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Canadian lumber properties 2007-08 activities

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1369
Author
Lum, Conroy
Date
March 2008
Edition
37861
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Lum, Conroy
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
National Lumber Grades Authority
Date
March 2008
Edition
37861
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
[13 p.]
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Strength load bearing
Mechanical properties
Loads
Series Number
5893
W-2480
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This report summarizes the progress from Year 3 of the multi-year Lumber Properties project. All activities continue to conform to the guiding principles adopted by the Lumber Properties Steering Committee (LPSC) at the start of the program. This year the first steps were taken in preparing information for discussion with the new American Lumber Standard Committee (ALSC) Lumber Properties Task Group (TG). Work continues on the review of the Norway spruce testing program and the development of an on-going monitoring program. The program has enabled the wider industry group represented by the LPSC, to be involved in monitoring progress on the program and providing strategic direction. The support has also enabled the program to retain the necessary statistical support from the University of British Columbia to not only address Canadian lumber property issues, but also contribute to technical discussions at the ALS Lumber Properties TG.
Lumber - Strength
Strength - Load bearing
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BC non-residential market assessment 2006

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1374
Author
O'Connor, J.
Date
March 2008
Edition
37868
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
O'Connor, J.
Contributor
BC WoodWorks
Date
March 2008
Edition
37868
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
53 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Market Analysis
Subject
Markets
British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
In this study, current market share for wood in British Columbia non-residential construction was determined as well as potential for increased consumption of wood, based on a 194-building sample of 2006 building permits from most of BC’s major cities. For the sample, structural materials used in each project were established through phone interviews with each architect, contractor or other individual associated with the construction of the building. Each project was then compared against the height and area limits for combustible construction as defined in the BC Building Code. In actual market share for 2006, 13% of all buildings (which comprise 5% of all area) were primarily framed in wood. Adding in buildings that were partially framed in wood, 25% of all buildings (22% of all area) are using wood, either primarily or in combination with other structural materials. If every building allowed by code to be entirely framed in wood actually was, seven times more constructed area would be using wood than current practice. Adding in the potential for heavy timber roofs on non-combustible buildings yields a total of eleven times more constructed area that could be using wood. This total potential incremental wood consumption is estimated at up to 27 million board feet of lumber-type products (lumber, trusses, glulam, I-joists and composite lumber) and 13 million square feet of structural panels (plywood and OSB). Previously gathered market intelligence in BC and elsewhere in North America was then reviewed together with the market share statistics to help determine a set of near-term recommendations for the BC WoodWORKS! program to help capture some of this potential market.
Markets - British Columbia
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Wood market trends in Europe

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1388
Author
Wahl, A.
Date
June 2008
Edition
37884
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Wahl, A.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
June 2008
Edition
37884
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
40 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Market Analysis
Subject
Materials
Markets
Europe
Building construction
Series Number
Special publication ; SP-49
W-2530
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
ISSN
0824-2119
Abstract
Europe is Canada's second-largest offshore market for wood products, after Japan. Significant changes in industry structure and markets have taken place in Europe over the last decade, many of which are related to the opening of countries of the former Eastern Bloc. This report summarizes the key trends in Europe's wood products sector and assesses resulting opportunities and challenges for Canadian wood product suppliers.
Markets - Europe
Building construction - Materials used - Europe
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Wood product attributes demanded by North American prodealers

