There is interest in the lumber and truss industry to supply and use fingerjoined lumber for metal plate connected wood trusses. To support this, it is necessary to provide evidence that fingerjoined lumber meeting the requirements of a recognized fingerjoined lumber product standard can be used with the lumber design provision provided in the governing wood engineering design code.
In consultation with the truss and lumber industry, it was agreed that fingerjoined machine graded lumber meeting the requirements of the National Lumber Grades Authority (NLGA) Special Product Standard 4 (SPS 4) would be assessed for truss applications. The assessment would need to show no issues with applying the lumber design provisions in Clause 5.5.13 of CSA O86, the Canadian Engineering Design in Wood Code, to NLGA SPS 4 fingerjoined lumber. This is necessary because Clause 5.5.13 was originally developed for non-fingerjoined lumber and applies specifically to the design of lumber in truss applications.
The tests carried out under this program included bending test specimens with 1 to 4 joints per specimen tested to failure under three different bending moment configurations, and single fingerjoints tested to failure under pure axial tension or compression, and then under eccentrically applied axial tension or compression to induce bending in addition to the axial loading. All test specimens were prepared using a 2100f-1.8E grade spruce-pine-fir lumber and because the test to failure was typically less than 5 minutes, polyvinyl acetate (PVA) adhesive was used to bond the fingerjoints to facilitate joint fabrication.
Additional testing was also carried out to extend the testing protocol developed in 2008-09 for assessing fingerjoint adhesives under sustained tension loads. Samples bonded with a known performing adhesive, phenol resorcinol formaldehyde (PRF), were substituted with samples bonded with PVA, a known poor performer under sustained loads.
In the bending test, test span configuration and characteristic number of joints showed strong effects on the average bending capacity of the fingerjoints. While more joints in the region of maximum bending moment were expected to contribute to lower bending capacities, this was not as evident in this study. This is likely due to the small sample sizes and the tight control over the joint strength (i.e. low strength variability). Instead, having one or more fingerjoints in the maximum moment zone but near the load points appeared to have a stronger effect. The bending strength reductions were on the order of 5 to 10%.
In the combined loading test, loading eccentricity showed a strong effect on the capacity of the fingerjoints in both tension-bending and compression-bending. The tension-bending interaction should be noted for those evaluating online or offline tension test results. Both the tension-bending and compression-bending results are consistent with the assumptions in the CSA O86 design code.
This project looks at the preferences for structural wood products within the top 20 residential homebuilding markets in the United States. A first objective was to document the attributes demanded by homebuilders in structural floors, walls and decking applications. The project further characterizes the performance of wood, steel, and concrete on these demanded attributes. The study was completed into two subsequent steps. The first step was a quantitative survey of an average of 50 builders per market in the Top 20 markets. The second step included focus groups with homebuilders in four of these markets: Philadelphia, Chicago, Phoenix, and Denver.
Results show that wood products continue to be under pressure from the growth of concrete in wall and floor systems. While the basis for growth in the use of concrete was traditionally found in the U.S. South, this survey points out that western and northern cities of the United States may become susceptible to the growth of concrete slab floors. The intended future use of concrete in walls was also high in some Northern jurisdictions such as New-York, Minneapolis, Washington, and Philadelphia, indicating a possible spread of concrete use in walls in some markets which traditionally relied on wood. However, the discussions with builders in Chicago and Philadelphia tempered this threat, as most of participants to the focus groups were much relying on wood for their projects. Nevertheless, the survey shows that, according to homebuilders, concrete significantly outperforms wood on durability, strength/structural integrity, and acoustic performance. Two of these attributes (durability and strength/structural integrity) are among the Top 3 important attributes in both floor and wall applications. With that said, it is important to point out that wood obtains a high score on the performance scale for both these attributes, despite the difference with concrete. These attributes may guide the development of future wood based products and building systems. On code acceptance, wood also scores high on the performance scale, and is at least equal with concrete.
Wood based sheathing (OSB, Plywood and Fiberboard) detain over 85% of the market in 17 of the 20 metro areas. However, foam and kraftboard sheathing have gained some importance in selected markets. In Chicago, the market share of foam and kraftboard together even reaches 24%. When comparing the performance of wood-based sheathing with foam-based sheathing, plywood and OSB are significantly thought superior to foam for strength, structural integrity, resistance to jobsite damage, environmental friendliness, and code acceptance. Foam is said to perform better than OSB or Plywood for both acoustics and energy performance. As a result, acoustics and energy performance in sheathing applications prove to be valuable paths for product development. This was confirmed in focus groups sessions.
