The current Canadian Lumber Properties (LP) program was established to support multi-year research on topics judged by the industry to be critical to the safe and viable use of Canadian dimension lumber in structural applications. This program, in combination with the National Lumber Grades Authority’s grading rules and the accredited third party grading agencies, form the backbone of the Canadian lumber quality system. This system enables Canadian lumber producers to grade and ship Canadian lumber for use in North American and overseas structural building applications.
When initiated in 2005, the program focussed on five areas. The effort is now focussed on three areas: 1) maintenance of existing lumber design values by means of an ongoing lumber properties monitoring program; 2) working with the US/Canada task group established to guide the development of standard procedures published in ASTM D1990 and used in the establishment of lumber design values; and 3) liaison with university-based research groups to leverage research suitable for addressing longer-term research needs in the area of lumber properties.
In 2010/11, the ongoing monitoring program was initiated for SPF. This follows the 2-year pilot monitoring program, which was also carried out on SPF. Due to the late start, no testing was carried out this year. The start-up of the program was timely because in August 2010, the American Lumber Standard Committee (ALSC) directed the Lumber Properties Task Group (TG) to draft mandatory lumber monitoring procedures for implementation in ASTM D1990. Work done to date on the Pilot study and previous monitoring studies well positioned the FPInnovations, CWC and the NLGA to participate in the TG discussion.
Planned work with the TG and the US Forest Products Laboratory, Madison (USFPL) on new species grouping procedures for ASTM D1990 was suspended. The TG recommended that the work continue under ASTM as opposed to under the TG. Although next steps were discussed with the USFPL, these have been put on hold until the work on implementing lumber monitoring procedures in ASTM D1990 is substantially complete.
A new study to examine the application of machine grading to sawn timbers was initiated under this program. The study, if successful, will lead to a detailed study plan for developing new design values for timbers based on a hybrid “machine” and “output” controlled approach. The information would also be used as a basis for a new NLGA Special Products Standard.
Finally, funding for the second year of the NSERC Collaborative Research and Development (CRD) grant for the UBC/SFU Forest Products Stochastic Modelling Group was approved. This has permitted some of the longer term lumber properties issues to be presented as topics for Graduate Research Assistantships for the summer of 2011, leading potentially to MSc or PhD studies in the fall.
L’exsudation de résine est un problème courant qui apparaît sous l’effet de la chaleur ou du soleil, généralement à partir d’une température critique se situant entre 70-80°C, laquelle est facilement atteinte pour des expositions extérieures plein soleil en orientation sud l’été. Ce phénomène est particulièrement important au niveau des nœuds du bois. Ils posent des problèmes lors de l’application des revêtements et accélèrent le vieillissement des bois résineux en utilisation extérieure en dégradant prématurément les couches protectrices en formant des fissures, des cloques, des craquelages et des pertes d’adhérence de la finition. Une réduction de l’exsudation de la résine permettrait d’améliorer sensiblement la durabilité des produits résineux pour des applications extérieures comme le lambris. En outre, cela rendrait le bois plus attractif par rapport aux alternatives comme le PVC ou l’aluminium.
L’objectif de cette étude était de développer plusieurs stratégies pour réduire l’exsudation de résine de l’épinette blanche qui est souvent utilisée pour des applications de lambris extérieur au Québec. Plus précisément, le projet a eu pour objectifs :
- la caractérisation physico-chimique de la résine;
- la cartographie des nœuds susceptibles d’exsuder;
- la détermination des stratégies de réduction de résine et leur sélection selon l’efficacité;
- l’évaluation à long terme des meilleures stratégies.
De manière générale, cette étude a permis de diviser les nœuds selon quatre catégories distinctes : nœuds encastrés lisses (45 %), nœuds encastrés rugueux (10 %), nœuds sains lisses (30 %) et nœuds sains rugueux (15 %). Une cartographie s’appuyant sur plusieurs édifices a permis de démontrer que les nœuds encastrés et sains lisses exsudaient beaucoup comparés aux deux autres catégories. La résine de l’épinette blanche est principalement constituée de terpènes avec des fonctions aromatiques, alcènes, aldéhydes et alcools. Il est aussi probable que des fonctions acides, cétones et esters soient présentes. La température de transition vitreuse de cette résine est d’environ 90°C. Parmi les stratégies testées, l’obstruction des pores à l’aide d’une résine radio-polymérisable et d’une résine époxy semblerait fournir une bonne durabilité à long terme (8 ans et plus), viendrait ensuite l’utilisation d’une couche de fond (primer) développée pour l’exsudation de résine et l’ionisation du bois (moins de 5 ans) et finalement l’utilisation de revêtements classiques dont les performances varient selon le type de résine, l’épaisseur et le type d’application.
