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62 records – page 1 of 4.

Performance assessment of wildfire suppressant products using the crib test methodology

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub7857
Author
Refai, Razim
Paskaluk, Stephen
Date
January 2021
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Refai, Razim
Paskaluk, Stephen
Date
January 2021
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
27 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Wildfire Operations
Subject
Fire retardant
Fuel treatment
Retardant
Test methods
FPI TR
Water
Series Number
Technical Report ; TR 2021 n.2
Location
Alberta
Language
English
Abstract
FPInnovations’ Wildfire Operations Advisory group has asked its researchers to explore a method by which the performance of water-enhancing products can be repeatedly assessed in the laboratory. A new test method, known as the crib test, was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of water-enhancing products on burning woody fuel to simulate direct-attack aerial operations. This report outlines the methodology for the crib test and describes the findings from performance evaluation tests conducted at the Protective Clothing and Equipment Research Facility (PCERF) at the University of Alberta.
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Wildfire suppressant rheology. Mapping viscosity as a function of product mix ratios

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub7858
Author
Refai, Razim
Yang, Junyi
Tsai, Peichun Amy
Date
January 2021
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Refai, Razim
Yang, Junyi
Tsai, Peichun Amy
Contributor
University of Alberta
Date
January 2021
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Wildfire Operations
Subject
Fire retardant
Retardant
Viscosity
Water
FPI TR
Series Number
Technical Report ; TR 2021 n.3
Location
Alberta
Language
English
Abstract
The USDA Forest Service’s Qualified Product List (QPL) provides guidance on the range of permissible mix ratios for water-enhancer products. Due to the proprietary nature of water-enhancer products, there are several unknowns about the rheology of the permissible mix ratios. This study focused on mapping the viscosity of various suppressant products as a function of their mix ratios. The results revealed a wide range of viscosities across products, with each product showing a different non-linear relationship with different mix ratios. The results from this study can help understand the optimum viscosity range to achieve desired drop characteristics during aerial operations.
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Area-based water delivery systems. Exploratory research on logistics, water delivery, and its localized impacts

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub7859
Author
Refai, Razim
Hsieh, Rex
Date
January 2021
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Refai, Razim
Hsieh, Rex
Date
January 2021
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Wildfire Operations
Subject
Fire retardant
Retardant
Spruce
Water
FPI TR
Series Number
Technical Report ; TR 2021 n.1
Location
Alberta
Language
English
Abstract
The aim of this study was to capture data on area-based water delivery systems, specifically in the context of logistics, systems differentiation, water delivery, and its localized effects. FPInnovations successfully collaborated with Fire & Flood to obtain this data. A two-day test was executed during which Fire & Flood set up their 4- and 12-inch systems and carried out sprinkler operations.
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Stand conversion for wildfire risk mitigation management strategies

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub7942
Author
Matute, Pamela
Date
February 2021
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Matute, Pamela
Contributor
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry
Date
February 2021
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
21 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Wildfire Operations
Subject
Wildfires
Infrared sensing
Hotspots
Aircraft
Forestry
FPI TR
FOP Technical Report
Series Number
Technical Report ; TR 2021 No.7
Language
English
Abstract
This review explores the benefits, challenges, limitations, logistics, and cost-effectiveness of different management options to convert conifer-dominated stands to aspen-dominated stands. These alternatives can include overstory removal (harvesting, bulldozing, shear blading, prescribed burning) and site preparation (root trenching, drag scarification, broadcast burning) treatments. On sites where parent aspen trees are not present in the original stand, tree planting will be necessary albeit costly in comparison to regeneration by suckering. While extensive literature exists on the regeneration of trembling aspen through suckering, research on artificial establishment with seedlings and its requirements is still in its infancy and rapidly developing.
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Oriented pile flammability burn trial October 2020. Collaborations with Mosaic Forest Management and British Columbia Wildfire Service