Most generally, builders interviewed for the discussion sessions expressed the need for new products addressing their concerns. In focus group sessions, labour issues came out as one of these concerns (except in Chicago). Especially, the current housing downturn has forced many trades out of the homebuilding sector, and most builders met fear that there will be a severe shortage of qualified labour once the housing market rebounds. Other issues that builders actively pursue include a combination of insulation and structural properties for sheathing (confirmed by the quantitative research), low maintenance and low call-back products, and ease of installation. From the discussion sessions, there is also room for new insulation products.
Composite decking has captured at least 20% market share in 12 of 20 of the metro areas. The highest market shares are found in Denver (71%), Washington (50%), Seattle (45%), and Philadelphia (40%). Clearly, composite decking now offers the greatest competition to wood in decks. This is shown by the satisfaction measures of decking materials which are greater for tropical hardwood and composite/plastic lumber than for wood, treated or not. Composite materials seemingly suit better the most demanded attributes, including durability, appearance, and longevity. The importance of low maintenance was further confirmed through the focus groups.
The current Canadian Lumber Properties program was established to support multi-year research on topics judged by the industry to be critical to the safe and viable use of Canadian dimension lumber in structural applications. This program, in combination with the National Lumber Grades Authority’s grading rules and the accredited third party grading agencies form the backbone of the Canadian lumber quality system. This system enables Canadian lumber producers to grade and ship Canadian lumber for use in North American and overseas structural building applications.
When initiated in 2005, the program focussed on five areas. The effort is now focussed on three areas: 1) maintenance of existing lumber design values by means of an ongoing lumber properties monitoring program; 2) working with the US/Canada task group established to guide the development of standard procedures published in ASTM D1990 and used in the establishment of lumber design values; and 3) liaise with university-based research groups to leverage research suitable for addressing longer-term research needs in the area of lumber properties.
One of the planned activities for 2009-10 was the start-up of a trial on-going lumber properties monitoring program. The program, which is a longitudinal survey of lumber produced from mills across Canada, would have been modelled after the Pilot Ongoing Monitoring program that began in 2006 and ended in 2008. Because of the severe downturn in the industry starting in 2008, the proposed 2009-10 program needed to be postponed to accommodate the shortfall in industry funding. There were also concerns with the significant changes in production levels both within and between regions, and the potential disruptions to sampling because of unanticipated mill closures. Available resources were instead directed at establishing how best to respond to practical issues observed during the downturn, such as the closure of a mill that would have or had been providing samples. Following discussions during the year and consideration of possible alternatives, it is recommended that the sampling plan as used in the Pilot program be restarted. Additional details on the augmented mill list to account for mill closures are provided in the recommendations section of this report.
In the other major area of study, University of BC (UBC) and US Forest Products Laboratory (USFPL) statisticians met to discuss and evaluate alternatives to the ASTM D1990 procedures for developing design values for groups of wood species. Although the proposed alternative procedures would address one or more of the statistical anomalies identified in the ASTM D1990 procedure, the American Lumber Standard Committee (ALSC) Lumber Properties Task Group (LPTG) charged with reviewing the potential changes did not see any practical improvements to warrant changes to the procedures but suggested that the effort focus on establishing criteria for species grouping. Because of the potential inter-relationship between the species grouping procedures and other procedures used to assess in-grade lumber properties, it is recommended that efforts be maintained in this area and adjusted as required to respond to the needs of the LPTG.
Lastly, in late 2009, the UBC Dept. of Statistics and the Simon Fraser University Dept. of Statistics and Actuarial Science were awarded a research grant by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada to establish the “Forest Products Stochastic Modeling Group”. FPInnovations is the industrial collaborator on this initiative. Several student projects targeting longer-term lumber properties research needs have been initiated, and a sample of suggested projects is included in the appendix of this report.