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1393
Author
Robichaud, F.
Lavoie, P.
Gaston, Chris
Date
March 2008
Edition
37890
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Robichaud, F.
Lavoie, P.
Gaston, Chris
Date
March 2008
Edition
37890
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
49 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
United States (USA)
Materials
Markets
Canada
Building construction
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service ; No. 24
5722-6008
W-2542
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The Prodealers channel is thought to be an increasingly important outlet for wood products. In previous research, homebuilders were found to rely heavily on this segment for wood products supplies and, ever more, structural components. Yet, very little research has been devoted to the characterization of this segment, where significant changes do occur. Among these changes, prodealers are adapting quickly to the consolidation of their own client base by the way of consolidating themselves. They are also adding framing solutions and installation services to their product portfolio. According to Abernathy et al. (2004), Prodealers’ revenues come mostly from homebuilders that build 25 homes per year. Another 20% of revenues can be attributed to larger firms building 500 (or more) homes per year. Increasingly, these builders are thought to use their leverage to push down prices via purchasing agreements that are covering a broadening spectrum of products. This is forcing prodealers to readjust their strategies in accordance to customers’ needs. Componentization and more emphasis on installed sales are two key elements that prodealers are turning to (Abernathy et al., 2004). This study offers an important complement to “Attributes Demanded in the N.A. Structural Components Industry” in understanding changing demands for primary wood products by the North American structural components industry. Up to now consolidation had remained a marginal trend in the prodealer segment, in contrast with the do-it-yourself (DIY) and retail segments. However, further consolidation can be expected and the prodealer segment is bound to gain importance for the wood products industry. Another change that might be occurring lies within the wood products portfolio carried by prodealers and homecenters. Over the last decade, there has been a sharp increase in U.S. imports of overseas lumber, most notably from Europe. While much of this substitution is thought to be happening in prodealers and homecenters yards, little is known on the impetus for substitution.
Lumber - Markets
Lumber - Defects
Building construction - Materials used - Markets
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Best practice checklist for plywood manufacturing - a strategy to reduce delamination

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1404
Author
Dai, Chunping
Wang, Brad J.
Date
August 2008
Edition
37901
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Dai, Chunping
Wang, Brad J.
Date
August 2008
Edition
37901
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
34 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Plywood manufacture
Plywood
Series Number
W-2561
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Delamination currently accounts for approximately 85% of customer complaints about plywood as a sub-flooring product. It has become an urgent issue to many of our plywood members. It is estimated that by merely reducing 1% delamination in a 250 million ft2 (3/8 –in basis) plywood mill, the potential annual savings will be approximately $650,000. To help reduce plywood delamination, the key objective of this project was to develop a generic best practice checklist as a guide for manufacturing plywood. A generic best practice checklist for manufacturing plywood was compiled with a focus on the following four key checkpoints: veneer peeling, veneer drying, panel gluing/lay-up and hot pressing. Key process variables at each checkpoint were determined as follows: peeling related veneer surface roughness and thickness variation, drying related veneer moisture content (MC) variation and surface inactivation, veneer temperature, glue coverage and dryout, and pressing time and pressure. Some technical issues were proposed to revisit as a strategy to reduce panel delamination. Among them include optimal lathe bar gap and pitch profiles, and proper knife sharpening for peeling, reduction of veneer overdry during drying, real-time adjustment of glue spread for adequate glue coverage, and use of optimum pressing time/pressure for adequate level of panel compression and glue curing. The resulting generic checklist can be modified for individual mill use. Through literature review, pilot plant tests, and mill trials, the main causes of panel delamination were identified as: 1) glue dryout from long assembly time and high veneer temperature; 2) low panel compression, light glue spread or glue skips due to rough veneer; 3) little glue transfer due to veneer surface inactivation; 4) inadequate glue cure due to heavy glue spread, overwet veneer, sap wet spots, and short pressing time; and 5) combined effects of the above. It was found that veneer surface roughness had a significant effect on plywood gluebond quality, and excessive roughness and combined effect of veneer roughness, overdry, and glue dryout, were key causes of the low percentage wood failure. A statistical model was also developed from mill trials to predict the percentage wood failure in terms of veneer temperature, open assembly time and glue spread. The model helps establish an operating window for each key variable and adjust the gluing/layup process to reduce glue dryout. Furthermore, a practical method was developed to determine the optimum pressing parameters to achieve target gluebond quality while minimizing plywood thickness loss.
Plywood - Manufacture
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Benefit of surface defect information for board edger optimizer : phase II