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub7947
Author
Spencer, Stuart
Hvenegaard, Steven
MacKinnon, Brandon
Date
February 2021
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Spencer, Stuart
Hvenegaard, Steven
MacKinnon, Brandon
Contributor
Mosaic Forest Management
British Columbia Wildfire Service
Date
February 2021
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
31 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Wildfire Operations
Subject
Wildfires
Infrared sensing
Hotspots
Aircraft
Forestry
FPI TR
FOP Technical Report
Series Number
Technical Report ; TR 2021 N 8
Location
British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The clean air initiative led by the British Columbia Ministry of Environment seeks to develop innovative methods to improve community air quality by utilizing harvest residues and minimizing the volume of fibre burned at roadside. Retaining processed tops as roadside oriented piles is proposed as an alternative to burning debris. These burn trials have demonstrated that in this unique arrangement of fuels and interaction of site-specific variables, particular areas of the piles will be more vulnerable to ignition sources which can lead to sustained burning and high intensity fire behaviour. In addition to the low fuel moisture conditions, other fuel properties, such as the close proximity of piles, high volume of fine fuels (branches and needles) and orientation of piles to road all contributed to enhanced burning at this site.
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Forest fuel treatment productivity research in Alberta. A synthesis of results and findings

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub7993
Author
Hvenegaard, Steven
Date
March 2021
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Hvenegaard, Steven
Contributor
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry
Date
March 2021
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
29 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Wildfire Operations
Subject
Alberta
Wildfires
Forestry
Fuel
Productivity
FPI TR
Series Number
Technical Report ; TR 2021 n.11
Language
English
Abstract
Forest fuel treatments are applied across a broad range of ecosites in Alberta and Canada, with an overarching goal of managing hazardous fuel buildup to mitigate wildfire. These treatments use various manual and mechanical processes to achieve fuel treatment objectives. Planning and application of a specific forest fuel treatment technique is often shaped by several factors, including objectives of the fuel treatment, availability of resources (personnel and equipment), and commitment to using local resources (socio-economics). In addition, site conditions in certain ecosites will favour the application of some treatment techniques over others. With the broad nature of numerous fuel treatment techniques applied over a wide range of environmental conditions, it is difficult to document all treatments and develop comparative productivity and cost evaluations. This summary of fuel treatment studies accesses current research to present relevant findings and identify knowledge gaps in research on stand-level fuel treatment productivity.
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Seasonal flammability of forest fules. Implementing modified oxygen consumption calorimetry to estimate the flammability of black spruce and tamarck

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub8007
Author
Refai, Razim
Paskaluk, Stephen
Hsieh, Rex
Date
March 2021
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Refai, Razim
Paskaluk, Stephen
Hsieh, Rex
Contributor
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry (AAF)
Date
March 2021
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
38 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Wildfire Operations
Subject
Fire
Black spruce
Forest fires
Fuels
Tamarack
Oxygen
FPI TR
Wildfires
Series Number
Technical Report ; TR 2021 n.14
Language
English
Abstract
Modified oxygen consumption calorimetry was used to track the seasonal flammability of black spruce and tamarack. Age class related samples were collected for both species from May to September at research site in central Alberta. These samples were assessed for their differential heat release using test equipment at the Protective Clothing and Equipment Research Facility (PCERF) at the University of Alberta. The test method was able to successfully quantify the differences in seasonal flammability between black spruce and tamarack. Data showed the age-related flammability differences were less pronounced, with the exception of new growth samples early in the season.
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In-stand drop footprint mapping using S-61N helicopters

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub8010
Author
Refai, Razim
Hsieh, Rex
Date
March 2021
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Refai, Razim
Hsieh, Rex
Date
March 2021
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
49 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Wildfire Operations
Subject
Wildfires
Helicopters
Forestry
Forest fire
FPI TR
Gel
Series Number
Techncial Reports ; TR 2021 N 16
Language
English
Abstract
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry’s (AAF) Wildfire Management Branch recently contracted two Sikorsky S-61N heavy helicopters. Both helicopters are equipped with an external tank (max. volume 1000 U.S. gallons) and have on-board injection systems that are capable of mixing class A foams and water-enhancers. Currently, there is limited data on comparative drop footprints of foam and water-enhancers (suppressants) for these heavy helicopters. To fill this knowledge gap, AAF has asked FPInnovations to conduct drop tests in different wildland fuel environments. This study focuses on mapping the drop footprints of water, foam, and water-enhancers in black spruce stands at specific flight parameters.
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Evaporation rates, assessing the evaporation rates of water, foam, and water-enhancers