Programme des technologies transformatrices ; Projet no 201000339
La tendance vers la construction verte est en croissance fulgurante depuis les dix dernières années. On estime que le marché de la construction verte représente environ 5 % du marché actuel de la construction. La majorité des bâtiments conçus ou construits dans une perspective environnementale se situent dans les secteurs non-résidentiel ou multifamilial. C’est dans ce contexte que nous nous sommes intéressés à la possibilité de développer et vendre des isolants faits à partir de bois; un matériau généralement reconnu pour ses vertus écologiques. La principale application ciblée dans le rapport est les cavités murales.
Ce rapport se présente en cinq (5) principales sections :
Le marché mondial pour les produits isolants est énorme. Il est estimé à plus de 190 milliards de pi² base R-1. Près de 70 % de ce total est destiné au marché de la construction qui comprend la construction résidentielle (45 %) et non-résidentielle (23 %). La majorité des isolants consommés à l’échelle mondiale sont utilisés en Amérique du Nord et en Europe de l’Ouest. De manière générale, le marché est dominé par les mousses plastiques et la fibre de verre. Le marché pour les isolants autres (alternatifs) oscille entre 2 et 6 % en fonction des marchés dont il est question. Cette proportion est généralement plus élevée dans la réparation et la rénovation que dans la nouvelle construction. Il existe des variations régionales qui sont documentées dans le présent rapport.
Structure industrielle :
Les isolants sont des produits dont la valeur unitaire est relativement faible. Il est par conséquent difficile de livrer ces produits sur de grandes distances. La majorité de la production mondiale se fait dans les deux grands marchés mondiaux soit l’Amérique du Nord et l’Europe de l’Ouest. Le tiers du marché (33 %) est dominé par cinq grandes entreprises qui opèrent plusieurs divisions. Elles sont : St-Gobain, Rockwool, Owens Corning, Johns Manville et Knauf. Il faut dire que les produits dominant actuellement le marché nécessitent d’importants investissements en capitaux. Ceci explique, en partie, cette concentration du marché au chapitre de la production.
Politiques et réglementations :
Cette section documente les grandes tendances qui risquent d’affecter la demande pour les produits isolants. L’augmentation des coûts de production des mousses pourrait offrir des opportunités pour d’autres produits. Les exigences relatives aux émissions de gaz à effet de serre pourraient jouer en faveur des isolants faits à partir de bois. Les politiques de réutilisation des matières résiduelles présentent des opportunités quant à l’utilisation de ces résidus pour fabriquer des isolants. La hausse des exigences de performance énergétique exigera l’amélioration des produits communément utilisés ainsi que des innovations à partir des matériaux moins fréquemment employés.
Performance environnementale :
Cette section montre que les produits isolants à base de bois peuvent contribuer à l’obtention de 8 à 9 % des points pour les systèmes de certification LEED et Green Globes. Il faut toutefois être conscient que l’isolant représente une petite proportion des matériaux entrants dans la construction d’un immeuble (<1 % en valeur). Ceci démontre l’intérêt, du point de vue de la construction verte, à développer des produits qui ont d’autres fonctions que simplement celle d’isoler.
Comportements et exigences d’achat :
Des entrevues exploratoires auprès d’architectes et autres utilisateurs d’isolant ont démontré un intérêt pour des produits plus verts. Les principaux facteurs intervenant dans la sélection du matériau isolant sont sa résistance thermique, son coût et la familiarité avec le produit. Les produits isolants conventionnels ne reçoivent que très peu d’intérêt de la part des architectes. L’isolant n’est pas perçu comme étant très innovateur (c’est plus ou moins une commodité) et a peu d’incidence sur le concept (esthétique ou fonctions) du bâtiment. Une des tendances qui semble poindre actuellement à l’horizon est celle des isolants qu’il est possible d’agrafer par l’extérieur du bâtiment.
Les autres sections du document présentent le contexte dans lequel le projet s’est exécuté (contexte, objectifs, équipe de projet, etc.) et font état des conclusions à retenir (discussion et conclusions). Les propriétés et caractéristiques générales des différents matériaux isolants sont présentées en annexe. Cette section complémentaire recense des exemples de produits pour chacun des principaux types de matériaux utilisés sur le marché incluant la fibre et la laine de bois.
Les informations colligées dans le cadre de ce projet permettent d’établir ces constats généraux :
À court et moyen terme, les principaux marchés pour l’isolant fait à partir de bois sont le marché non-résidentiel et multifamilial.
Le positionnement du produit isolant bois devrait être du côté des produits verts ou respectueux de l’environnement. Il ne s’agit pas d’un matériau dont la performance surpasse les matériaux communément utilisés.