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1406
Author
Warkentin, M.
Date
February 2008
Edition
37903
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Warkentin, M.
Date
February 2008
Edition
37903
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
15 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Saw mills
Equipment
Automatic control
Series Number
W-2563
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Recent advances in scanning technology have enabled the detection of surface defects in green boards. This report is the second phase of a project that was initiated to investigate the benefits of surface defect scanning (grade scanning) on the value of lumber that can be recovered from optimized edgers. The first study focused on BC Interior mills and found that little or no potential increase was available. In this study, the benefits for mills processing large logs into high value products (e.g. BC Coastal sawmills) were investigated. Sixty-six hemlock cants were evaluated, with cant widths from 12 to 27 inches - large enough to allow multiple sawing solutions. After a sawing solution was generated for each cant by an optimized shifting-saw gang edger, using only profile scanned data, a grader, taking visible defects into account, proposed alternate sawing solutions. The values of all sawing solutions were calculated and for 76% of the cants, a sawing solution proposed by the grader was more valuable than the one generated by the optimizer. The study found that an average increase of 29% in the value of large cants was available when edging decisions took surface defects into account, in comparison with the value resulting from optimization based on cant profile alone. However, it should be noted that the accurancy of vision systems will likely be less than that of a human grader so the actual gains will likely be somewhat lower.
Sawmilling - Automation
Defects - Detection
Sawmills - Equipment - Edgers
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Application of flow simulation to the production of manufactured homes

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1410
Author
White, J.
Wong, Darrell
Jung, Brian W.
Houdek, D.
Davis, S.
Date
March 2008
Edition
37908
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
White, J.
Wong, Darrell
Jung, Brian W.
Houdek, D.
Davis, S.
Contributor
Alberta Forestry Research Institute
Date
March 2008
Edition
37908
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
35 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Digitalization
Subject
Prefabricated houses
Series Number
AFRI-6129
W-2575
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Manufacturing analysis using computer flow simulation has been applied successfully in pilot projects to several Alberta value-added wood products companies in the sectors of re-manufacturing and furniture manufacturing. This project continues these pilot projects examining the application and potential benefit in manufactured/prefab homes. An Alberta manufactured/prefab home manufacturer was selected for this project. The wall-line was chosen for this study. The study was accomplished through detailed observations and data collection, which identified several bottlenecks that included the framing table, squaring table and the linear configuration of the line. From observations, the squaring table was labour intensive and the material handling equipment was quite slow. At the framing table, the stud grade being used contained many twisted and bowed boards, which required additional time to align and fasten the studs. Lastly, the single-line configuration created bottlenecks during the transition from sheathed and unsheathed products. From observations and discussions with staff, potential improvement scenarios were developed. Simulation models were developed for each of these scenarios to evaluate their effectiveness and return on investment. The scenarios examined were: affect of panel sheathing ratio, improving efficiency at the squaring table, improving efficiency at the framing table, addition of a branch-line for unsheathed products and the addition of the branch-line in combination with increased efficiency at the framing table. The implementation of pre-cut OSB panels was simulated to reduce processing times at the squaring table by 30%, which increases throughput by 15%. The addition of a branch-line for unsheathed products showed a potential production increase of 10.8%. However, the simulation models also showed that the framing table could not maintain a consistent supply to the squaring table. The use of a higher stud grade was modelled showing a potential production improvement of 17.5%. As a result, the potential benefits in this particular wood products business demonstrates that computer flow simulations can be applied to Manufactured/Prefab Home manufacturers and may potentially have further implications in other similar Alberta value-added industries.
Prefabricated houses - Manufacture
Documents
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Pensons léger : les panneaux légers novateurs

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub53045
Author
Stosch, Martin
Date
Avril 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Stosch, Martin
Date
Avril 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
Electronic
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Panels
Furniture
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Aussi disponible en anglais: = Think light : innovative lightweight panels
Documents
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Assessment of automated grading systems for softwood lumber