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub8011
Author
Refai, Razim
Paskaluk, Stephen
Date
March 2021
Material Type
research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Refai, Razim
Paskaluk, Stephen
Date
March 2021
Material Type
research report
Physical Description
12 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Wildfire Operations
Subject
Wildfires
Forestry
Forest fire
FPI TR
Gel
Test methods
Foam
Series Number
Techncial Reports ; TR 2021 N 17
Language
English
Abstract
Reduced surface evaporation rates are marketed as a competitive advantage by water-enhancer manufacturers. In this report, a new test method is developed and applied to quantify the evaporation rates of various commercially available water-enhancer products in a controlled environment. These quantified evaporation rates were then compared to the evaporation rate of water which served as the benchmark.
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On-field drop footprint mapping using S-61N helicopters

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub8012
Author
Refai, Razim
Hsieh, Rex
Date
March 2021
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Refai, Razim
Hsieh, Rex
Date
March 2021
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
38 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Wildfire Operations
Subject
Wildfires
Helicopters
Forestry
Forest fire
FPI TR
Gel
Series Number
Techncial Reports ; TR 2021 N 18
Language
English
Abstract
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry’s (AAF) Wildfire Management Branch has recently contracted two Sikorsky S-61N heavy helicopters. Both helicopters are equipped with an external tank (max. volume 1000 U.S. gallons) and have on-board injection systems that are capable of mixing class A foams and water-enhancers. Currently, there is limited data on comparative drop footprints of foam and water-enhancers (suppressants) for these heavy helicopters. To fill this knowledge gap, AAF has asked FPInnovations to conduct drop tests in different wildland fuel environments. This study focuses on mapping the drop footprints of water, foam, and water-enhancers in an open field at specific flight parameters.
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Recovery rates of suppressants from heavy helicopter drops

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub8013
Author
Refai, Razim
Hsieh, Rex
Date
March 2021
Material Type
Research Report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Refai, Razim
Hsieh, Rex
Date
March 2021
Material Type
Research Report
Physical Description
16 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Wildfire Operations
Subject
Wildfires
Forestry
Forest fire
FPI TR
Gel
Test methods
Foam
Series Number
Techncial Reports ; TR 2021 N 19
Language
English
Abstract
In 2020, Alberta Agriculture and Forestry’s (AAF) Wildfire Management Branch contracted two externally tanked heavy helicopters with on-board injection and mixing systems. The two heavy helicopters are Sikorsky S-61N helicopters with modified Isolair tanks, capable of dropping water, foam, and water-enhancers. Drop tests were conducted using these helicopters to understand the relative footprints of different suppressants. This study focuses on using drop footprint data to estimate recovery rates of water, foam, and water-enhancers in two scenarios – an open field and a forested stand. These estimates may provide a primarily understanding of how best different suppressants can be used for different applications.
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Helitorch redesign: field test results and modifications

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub7721
Author
Finn, Dave
Ackerman, Mark
Campbell, Roy
Date
October 2020
Edition
53070
Material Type
research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Finn, Dave
Ackerman, Mark
Campbell, Roy
Date
October 2020
Edition
53070
Material Type
research report
Physical Description
5 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Wildfire Operations
Subject
Wildfires
Forestry
Forest fire
Series Number
InfoNote ; 2020 n. 12
Language
English
Abstract
The Alberta Agriculture and Forestry (AFF) Wildfire Management Branch Ignition Specialists Working Group has endorsed a collaborative project to develop a redesigned helitorch. The goal of this project is to have an acceptable and proven replacement helitorch based on extensive testing.
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InfoNote2020N12.PDF

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Effectiveness of retardant on mulch fuels: a case study at Pelican Mountain, 2018