Pour profiter pleinement de ce positionnement stratégique, le(s) produit(s) développé(s) devrai(en)t :
o Incorporer d’autres fonctions (pare-air, pare-vapeur, pare-feu, revêtement structural extérieur, parement extérieur, structure, etc.).
o Utiliser des matériaux issus de la démolition d’immeubles existants, fibres agricoles et autres intrants avec une faible empreinte écologique.
o Être analysés objectivement par l’entremise d’une analyse de cycle de vie.
La conclusion du rapport soulève certaines avenues de recherche pour les années à venir. Parmi celles-ci, on note les pistes suivantes :
Meilleure connaissance des types de construction les plus susceptibles d’utiliser des isolants verts faits à partir de bois.
Critères (incluant le prix et spécification de produit) recherchés par les différents utilisateurs.
Identification des marchés industriels (pas liés à la construction) susceptibles d’être réceptifs à des produits à base de bois.
Potentiel d’utilisation des matériaux de différentes sources (récupération, agricole, etc.) dans la fabrication de produits isolants.
Développement des propriétés (ex. : résistance à la compression) et des procédés.
Western red cedar’s natural durability is attributed to a unique set of heartwood extractives. These can be lost in service due to leaching and biological activity. The microorganisms responsible for extractive depletion from wood in service are not well understood, and it is not known whether such loss of extractives has a substantial impact in reduced durability. The present work exposed western red cedar blocks in ground contact and above ground in a high humidity environment for one year. Trichoderma spp., Penicillium spp. and zygomycetes were found to initially colonise the blocks. This coincided with significant losses of extractives. Biological degradation is the most likely cause of extractive depletion in the ground contact and above-ground exposures in this experiment. This degradation corresponds to reduced decay resistance to at least one brown rot fungus.
In 2008, FPInnovations, Feric produced “A Tree Planter’s Guide to Reducing Musculoskeletal Disorders" (MSDs). The guide was aimed mostly at planters in western Canada using the shovel as the planting tool but it had no provincial boundaries and it was equally applicable to similar operations across Canada. However, because eastern Canadian tree planters also use different tools, an eastern Canadian version of the Guide was produced to include those tools.
We surveyed fire behaviour experts and wildlife biologists to rank the importance of four factors that affect the costs and benefits of seven post-harvest debris treatments and to determine the overall costs of each treatment to the forest industry and Alberta’s government. The four factors are fire behaviour potential, wildlife suitability, regeneration capability, and treatment costs.
We tested six plant species or mixes at Vegreville, Alberta to determine their ignition and fire behaviour characteristics and whether they could be used along linear corridors to reduce the fire potential at strategic locations. Nine ignition trials over three years and one grass-fire burning into the test plots were completed to allow ranking of the species based on their characteristics. Three of the species were chosen for additional field studies: white clover, yarrow, and Plateau Rocky Mountain fescue.
This report documents the costs and productivities of group-selection harvesting of one-third of a stand in an old-growth cedar–hemlock forest in the interior wet-belt of British Columbia while preserving caribou habitat values. The group-selection harvesting was compared to clearcut and single-tree selection treatments. Harvesting costs were strongly influenced by the merchantability of the harvested stems and the criteria for selecting trees to be harvested. The single-tree selection had the lowest cost because of the selection criteria and merchantability while the group selection had the highest cost. The group selection treatment’s harvesting costs were about 22% greater than for the clearcut treatment.
FPInnovations studied a series of four partial harvesting trials and one combined partial harvesting–clearcut trial over three years in the Prince George (B.C.) Forest District. The partial harvesting trials harvested pine trees killed by the mountain pine beetle while protecting the non-pine secondary structure. The purpose of protecting the secondary structure is to provide a viable stand that will enhance the mid-term timber supply in 15 to 50 years. This report provides the costs, productivity, and harvesting damage results of the partial harvesting and clearcutting treatments used in the fifth and final trial. The pre-harvest stand was stocked with non-pine trees before harvesting, but was not stocked following the partial harvesting treatment. Slightly more than one-third of the net block area was clearcut for roads, trails, and landings. The trial results suggest up to 23% of the harvested non-pine overstory could potentially have been protected.
