertical load resistance of midply shear walls and make it easier to accommodate electrical and plumbing services. In this study, a total of 12 midply shear wall specimens in four wall configurations with different sheathing thicknesses and nail spacing were tested under reversed cyclic loading. Test results showed that the modified midply shear walls have approximately twice the lateral load capacity of a comparable standard shear wall. The drift capacity and energy dissipation capability are also greater than comparable standard shear wall. Seismic equivalency to standard shear walls in accordance with ASTM D7989 was also conducted. Results show that an overstrength factor of 2.5 and can be used to assign allowable design strengths of midply shear walls with 7/16” and nail spacing at 4” or 3” on center. For midply shear walls with 19/32” OSB, a higher overstrength factor must be used to meet the ductility criteria. The information from this study will support code implementation of the midply shear walls in Canadian and US timber design standards, thereby providing more design options for light wood frame structures in North America.
n the first year of this project, literature reviews were conducted to identify the code requirements on MT components and to survey the available LLRSs used in the MT structures. Conceptual MT midply wall systems meeting structural, fire, and acoustical performance requirements were proposed. An advisory group meeting was held to evaluate the practicability of the proposed MT midply systems. In the next fiscal year, the proposed MT Midply will be optimised further according to the comments and suggestions from the advisory group. Analytical evaluation of the proposed MT Midply wall systems along with necessary tests will be conducted. Based on the evaluation, a go / no-go decision will be made as to whether the study should be continued for the proposed MT Midply.
WoodST is capable of calculating heat transfer, charring rate, load-displacement curve as well as the time and mode of failure of timber structures exposed to fire, thus providing a cost-competitive solution for the fire safety analysis of timber structures. This InfoNote briefly introduces the development and verification of WoodST. Two applications of WoodST are also demonstrated.
WoodST est capable de calculer le transfert de chaleur, la vitesse de carbonisation, la courbe charge-déplacement ainsi que le moment et le mode de défaillance des structures en bois exposées au feu, offrant ainsi une solution à coût compétitif pour l'analyse de la sécurité incendie des ossatures en bois. La présente note d’information présente brièvement le développement et la vérification de WoodST. Deux applications de WoodST sont également présentées.
Building high energy efficiency has become a must to reduce carbon emission from the built environment and to meet needs of consumers. Industrialized construction provides an effective way to produce highly insulated and airtight building envelopes to achieve superior building performance, such as Net Zero Energy. However, it is important that as other attributes (e.g., seismic, wind, fire, vibration, etc.) are being addressed, further research is needed to develop well rounded building envelope solutions. Meanwhile, improvement may be made in automated production equipment and software to optimize and monetize these solutions.
Il est devenu indispensable de construire des bâtiments à haute efficacité énergétique pour réduire les émissions de carbone dans l’environnement et répondre aux besoins des consommateurs. La construction industrialisée est un bon moyen de produire des enveloppes de bâtiment bien isolées et étanches à l’air et, par le fait même, d’accroître la performance énergétique des bâtiments (p. ex consommation énergétique nette zéro). Cependant, il est important de tenir compte d’autres attributs (p. ex. charges sismiques, vent, feu, vibrations, etc.). Il faudra poursuivre les recherches pour trouver des solutions durables en matière d’enveloppes de bâtiment. Entre-temps, il est possible d’améliorer l’équipement de production automatisée et le logiciel qui l’accompagne afin d’optimiser et de rentabiliser ces solutions.
Computer modelling is an essential part in the analysis and design of mid- and high-rise residential and commercial buildings as well as long-span structures. It is also a valuable tool in the optimisation of wood-based products, connections, and systems. An FPInnovations’ survey shows that practicing engineers are unfamiliar with timber structure modelling, and researchers generally lack resources for advanced modelling of timber systems. Furthermore, wood analysis and design modules currently implemented in a few structural analysis software are usually not suitable for complex or hybrid timber structures. This does not bode well given that performance-based design which is the future direction of building codes and material standards will rely even more on demonstrating the structural performance through computer modelling. In this project, a modelling guide for timber structures is being developed by FPInnovations with a global collaborative effort involving experts in various areas, with the aim of (a) assisting practicing engineers apply computer modelling to timber structures; (b) enriching researchers’ resources for advanced computer modelling of timber systems; and (c) assisting software companies to identify the gaps and upgrade their programs accordingly to accommodate advanced computer modelling of timber structures.