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub19843
Author
Hsieh, Rex
Date
March 2020
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Hsieh, Rex
Contributor
Canadian Forest Services (CFS)
Natural Resources Canada (NRC)
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry (AAF)
Date
March 2020
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
27 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Wildfire Operations
Subject
Fire retardant
Fuel treatment
Mulching
Mulch
FPI TR
Retardant
Series Number
Technical Report ; TR 2020 n.7
Language
English
Abstract
Mulching is a common method of fuel treatment. However, it is not currently listed by the U.S. Forest Service as a fuel type in its recommendations for fire retardant coverage levels. FPInnovations researchers set up plots with different coverage levels of retardant on a mulch fuel bed and collected fire behaviour data when a fire interacted with these plots. The results are intended to help wildfire agencies understand the effectiveness of retardant on mulch fuels in developing better suppression plans.
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Performance evaluation of commercially available wildland fire chemicals using a custom-built thermal canister

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub36373
Author
Refai, Razim
Coronel, Eder Alain Villa
McDonald, Andre
Date
March 2020
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Refai, Razim
Coronel, Eder Alain Villa
McDonald, Andre
Contributor
Canadian Forest Services (CFS)
Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources & Forestry (OMNR)
Date
March 2020
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
24 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Wildfire Operations
Subject
Fire retardant
Wildfires
Chemicals
Gel
Retardant
FPI TR
Water
Series Number
Technical Report ; TR 2020 n.11
Location
Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
This study focuses on evaluating the relative performance of different commercially available wildland fire chemicals using a custom-built sensible enthalpy rise calorimeter, known as the ‘Thermal Canister.’ Six different fire chemicals were evaluated in this study: Blazetamer 380, AquaGel-K, Firewall II, WD 881C, Thermo-Gel 200 L, and FireIce 561. The evaluation of the relative performance of the fire chemicals was conducted by using the average heat release rate as the primary metric. It was found that under the test conditions, Thermo-Gel 200L at 3% concentration and FireIce 561 at 1.4% concentration were the most effective at suppressing combustion. The fire chemicals that were least effective at suppressing combustion were Firewall II at 0.25% and 2% concentration and WD 881C at 0.1%, 0.3%, and 1% concentrations. The study also found that certain fire chemicals such as AquaGel-K and FireIce 561 at their highest approved mix ratios were too viscous to be applied and may prove to be challenging to use for firefighting operations. Data from this study will be used in the Wildfire Chemical Roadmap, where results from multiple tests will help assess the effectiveness and cost of using gels.
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Fuel amendment as a forest fuel removal treatment: exploratory trials in black spruce fuels at the Fort Providence Wildfire Experimental Site

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub36410
Author
Hvenegaard, Steven
Date
May 2020
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Hvenegaard, Steven
Contributor
Northwest Territories Environment and Natural Resources
Date
May 2020
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
15 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Wildfire Operations
Subject
Fire
Crown fire
Mulch
Treatment
Black spruce
FPI TR
Picea mariana
Series Number
Technical Reports ; TR 2020 n.21
Language
English
Abstract
A fuel amendment treatment is proposed as a technique that can allow prescribed burning in hazardous fuels during low to moderate fire hazard conditions to minimize the risk of fire escape. In August 2017, a fuel amendment technique was applied at the Fort Providence Wildfire Experimental Site. In October 2019, a burn trial was conducted in a plot treated with the fuel amendment technique and fire spread to adjacent fuels was documented. Future documentation at this site will include assessing crown mortality to determine the effectiveness of the treatment.
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Tannins extraction from bark for industrial applications, laboratory study

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub7929
Author
Gandrieau, Simon
Date
March 2020
Material Type
Research report
Field
Pulp & Paper Manufacturing
Author
Gandrieau, Simon
Date
March 2020
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
11 p.
Sector
Pulp Paper and Bioproducts
Field
Pulp & Paper Manufacturing
Research Area
Thermal Process
Subject
Aboriginal
Bark
Extractives
Biostimulants
Language
English
Abstract
FPInnovations was approached to investigate the extraction of tannin from tree bark in British Columbia (BC). FPInnovations has been working on bark extraction over the last few years and proposed to focus this study on Western Hemlock which showed high tannin content in previous work. The extraction method developed by FPInnovations uses chemicals and elaborate equipment that requires the work to be conducted under strongly controlled conditions, such as a chemical laboratory. This report aimed to find a simpler extraction protocol that could potentially be used by coastal First Nations communities or other parties interested in extracting tannin from bark at a relatively small scale.
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Wildfire suppressant rheology. Impact of water quality on water-enhancer viscosity