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub2578
Author
McDonald, J. David
Date
September 2008
Edition
39170
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
McDonald, J. David
Date
September 2008
Edition
39170
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
18 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Softwoods
Grading
Automatic control
Series Number
General Revenue Project No. 5768
5768
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Grading - Automation
Grading - Softwoods
Grading - Lumber
Documents
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Characterization of fires in residential buildings

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub2510
Author
Mehaffey, J.R. (Jim)
Date
March 2008
Edition
39095
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Mehaffey, J.R. (Jim)
Date
March 2008
Edition
39095
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
4 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Fire
Building construction
Residential construction
Series Number
General Revenue Report Project No. 4918
4918
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Fires, Building
Documents
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Biology and management of bluestain fungi

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub4594
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Date
March 2008
Edition
41391
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2008
Edition
41391
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
4 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Stain fungal
Stain
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 38
W-2521
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The project initially focussed on harvester transmission of staining fungi and insect transmission to logs in the forest and sawmill yard. Both harvesters and insects were confirmed to be major sources of bluestain infection. This work emphasized the importance of insect control measures in mill yards and a new project on mitigating harvester-related bluestain was recommended. Other related projects targeted potential control measures, such as sour-felling (crown drying) to reduce nutrients and moisture, biological control using albino fungi, and inventory control. Biocontrol work continued to be done under this project in 2005. We have assisted with the registration of a biocontrol agent and also examined the feasibility of developing a prototype harvester applicator system in collaboration with UBC mechanical engineering students. This spawned a separate project that looks into development of a spray applicator system on a commercial scale. In February 2004 and August 2005 we examined sources of bluestain in sawmills, such as air, sawdust and machinery. This work showed machinery as a possible mechanism for spreading bluestain from one piece of lumber to another during the milling. As each piece of work was completed, further data gaps were identified.
Stains - Fungal - Control
Documents
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Wood discolourations and their prevention with an emphasis on bluestain

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub4598
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Gignac, Manon
Yang, D.-Q.
Date
June 2008
Edition
41395
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Gignac, Manon
Yang, D.-Q.
Date
June 2008
Edition
41395
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
48 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Stain
Series Number
Special publication ; SP-50
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
ISSN
19174328
Abstract
It is common to encounter wood products that diverge from wood's natural colour. These discolourations occur throughout the whole processing chain, may affect value, and raise questions from users and producers. Discolourations are generally classed as either microbial or non-microbial in origin but some are complex and involve both biotic and abiotic factors. The terminology, as well as possible methods for control and remediation, are discussed. In some cases preventive measures remain unknown, while for other discolouration types some methods may be more feasible than others, and for some an integrated approach is needed. Microbial discolourations are more commonly encountered and among these the discolouration caused by bluestain fungi are most prevalent, especially on softwoods. Since it has also been the focus of more studies, this brochure covers bluestain control in significant depth.
Stains - Fungal - Control
Documents
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Impact of Kyoto protocol on composite panel industries