The fire resistance of cross-laminated timber (CLT) could be improved by treating the lamina with fire retardants. The major issues with this technology are the reduced bondability of the treated lamina with commercial adhesives. This study assessed several surface preparation methods that could improve the bondability and bond durability of fire-retardant treated wood with two commercial adhesives. Four surface preparation methods, including moisture/heat/pressure, surface planing, surface chemical treatment, and surface plasma treatment were assessed for their impact on the bondability and bond durability of lodgepole pine lamina. The block shear test results indicated that all surface preparation methods were somewhat effective in improving bond performance of fire-retardant treated wood compared to the untreated control wood samples, depending on the types of fire retardants and wood adhesives applied in the treatment process and bonding process. The selection of surface preparation, fire retardant, and wood adhesive should be considered interactively to obtain the best bond properties and fire performance. It may be possible to effectively bond the treated lamina with PUR adhesive without any additional surface preparation for the fire retardant used in the treatment at FPInnovations.
FPInnovations was approached to investigate the extraction of tannin from tree bark in British Columbia (BC). FPInnovations has been working on bark extraction over the last few years and
proposed to focus this study on Western Hemlock which showed high tannin content in previous work. The extraction method developed by FPInnovations uses chemicals and elaborate
equipment that requires the work to be conducted under strongly controlled conditions, such as a chemical laboratory. This report aimed to find a simpler extraction protocol that could potentially be used by coastal First Nations communities or other parties interested in extracting tannin from bark at a relatively small scale.
In the construction of buildings, the timber-concrete (TCC) system can be a cost-competitive solution for floors with longer spans, since the mechanical properties of the two materials are used efficiently. Furthermore, the additional mass from the concrete improves the acoustic performance compared to a timber floor system alone. Nevertheless, TCC floors are not commonly used in buildings in Canada, due to the absence of technical guidelines for such types of structural systems in this country.
Midply shear wall (hereafter Midply), which was originally developed by researchers at Forintek Canada Corp. (predecessor of FPInnovations) and the University of British Columbia, is a high-capacity shear wall system that is suitable for high wind and seismic loadings. Its superior seismic performance was demonstrated in a full-scale earthquake simulation test of a 6-storey wood-frame building in Japan. In collaboration with APA–The Engineered Wood Association and the American Wood Council (AWC), a new framing arrangement was designed in this study to increase the vertical load resistance of Midply and make it easier to accommodate electrical and plumbing services. In this study, a total of 14 Midply specimens in six wall configurations with different sheathing thicknesses and nail spacing were tested under reversed cyclic loading. Test results showed that Midply has approximately twice the lateral load capacity of a comparable standard shear wall. The drift capacity and energy dissipation capability are also greater than comparable standard shear walls. For Midply to use the same seismic force modification factors as standard shear walls, seismic equivalency to standard shear walls in accordance with ASTM D7989 was also conducted. Although Midply has superior lateral load and drift capacities, it does not seem to be as ductile as the standard shear walls at the same over-strength level. Additional testing and dynamic analysis are recommended to address this issue.
FPInnovations conducted a laboratory test to investigate the potential wetting of cross-laminated timber (CLT) from the pouring of concrete topping, and the effectiveness of a water repellent coating and membrane in preventing such wetting.
FPInnovations a effectué un essai en laboratoire afin d’étudier la teneur en humidité (TH) du bois lamellé-croisé (CLT) découlant du coulage de chapes de béton, et l’efficacité avec laquelle un enduit imperméabilisant et une membrane permettent de de prévenir cette humidification.
Implementation of cost-effective moisture management strategies is an important consideration for any mass timber project to reduce the risk of dimensional instability, discolouration, mold, and decay. On-site strategies can include protection by tenting, tarping, or wrapping mass timber components as well as the use of membranes, coatings, and water repellents. Moisture uptake from exposed end grain is a particular concern though it can be effectively managed by applying coatings or water repellents that reduce moisture uptake. This document aims to provide technical information to help architects, engineers, and builders use on-site moisture protection tools to reduce moisture risks.
Pour tout projet de construction en bois massif, il est important de mettre en place des stratégies rentables de gestion de l’humidité afin de réduire le risque d’instabilité dimensionnelle, de décoloration, de moisissure ou de carie. Parmi les stratégies utilisées sur les chantiers, on compte l’emballage des composantes en bois massif ou l’utilisation de tentes ou de bâches de protection, de membranes, de revêtements ou encore de produits hydrofuges. L’absorption d’humidité imputable à l’exposition du bois de bout pose un problème particulier, mais il peut être géré efficacement par l’application de revêtements ou de produits hydrofuges qui diminuent l’absorption d’humidité. Le présent document présente de l’information technique pouvant aider les architectes, les ingénieurs et les constructeurs à utiliser des outils de protection contre l’humidité sur le chantier afin de réduire les risques associés à l’absorption d’humidité.
Type III environmental product declaration (EPD) developed according to ISO 14025 and 21930 for average 5/8” type X gypsum boards, also known as drywall, manufactured by the members of the Gypsum Association.