This report represents a breakdown of typical wood harvesting costs in eastern Canada using full-tree and cut-to-length systems. Representative costs were calculated on the basis of harvesting under favorable stand and site conditions, and the resultant costs were allocated to various accounting items (e.g. labor vs machine costs) and to each major work cycle phase. A sensitive analysis based on terrain and tree size variations was also conducted.
Wood failure evaluation is the key criterion for predicting the long-term durability of plywood. At present, the conventional visual method for plywood wood failure evaluation is slow and subjective. Evaluations can be influenced by factors such as: room lighting, wood species, sample treatment, and readings from prior samples. An automated wood failure evaluation system using image analysis techniques could potentially be programmed to consider all the variables and respond with consistent wood failure values regardless of the machine operator's experience level. This report describes the results of a six-month study in which a system for automated plywood wood failure determination was compared with conventional visual wood failure evaluation. It was built upon research undertaken in the 1996/97 year in which the feasibility of the approach was initially established. In the research reported previously, a colour optical imaging system was assembled and suitable wood failure algorithms were compiled with promising results. The imaging system was 100 % effective in reproducing sample values. The data were discussed with the project liaisons and a three-month comparison with Canply readings was suggested. In this study, machine evaluation of 4,150 samples was compared with readings of monthly plywood mill quality control samples. The sampling was designed to include all British Columbia plywood mills and all categories of commercial plywood production. The differences in average values for wood failure between human and machine evaluation were found to be less than plus or minus 5% in the majority of cases. In addition, 93 % of ‘set average' readings fell in the plus or minus 10% range of deviation expected of human wood failure readers. Agreement on readings of individual samples within each set was not quite as good with 72% falling in the plus or minus 15% range.
L'innovation technologique a sans nul doute été l'élément moteur dans la croissance remarquable qu'a connu l'industrie canadienne du panneau de bois au cours des 50 dernières années. Le défi consiste maintenant à définir la direction qu'elle doit prendre pour respecter l'évolution du marché et de la consommation. La carte routière se veut un guide qui aidera l'industrie à relever ce défi en identifiant les techniques nouvelles et prometteuses et en suggérant certaines priorités pour l'avenir. Aussi cette publication propose des recommandations quant à l'infrastructure et à l'encadrement qui pourraient aider les divers secteurs de l'industrie à accélérer pour s'engager sur la voie rapide de l'innovation. La carte routière technologique porte sur les types de panneaux suivants: contreplaqués de résineux, panneaux de lamelles orientées (OSB), panneaux de particules et panneaux de fibres de moyenne densité (MDF). Les contreplaqués de feuillus sont couverts en moindre détail. Aussi quelques mentions sont faites sur les matériaux hybrides qui combinent plusieurs types de panneaux ou des composantes nouvelles.
Up to twenty-three OSB products from Canada and US were tested for their VOCs. The results collected indicated that OSB panels emit at a very low level, in the order of few parts per billion (ppbs). The emission of monoterpenes such as alpha and beta-pinenes, camphene, carene and limonene from all of the tested OSB panels were very minor when they were present. In order to put in perspective the OSB panels emissions, a few tests were conducted on panels bonded with urea-formaldehyde resin and MDI. Results indicated that more VOCs and formaldehyde emit from the UF bonded panels compared to the PF or MDI bonded OSB panels. The UF emitted formaldehyde remains however far less than the 0.3 ppm recommended formaldehyde emission level by the new Composite Panel Association (CPA). VOCs observed from UF bonded panels consist mainly of monoterpenes which are naturally emitted from the softwood furnish used for the particleboard manufacturing and of formaldehyde at a level.
The evaluation of the long term effect on OSB panel emissions showed that all emitted individual chemicals (IVOC) and total emitted volatile organic chemicals (TVOC) decreased with exposure time. However, the two-week long term exposure period was not long enough in most cases to reach a 0 percent emission level. The positive aspect of these results is related to the fact that during the two to three-week delivery period to the client, the emissions are reduced by up to 90% of their initial first day value.
During the investigation of the effect of some key processing parameters on the final product emission characteristics, the drying temperature of the furnish and its moisture content as well as the pressing time and temperature and the resin contents were evaluated. Three OSB mills supplied the furnish (green and dried wafers) and the panel products. Results indicated that emissions from the wafers decrease in most cases when dried at high temperatures compared to the air-dried wafers for a given moisture content. Because the furnish composition (percentage of softwood compared to hardwood) can be different from one mill to another, one can anticipate a certain impact on the furnish emission characteristics and thus on the OSB products emissions. However, after a few days of exposure, the three OSB panels showed almost the same emission level.
The investigated furnish drying conditions showed very clearly that the drying temperature plays an important role on its emissions. Results indicated a gradual reduction of the TVOC, the emitted aldehydes and ketones when a furnish, dried at different temperatures, i.e., from ambient to high temperatures, is exposed in the environmental chamber. Also, the combined effect of moisture content and drying temperatures on furnish emissions showed, as expected, an increase of the detected TVOC as the moisture content and the drying temperature increase. This result support the fact that air-dried furnish should emit more than a furnish dried at high temperature when exposed in the environmental chamber conditions. However, at very high drying temperature, the furnish starts to degrade and an increase of the emission level could be observed.
Results acquired to date indicated that resin contents, pressing times and temperature values selected for the 27 different OSB panel processing conditions, were not different enough to have a significant impact on the composite panels emission levels. The total emitted chemicals (TVOC.) from the 27 OSB panels compare very well to the 23 industrial TVOC values. This result indicates that it should be necessary to find other combination values for the resin contents, the pressing times and the temperatures, quite different from their corresponding industrial values to better evaluate their impact on the resulting panel VOC emission patterns, and this should be done without affecting the product quality. The acquisition of such data will certainly have less interest for the wood composite panel industry if the manufacturing cost has changed but it will help for a better understanding of these parameters impact on the product emission characteristics.