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39104
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
73 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Regulations
Pollution
Canada
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 15
4005
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
One can summarize the work conducted under the Kyoto protocol by extracting some paragraphs from the Montreal climate conference press release. Under the Kyoto Protocol, which entered into force 16 February 2005, more than 30 industrialized countries are bound by specific and legally binding emission reduction targets. As a first step, these cover the period 2008-2012. The Kyoto Protocol is now fully operational. The adoption of the Marrakesh accords formally launches emissions trading and the other two mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol. Carbon has now a market value. Under the clean development mechanism, investing in projects that provide sustainable development and reduce emissions makes sound business sense. The Joint Implementation (JI) adopted by the parties is one of the mechanisms which allow developed countries to invest in other developed countries and thereby earn carbon allowances which they can use to meet their emission reduction commitments. In addition to this, the clean development mechanism allows industrialized countries to invest in sustainable development projects in developing countries and thereby earn carbon allowances. “With these decisions in place, we now have the infrastructure to move ahead with the implementation of the Kyoto protocol” said Richard Kinley, head of the United Nations Climate Change conference. It sets solid basis for future steps to bring emissions down he added. All Kyoto Protocol Parties, including Canada, are now moving ahead to meet their GHG emission reduction commitments. In the past few years, Canada has developed and set strategies to meet our commitments. However, Canada has since changed for a new conservative government and a new strategy has been published first in April and the proposed greenhouse gas regulations are expected to be published in the Canada Gazette later this year, and the regulations finalized in 2009 to come into force as planned on January 1, 2010 according to the minister. During this fiscal year two Canadian provinces took important steps in regards to climate change by adopting regulations to reduce their respective GHG emissions. The province of BC has published its own green house gas reduction targets through the Bill 44 in which the province has set reduction targets by 2020 for 33% and 80% by 2050 relative to 2007 emissions levels for both. In 2007 the Quebec government announced the first carbon tax in Canada to Oil companies to pay a new energy tax of 0.8 cents a litre for gasoline distributed in the province and 0.938 cents for diesel fuel. The province has also adopted California’s greenhouse gas standards for new light-duty vehicles.
Composites
Air pollution - Canada - Laws and regulations
Carbon
Documents
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Optitek on-line for sawmill monitoring

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39105
Author
Bédard, P.
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Bédard, P.
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
39 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Digitalization
Subject
Scanners
Saw mills
Series Number
General Revenue Project No. 5335
5335
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
In the lumber industry today, process monitoring systems are still relatively uncommon, in comparison to other industrial sectors, where these systems are widespread and essential to profitability. We came up with the idea of adapting the Optitek sawmill simulator to serve as a monitoring and process control tool. The idea is to use the scanners at the entrance of processing lines to gather log profile data in order to create a simulated sawmill production data set, which can then be compared in real time to actual performance. One company, AbitibiBowater, was interested in this proposal and designated one of its sawmills as the site for a pilot project. The development and implementation of the Optitek monitoring system took two years. The first year focused primarily on project planning, adapting the Optitek simulator to operate in real time, and creating a web portal named Optitek Evolution. During the second year, the system was installed in the mill and began operating. In parallel, Optitek was used to create a complete model of the sawmill and the results were then confirmed through a series of tests conducted at the mill. The purpose of validation was to model mill performance as accurately as possible in order to efficiently monitor it. Tests at the mill allowed us to check the precision of log scanners, quantify log breakdown errors, and evaluate the actual performance of the sawmill. Key indicators, such as the consumption factor (m³/Mbf), economic performance ($/m³), as well as lumber distribution, were used to validate the model. Filtering was required to minimize the impact of log movement as logs passed through the scanners. After validating the system, mill personnel were trained in this new technology and monitoring began. An initial reference period allowed us to test the system to determine the correct monitoring frequency. However, we did observe some restrictions, given the mill’s operating procedures. Significant quantities of wood regularly enter or exit the mill, which significantly influences the performance indicators for a given shift. Consequently, it becomes impossible to generate reliable indicators over shorter time intervals (2 hours for example). For monitoring to be valid, as a minimum, it must be calculated on the basis of a moving average over eight hours, based on data collected every two hours. Other factors that affect the minimum monitoring period are batch-type operations and the accumulation capacity before trimming. Under ideal conditions, a sawmill operating without any transfer of wood outdoors, and on a "scan and set" mode, would be able to conduct accurate monitoring over a two-hour period or less.
Sawmilling
Scanners
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Supplementary fibre supplies for the manufacture of MDF and particleboard. Part V. Manufacture of HDF using different wood species