Between 2003 and 2004, FPInnovations, Feric division, evaluated experimental mechanized harvesting in riparian zones. Exceptionally, the machinery used was allowed to operate in these zones but had to be careful not to disturb the soil. Operations were carried out in winter conditions in Quebec’s Saguenay?Lac-Saint-Jean region, with cut-to-length harvesting equipment. The single-grip harvester followed two cutting patterns, the first one with 5-m insertions perpendicular to the shores every 20 m, and the second one with a corridor parallel to and in the middle of the riparian zone. The trials showed that it was possible to operate forest machinery in riparian zones in winter without disturbing the soil. The additional harvesting costs for these two methods ranged from $1.16 to $3.00/m³ compared with costs normally incurred with conventional harvesting with protection of regeneration and soils (HPRS).
Nominal ground pressure is an important criterion used to predict the effects of a machine’s weight and configuration on forest soils during harvesting activities. This report discusses the concept of nominal ground pressure, how it applies to various common machine types, and the impacts of various machine configuration options. It also relates to the PASCAL software.
A study was conducted on the central coast of British Columbia to quantify the impact of seven ecosystem-based management (EBM) elements on timber supply, timing, and cost of harvest operations at the watershed level. The objectives of the study are addressed by comparing EBM vs. non-EBM scenarios through a series of three analyses. The first analysis calculates the even-flow annual harvest volume without imposing any constraints/limits on volumes harvested by conventional methods or by helicopter. The second analysis identifies the minimum re-entry time in the watershed when the conventional and helicopter harvest volumes are specified. In the third analysis, constraints on the wood volume harvested with different methods are maintained and the harvest volumes available are calculated assuming that the re-entry time is set at 30 years. When EBM elements are applied, the analyses identified reductions in harvest volumes ranging from 32 to 44%, depending on the constraints used in each analysis. Re-entry time also increased in the EBM scenario from 9 to 16 years. The cost of harvest operations was found to be variable as it is influenced by the percentage of conventional and helicopter blocks harvested in each scenario and the cost assumptions used. Given the reduction in harvest volume, an increase in road construction cost ranging from $9.25 to $12.78/m3 for the EBM scenario was noted. Also, the incremental changes in trucking cost varied between $0.15 and $0.18/m3.
Élément 5 : Développement de nouveaux procédés et technologies pour l'industrie des bois feuillus - Identification d'applications de la technologie de séchage haute fréquence en continu rentables pour l'industrie des bois feuillus
Programme des technologies transformatrices ; Projet TT5.15
Le présent projet fait partie l’initiative de recherche visant à améliorer la compétitivité de la filière feuillue de l’est du Canada et est financé par le Programme des technologies transformatrices de Ressources naturelles Canada.
L’objectif est de déterminer en collaboration avec des industriels de l’industrie de transformation des bois feuillus quelles sont les applications de séchage par haute fréquence en continu les plus intéressantes à investiguer pour le développement futur de cette technologie. Il servira à élucider certains éléments technico-économiques (longueur des électrodes, estimation de coût d’achat, coût énergétique, etc.) en fonction de différentes applications potentielles.
Full-scale fire resistance tests on wood-frame wall assemblies carried out by the wood industry in 2006 demonstrated that end-joined (finger-joined) studs may not perform on par with equivalent solid-sawn studs, as had long been accepted by Canadian and U.S. building codes. The test results were found to vary significantly with the type of adhesive used, and more importantly, walls constructed with finger-joints made with some adhesives did not exhibit expected fire-resistance ratings. Although no problems have been reported with fire performance in the field, the wood industry quickly moved to address this issue in order to ensure the continued safety of wood structures constructed with these products.
In February 2007, the American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA) released a qualification procedure for adhesives to be used in fire-rated assemblies that is based on full-scale ASTM E119 fire resistance tests. In 2008 this test procedure was separated into two methods and published as two ASTM standards. These ASTM procedures have since been adopted by both the American Lumber Standard Committee (ALSC) and the Canadian Lumber Standards Accreditation Board (CLSAB).
Although the full-scale test is now accepted as a methodology to qualify adhesives for use in fingerjoined HRA (heat resistant adhesive) lumber, there are obvious advantages to developing a small-scale test procedure for use as an alternative to the full-scale procedure. This project worked to develop a new small-scale test methodology which proved useful for quantifying the elevated-temperature performance of adhesives used in fingerjoined lumber.