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub8008
Author
Refai, Razim
Yang, Junyi
Tsai, Peichun Amy
Date
October 2020
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Refai, Razim
Yang, Junyi
Tsai, Peichun Amy
Contributor
University of Alberta
Date
October 2020
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Wildfire Operations
Subject
Fire retardant
Retardant
Viscosity
Water
FPI TR
Series Number
Technical Report ; TR 2020 n.52
Location
Alberta
Language
English
Abstract
An important characteristic of the majority of the water-enhancing products on the wildfire suppression market is their ability to increase the viscosity of water. This increase in viscosity is linked to their performance. While performance of these products is key, there are several external variables that can influence how these suppressants physically behave. One such external variable is water quality, which is anecdotally known to impact water-enhancing products. This study aimed to understand how water quality—in particular, hardness—affects the viscosity of various water-enhancing products at different mix ratios. Understanding how water quality affects the viscosity of these products can offer insight into (1) which products are highly sensitive to water quality changes, and (2) how the target viscosity of a mixed product can be affected by water quality.
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Effectiveness of distributed decision (crowdsourcing) wildfire detection: evaluation of the hummingbird network smoke detection service

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub52895
Author
Hsieh, Rex
Campbell, Roy
Date
February 2020
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Hsieh, Rex
Campbell, Roy
Contributor
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry (AAF)
Date
February 2020
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
50 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Wildfire Operations
Subject
Smoke detection service
FPI TR
Wildfires
Series Number
Technical Report ; TR 2020 n.6
Language
English
Abstract
Hummingbird Network, a British Columbia company, presented its crowdsourcing wildfire detection concept (the Hummingbird Network Smoke Detection Service) during the 2016 Wildland Fire Canada conference. In January 2017, as a follow-up to the conference, Hummingbird Network provided a live demonstration to AAF, BC Wildfire Service, and FPInnovations in Edmonton, Alberta. After a successful demonstration, and at the request of the wildfire agencies, FPInnovations committed to working with Hummingbird Network to provide an evaluation of its wildfire detection system.
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Validating the GS-61 on-board mixing system for water-enhancer use with heavy helicopters

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub53019
Author
Refai, Razim
Hsieh, Rex
Date
August 2020
Material Type
research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Refai, Razim
Hsieh, Rex
Date
August 2020
Material Type
research report
Physical Description
13 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Wildfire Operations
Subject
Wildfires
Helicopters
Forestry
Forest fire
FPI TR
Gel
Series Number
Techncial Reports ; TR 2020 N 31
Language
English
Abstract
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry (AAF) asked FPInnovations to conduct a field trial of two heavy helicopters that had recently been installed with on-board injection and mixing systems. The study focussed on determining the accuracy and reproducibility of these systems to produce effectively mixed water-enhancers for aerial delivery during wildfire suppression operations. These field trials were conducted north of Slave Lake, Alta. in June 2020. This report discusses the background, methodology, and outcomes of this equipment validation test.
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Remotely piloted aircraft systems. Evaluation of platforms for hotspot detection on wildfires

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub53022
Author
Hvenegaard, Steven
Date
August 2020
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Hvenegaard, Steven
Contributor
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry
Date
August 2020
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
23 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Wildfire Operations
Subject
Wildfires
Infrared sensing
Hotspots
Aircraft
Forestry
FPI TR
FOP Technical Report
Series Number
Technical Report ; TR 2020 N 29
Language
English
Abstract
The ongoing evolution of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPASs) with recent advances in micro-sensors and imaging software has the potential to enhance the delivery of infrared imaging services for wildfire operations. Understanding the capabilities and limitations of these aircraft will aid wildfire managers in selecting appropriate RPAS platforms as another "tool in the toolbox" for hotspot detection missions on wildfires.
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62 records – page 1 of 4.