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39106
Author
Deng, James
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Wan, Hui
Zhang, S.Y. (Tony)
Date
May 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Deng, James
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Wan, Hui
Zhang, S.Y. (Tony)
Date
May 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Utilization
Mechanical properties
Saw dust
Particle boards
Series Number
General Revenue Report Project No. 5326
5326
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Experimental works were carried out to produce high density fibreboard (HDF) using wood furnish with different wood species and geometries that are particularly used in Eastern Canada. The furnish included mixed softwood sawdust, mixed hardwood sawdust, aspen chips and mixed hardwood chips. The fibre refining was carried out with MDF pilot plant at the steam pressure of 6, 7.5 and 9 bars with retention time of 2.5 minutes and refining speed of 2500 rpm. Ten different types of wood fibres under different refining process conditions were produced and a total of 36 HDF panels were made. Based on the results of this study, the following conclusions are made:
Under the same refining and hot pressing process conditions, different mechanical and physical properties of HDF panels were obtained with different raw materials. However, the properties of the panels were not consistently in favour of one particular type of the raw material.
With the same raw materials (60% softwood sawdust and 40% hardwood sawdust), the refining steam pressure had a strong impact on the panel properties. The properties studied were generally improved when the steam pressure was reduced from 9 bar down to 6 bar. This obvious difference in panel properties when using different refining steam pressures suggests that the required process conditions can be quite different for different raw materials and optimisation of the refining parameters are required for different types of raw materials.
There were no obvious differences in panel properties when using different sizes of raw materials with the same hardwood and softwood mixing ratio.
No obvious improvement in panel properties was observed with chemically pre-treated wood furnish under the process conditions used. However, speculation can be made that the UF resin was quite advanced and a higher degree of resin pre-cure occurred when using blowline resin blending and hot air drying with chemically pre-treated materials. That could be the major reason why we could not observe the improvement of the panel properties when using the pre-treatment or substantial reduction of IB and other properties when reducing hot pressing time.
Fibres
Manufacturing
Fibreboard
Particleboard - Strength
Sawdust - Utilization
Chips - Utilization
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Évaluation de produits de finition en phase aqueuse pour les armoires de cuisine

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39107
Author
Landry, Vincent
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Landry, Vincent
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
37 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Specifications
Specification
Series Number
Projet General Revenue no 6069
6069
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Ce projet est un projet court terme d’une durée de 6 mois visant à démontrer le potentiel des revêtements en phase aqueuse au point de vue apparence. Dans le cadre de ce projet, des revêtements en phase aqueuse et en phase solvant utilisés dans l’industrie des armoires de cuisine ont été évalués. Les produits de finition proviennent de 8 compagnies différentes (européennes et nord-américaines). Suite à une formation donnée par EQBMO entreprises sur le sablage et l’application des produits de finition, nous avons préparé plus de 25 échantillons avec différents produits de finition. Des échantillons non teints et teints ont été préparés pour chaque compagnie. Suite à la préparation de ces échantillons, des essais de couleur et de brillance ont été réalisés afin de nous aider à comparer l’apparence des revêtements et afin de pouvoir relever les différences entre les revêtements en phase aqueuse et en phase solvant. Dans un deuxième temps, un sondage a été réalisé auprès de 60 répondants afin de déterminer l’opinion de consommateurs concernant les échantillons préparés. Ce sondage comportait des questions concernant l’appréciation visuelle de même que l’appréciation du toucher des revêtements. Finalement, le prix des revêtements de même que la facilité d’application est présenté dans ce rapport.
Finishing
Kitchen cabinets - Specifications
Overlays
Documents
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Think light : innovative lightweight panels