One of the objectives of this project was to develop a quality control monitoring guideline. The twenty-three (23) North American OSB products tested in this project showed that the maximum TVOC observed was less than 0.04 parts per million (ppm), and the maximum detected formaldehyde less than 0.014 parts per million (ppm), which represents one twentieth of the 0.3 ppm of formaldehyde recommended value by the CPA for the particleboard and medium density fiberboard (MDF) products. Based on these results, we have recommended a voluntary, twice per year, VOC emission quality control for each OSB product to the OSB industry. A detailed procedure for sample collection, preparation and shipping to the Forintek Laboratory at Ste-Foy is described. The sample conditioning, emission collection and characterization procedures will be the same as those described in this report.
This guide is a companion to the "High speed planer adjustment Manual" published by Forintek Canada Corp. Precision tools have been developed to control and to properly adjust all critical parts in planers. Methods to measure depth of cut and to align planer guides and ancillary equipment are suggested. Practical indications are also given for level and parallelism. Finally, the guide provides information on knife grinding, causes of surface defects and maintenance tips. Operators, mechanics, quality controllers, engineers and plant managers can all benefit from this practical Manual.
Ce guide se présente comme le complément du "Manuel d'ajustement des raboteuses à haute vitesse" publié par Forintek Canada Corp. Des outils de précision ont été développés afin d'effectuer la vérification et la mise au point de raboteuses. Des méthodes sont proposées pour contrôler les profondeurs de coupe et positionner correctement tous les éléments d'une raboteuse. A ceci s'ajoutent des conseils de nivellement, de parallélisme et d'alignement des guides de raboteuses et des équipements auxiliaires. L'affûtage des couteaux, l'identification des défauts de surface et l'entretien de la machinerie viennent compléter le guide. Les opérateurs, les mécaniciens ainsi que les ingénieurs et les directeurs d'usines y trouveront des renseignements pratiques.
In BC alone, about 3,600 MMfbm of export lumber is chemically treated each year to prevent discolouration due to sapstain, mould, and decay. In a survey of fungal stain in Canadian softwood sawlogs, some mills indicated a considerable loss in potential revenue due to fungal stain. A better understanding of the mechanisms of infection of sawn softwoods is required in order to develop and propose appropiate means of protection and prevent the development of these fungi. The study will identify the major wood degrading fungi occuring in Eastern Canada and some of the critical factors contributing to fungal degradation. These factors will then be used to devise integrated control programs wich take into account harvesting and storage of timber, protective treatment and lumber delivery.
A total of 4 mills have been visited in Eastern Canada, representing three provinces and different geographic regions. For each mill visited, a questionnaire on wood sapstain was completed with the mill personnel to identify the critical factors for fungal growth. Results of the questionnaire indicate that the storage time (forest and lumber yard) of unseasoned logs and lumber is the most critical factor in the development of sapstaining fungi. The problem is more frequent in warm and humid seasons, between May and September. At the moment, the problem is more or less controlled by stock rotation in a first in first out basis.
Collection of wood samples fom logs and lumber was performed at each mill in order to identify the major wood degrading fungi occurring in Eastern Canada. Fungal isolation, purification and identification from wood samples (logs and lumber) as begun in the laboratory and up to now eleven fungal species have been identified from stained jack pine lumber in one mill, five of wich were sapstaining fungi, four moulds and two decay fungi.
Technological innovation has proven to be the prime vehicule for the remarkable development of the wood composite panel industry in Canada over the last half century. The challenge for the future is to maintain the place and to make appropriate choices in setting the direction of technological innovation. The Roadmap is intended to help the industry meet this challenge by establishing the importance of innovation to the major sectors in the panel industry and identifies new and promising technologies along with suggested priorities for the future. This document also lays out recommendations related to infrastructure and organization that may help the various sectors of the industry shift into high gear and assume a leadership role. The panel types included are: softwood plywood, oriented strandboard (OSB), particleboard and medium density fibreboard (MDF). Hardwood plywood is covered in less detail. Hybrid products which combine two or more panels, or panels with other materials, into a single product are also mentioned.
Adhesion and Adhesives - Composite Materials
Building materials - Composites - Research
Oriented Strand Board (OSB)
Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF)
Part of a technology roadmap series from Industry Canada: http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/trm-crt.nsf/eng/rm00094.html
Basedon a preliminay testing, an optimized procedure for in-panel variability evaluation has been developed. A database was created consisting in fifty-five 0-2 OSB panels from nine member mills of the SBA conforming to the Canadian standards. The panels have been evaluated at the Eastern Laboratory of Forintek Canada Corp. and at the Alberta Research Council. Each panel was spit into 18 squares containing specimens for conducting tests on tensible strength perpendicular to surface (IB), thickness swelling (TS), water aborption (WA), moisture content (MC), density, thickness and static bending (MOR/MOE). Variance was used as the criteria for in -panel variability.
A survey with experts from the industry and research centres estimated that the variability on thickness, MOR/MOE parallel to forming, TS and IB is the most critical for the applications of OSB. According to the tests results, the most variable properties were MOE (variance from 405 to 676 GPa), MOR (variances from 28 to 38 MPa) parallel to forming and IB (variances from 5 to 11 kPa). The in-panel variability was on average ten times higher compared to among-panel variability, and the in product vatiability was three times as high as the among product variability. Density variation significantly affected only the variations in MC, WA, MOR and MOE. Density at break point and panel core density did not show better correlation correspondingly with MOR and MOE compared to average density. Further research is suggested to grade the factors of variability in OSB panels by their importance, to determine the criteria for acceptable limits of property variations and to define methods for on-line monitoring of horizontal density distribution.