The work in promoting a small-scale test methodology to replace the full-scale fire resistance test.
This project was created in 2004-2005 to capitalise on the opportunity to supervise or co-supervise student projects that would further FPInnovations’ fire research goals. During the six-year term of this project, students have made significant improvements to CUrisk, the fire risk model for wood-frame buildings developed at Carleton University. The model calculates the expected-risk-to-life presented by fire and the fire-cost-expectation over the lifetime of a building. It accounts for the probability of initiation of fire in a building, the subsequent performance of all the fire protection features in the building and the actions of occupants as they evacuate the building. The most notable improvements are summarised below:
Mathematical models have been constructed for design fires that are suitable for use in CUrisk. A design fire is one that represents a severe, but credible challenge to the fire protection features in a building. Design fires have been developed for commercial establishments (restaurants, shops, etc.), and for hotels or motels. Preliminary work has been completed for computer rooms.
Much progress had been made in modelling the performance of wood-frame floors and walls exposed to any (design) fire. When imported into CUrisk, these models can predict whether wood-frame assemblies can perform their structural and/or containment roles while occupants are evacuating from a building on fire.
Progress has also been made in modelling fire and smoke spread within a building. In the event that a wood-frame assembly fails or an internal door burns through, CUrisk predicts the advance of fire and smoke within a building.
CUrisk has been streamlined and successfully employed to undertake a fire-risk assessment of a four-storey, multi-use wood-frame building.
As taller and larger area buildings of wood construction are envisioned, it will often be the case that wood-frame construction will be replaced (or supplemented) by heavy-timber construction using glulam members. To prepare for that eventuality, much work has been done by students to model the fire performance of glulam structures and the fire performance of the connections between glulam members.
The recently adopted objective-based version of the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) offers the opportunity for the construction of buildings of wood or hybrid construction with areas and heights beyond those spelled out in the prescriptive (or acceptable) solutions within the NBCC. This can be accomplished by developing an alternative solution in which one or more of the fire protection features in the building is upgraded beyond what is specified in the acceptable solutions. In order to take full advantage of the introduction of objective-based codes, an NSERC Industrial Research Chair in Fire Safety Engineering was established at Carleton University in 2001 to address the need for design tools. The chair’s research was funded jointly by NSERC and FPInnovations. By the end of the Chair’s first five-year term, which ended December 31, 2005, a prototype engineering tool called CUrisk had been developed. The model calculates the expected-risk-to-life presented by fire and the fire-cost-expectation over the lifetime of a building. It accounted for the probability of initiation of fire in a building, the subsequent performance of all the fire protection features in the building and the actions of occupants as they evacuate the building. However it was still very much a prototype model with need for refinements before it could be deemed a design tool.
This project was initiated in 2006 to mirror the second term of the NSERC Chair’s research program and thereby enable FPInnovations fire scientists to assist the Chair in carrying out his research. The overall goals for the Chair’s research were to refine CUrisk in order to convert it from a research tool into a design tool, and to fine-tune it to be applicable to specific occupancies such as wood-frame hotels and motels, retail stores, open-plan office buildings, churches and warehouses. Much progress has been made towards these goals in the first four years of his second term. In fact, the revised version of CUrisk has been successfully employed by a Carleton University student to undertake a fire-safety assessment of a multi-use four-storey wood-frame building. It is anticipated that, by the completion of his second term on December 31, 2010, CUrisk will be sufficiently mature for use by the Chair in the design of buildings. After more experience is gained with the tool, it will be circulated for use by the research community.
This report also outlines how FPInnovations scientists have assisted the Chair in delivering the academic component of his Fire Safety Engineering Program. This has included the delivery of graduate courses, supervision of graduate students and delivery of lectures in Short Courses designed for practicing engineers.
From the outset it was recognised that much of the research proposed for the 2nd term of the NSERC Chair would be addressed by graduate students supervised by the Chair with assistance from FPInnovations fire scientists. Until the end of 2009-2010, the actual activities of the students have been captured in the Final Report for project CFS No. 5 Support for Research Studies by Engineering Students (FPInnovations Project 20100303). However, it has become evident that the students’ projects typically address deliverables in the Chair’s research program. Consequently a decision has been taken to close this project in order to merge it with CFS No. 05 effective April 1, 2010. This work will continue under the project name “Support for Fire Safety Design Tools and Research” in 2010/11.