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39108
Author
Stosch, Martin
Date
April 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Stosch, Martin
Date
April 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
Electronic
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Panels
Furniture
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Various designs of lightweight panels have been on the market for decades, but have only recently been used to manufacture household furnishings. These panels are mainly wood-based and cardboard-based honeycomb panels developed in Europe, and in Germany in particular. The manufacturing cost of these panels are competitive with those of panels manufactured with traditional materials and their mechanical properties are very interesting. However their use requires specially designed machining and joining systems. Many equipment and hardware manufacturers have developed complete systems and solutions for their use. Professor Martin Stosch is one of the leading experts in the field of lightweight household products manufacturing. He has written a series of articles on this subject and a summary of his work was published in 2006 by the German periodical BM. This document is an update on the state of lightweight construction for household products. Les panneaux légers de différentes conceptions sont sur le marché depuis des décennies, mais leur entrée dans le domaine de produits d’habitation est récente. Ce sont principalement des panneaux alvéolés à base de bois et de carton dont le développement a été poussé en Europe, particulièrement en Allemagne. Ces panneaux ont un coût de fabrication compétitif en comparaison aux matériaux traditionnels et offrent des propriétés mécaniques fort intéressantes. L’utilisation de ces panneaux nécessite des systèmes d’usinage et d’assemblage adaptés. De nombreux fabricants d’équipements et de quincaillerie ont innové et proposent aujourd’hui des solutions complètes. Le professeur Martin Stosch est parmi les experts reconnus mondialement en matière de construction légère de produits d’habitation. Il a rédigé une série d’articles à ce sujet et un résumé de ses travaux a été publié en 2006 par la revue allemande BM. Le présent document est une mise à jour de l’état de développement de systèmes de construction légers pour les produits d’habitation.
Furniture - Manufacture
Panels
Abstract
Aussi disponible: Pensons léger: les panneaux légers novateurs
Documents
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Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part III. Small-scale fire testing methods for R&D use as alternatives to fire test standards specified in building codes : literature review

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39109
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
June 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
June 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
11 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
5764
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Wood belongs to the natural bio-composites of plant origin containing cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and other compounds. When exposed to fire or any other high intensity heat sources, wood, being a natural polymer, is subject to thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) and combustion depending on the environmental conditions. Combustion accompanied by heat release and chemiluminescence occurs when wood is in direct contact with air and with a physical, chemical or microbiological stimulus associated with heat release. There are increasing concerns about the fire performance of engineered wood products (EWP) and wood composite products such as oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium density fiberboard (MDF) and high density fiberboard (HDF) panels. Wood composite panels, like structural wood products, should have certain fire retardant properties with respect to both safety and the environment. It is believed that this issue will get more attention in the near future as environmental regulations are developed and the requirements of end-users change. A Canadian Forest Service (CFS) project in the Composites Program, entitled “Development of Fire Retardant Composite Panels (Project No. 5764),” was initiated in 2007. The aim of the project is to develop fire retardant OSB panel and low-density fiberboard (FB) through the modification of wood furnish and/or adhesives using fire retardants and nano materials, and to improve the fire performance of panel surface coatings by using fire retardant coatings and paints. As part of the project deliverables, a series of literature reviews on different aspects of fire performance for wood and composite wood products has been conducted. So far, two literature review reports have been issued: Part I. Fire-Performance Requirements for Composite Wood Products and Standard Fire Tests for Demonstrating Compliance with those Requirements - Literature Review and Part II. Proprietary Fire Retardant Treated Wood and Composite Wood Products - Literature Review. In this current report (Part III), the literature review was focused on describing a number of small-scale fire tests that can be used for research and development purposes as alternatives to the standard fire tests referenced in building codes in Canada and the United States. The literature review was conducted by Mr. Leslie R. Richardson, retired senior research scientist and Group Leader of Building Systems – Fire Program of FPInnovations – Forintek Division. It is believed that this literature review will be an invaluable guide for acquiring information on fire performance requirements and standard fire test methods for wood and composite wood products. The full literature review is available in Appendix.
Fire retardants
Composite products
Panels
Documents
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Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part II. Proprietary fire retardant treated wood and composite wood products : literature review

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39110
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
June 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
June 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
73 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Materials
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
5764
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Wood belongs to the natural bio-composites of plant origin containing cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and other compounds. When exposed to fire or any other high intensity heat sources, wood, being a natural polymer, is subject to thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) and combustion depending on the environmental conditions. Combustion accompanied by heat release and chemiluminescence occurs when wood is in direct contact with air and with a physical, chemical or microbiological stimulus associated with heat release. There are increasing concerns about the fire performance of engineered wood products (EWP) and wood composite products such as oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium density fiberboard (MDF) and high density fiberboard (HDF) panels. Wood composite panels, like structural wood products, should have certain fire retardant properties with respect to both safety and the environment. It is believed that this issue will get more attention in the near future as environmental regulations are developed and the requirements of end-users change. A Canadian Forest Service (CFS) project in the Composites Program, entitled “Development of Fire Retardant Composite Panels (Project No. 5764),” was initiated in 2007. The aim of the project is to develop fire retardant OSB panel and low-density fiberboard (FB) through modification of wood furnish and/or adhesives using fire retardants and nano materials, and to improve the fire performance of panel surface coatings by using fire retardant coatings and paints. As part of the project deliverables, this report presents a review of the current literature focused on the identification of proprietary fire retardant-treated wood and wood-based products, plywood, oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard, hardboard and fiberboard, low-density fiberboard panels suitable for use as interior ceiling finish, and other composite wood products used in construction of buildings, and the identification of potential new manufacturing processes for such products. The literature review was conducted by Mr. Leslie R. Richardson, retired senior research scientist and Group Leader of Building Systems – Fire Program of FPInnovations - Forintek Division. It is believed that this literature review will be an invaluable guide for acquiring information on fire performance requirements and standard fire test methods for wood and composite wood products. The full literature review is available in Appendix.
Fire retardants
Composite materials
Panels
Documents
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Évaluation de différents concepts de portes d'armoires

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39111
Author
Tremblay, Carl
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Tremblay, Carl
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
19 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Value added
Cabinets
Series Number
Projet General Revenue nos 5339, 5358
5339
5358
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Ce projet a permis de valider la stabilité dimensionnelle et d’évaluer l’acceptabilité de différents concepts de portes d’armoires de cuisine fabriquées à partir de rebuts et d’essences de bois sous-utilisées. Suite aux suggestions des partenaires industriels impliqués dans la réalisation de ce projet, les prototypes de portes suivants furent fabriqués pour fin d’évaluation : portes en érable, cerisier, chêne et merisier avec bandes aboutées par entures multiples (finger joints) issues de rebuts, portes en bouleau blanc de couleur uniforme, en bouleau blanc de couleur variable et en tremble. Des essais en chambres de conditionnement ont révélé que l’utilisation d’essences de bois alternatives, telles que le bouleau blanc ou le tremble, et la présence de bandes aboutées ne résultent pas en des problèmes de gauchissement plus sévères qu’une porte de modèle similaire fabriquée en merisier. De plus, la poursuite du test sur une période prolongée a permis de valider la solidité des joints (finger joints) des bandes suite à des variations répétitives de conditions climatiques sévères. Un sondage mené à un salon d’habitation à Boston auprès de 137 participants a résulté en une appréciation générale des portes avec essences alternatives (bouleau blanc avec couleur uniforme, bouleau blanc avec couleur variable et tremble) au-dessus du seuil d’indifférence (appréciation significativement favorable). Par contre, les résultats du sondage démontrent une appréciation générale des portes avec bandes aboutées par entures multiples en deçà du seuil d’indifférence (appréciation significativement défavorable) à l’exception du modèle en érable qui a obtenu une évaluation indifférente. Une analyse économique sommaire a révélé que l’option de l’aboutage des bandes à partir de rebuts peut s’avérer intéressante d’un point de vue économique sous certaines conditions, dont un coût d’achat du bois supérieur à un seuil donné. Dans ce cas, en considérant la bonne solidité des joints observée en chambres de conditionnement, et aussi l’appréciation générale défavorable des portes avec bandes aboutées, l’option de l’aboutage des bandes serait davantage à considérer pour des modèles de portes peinturées où la visibilité des joints est camouflée.
Kitchen cabinets
Documents
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