Bien que les produits de finition à base d’eau constituent une avenue prometteuse pour les manufacturiers de meubles et d’armoires de cuisine, ces produits semblent provoquer l’apparition non désirable des joints de colle reliant les composants de bois. Ce projet de recherche avait pour objectif d’analyser ce phénomène. L’apparence des lignes de colle de panneaux lamellés-collés a été analysée suite à l’application de produits de finition à base d’eau dans le but d’identifier les combinaisons de colle/produit de finition causant l’apparition de cette problématique.
Six colles fréquemment utilisées en industrie et quatre systèmes de finition, dont trois à base d’eau et un à base de solvant, ont été testés sur des panneaux de bois massif lamellés-collés et sur des panneaux particules. L’apparence des lignes de colle a été analysée visuellement et aussi à l’aide d’un profilomètre afin de mesurer de façon précise la topographie de surface des échantillons vis-à-vis les joints de colle.
Ces manipulations n’ont toutefois pas permis de recréer la problématique des joints de colle trop apparents rencontrée par certains industriels. Suite à la fabrication des panneaux et à l’application des produits de finition, les lignes de colle n’étaient pas plus visibles qu'ordinairement en industrie avec l’utilisation des produits de finition à base de solvant. Les échantillons ont été conditionnés à un cycle d’humidité dans le but de constater l’effet de l’humidité sur la finition des panneaux. Ce traitement a engendré une augmentation de l’apparence des lignes de colle sur plusieurs échantillons, mais ce, autant sur les échantillons traités avec les systèmes à base d’eau que sur ceux traités avec le système à base de solvant.
A study was conducted with the primary objective of examining the efficacy of a standard block shear test method to assess the bond quality of cross-laminated timber (CLT) products. The secondary objective was to examine the effect of pressure and adhesive type on the block shear properties of CLT panels. The wood material used for the CLT samples was Select grade nominal 25 x 152-mm (1 x 6-inch) Hem-Fir. Three adhesive types were evaluated under two test conditions: dry and vacuum-pressure-dry (VPD), the latter as described in CSA standard O112.10. Shear strength and wood failure were evaluated for each test condition.
Among the four properties evaluated (dry and VPD shear strength, and dry and VPD wood failure), only the VPD wood failure showed consistency in assessing the bond quality of the CLT panels in terms of the factors (pressure and adhesive type) evaluated. Adhesive type had a strong effect on VPD wood failure. The different performance levels of the three adhesives were useful in providing insights into how the VPD block shear wood failure test responds to significant changes in CLT manufacturing parameters. The pressure used in fabricating the CLT panels showed a strong effect on VPD wood failure as demonstrated for one of the adhesives. VPD wood failure decreased with decreasing pressure. Although dry shear wood failure was able to detect the effect of pressure, it failed to detect the effect of adhesive type on the bond quality of the CLT panels.
These results provide support as to the effectiveness of the VPD block shear wood failure test in assessing the bond quality of CLT panels. The VPD conditioning treatment was able to identify poor bondline manufacturing conditions by observed changes in the mode of failure, which is also considered an indication of wood-adhesive bond durability. These results corroborate those obtained from the delamination test conducted in a previous study (Casilla et al. 2011).
Along with the delamination test proposed in an earlier report, the VPD block shear wood failure can be used to assess the CLT bond quality. Although promising, more testing is needed to assess whether the VPD block shear wood failure can be used in lieu of the delamination test. The other properties studied (shear strength and dry wood failure), however, were not found to be useful in consistently assessing bond line manufacturing quality.
Potential market gain for Canadian softwood plywood in residential construction could arise from the emerging Chinese market to build massive numbers of affordable apartments and the upcoming rebuilding effort in Japan following the earthquake and tsunami disaster. Compared to the main Chinese species (poplar), common BC species, such as Douglas-fir, spruce and hem-fir, have competitive advantages in the aspects of log diameter, wood properties and veneer quality and processing productivity. For non-residential construction, Canadian plywood concrete forms also offer competitive advantages over Chinese overlaid poplar counterparts due to their higher stiffness and strength. However, the production cost has to be kept to below US$ 500/m3 for a profit margin. Further, three-ply and four-ply Canadian softwood plywood panels are ideally suited for the base materials of multi-layer composite floor, which currently is gaining momentum in China and other countries.
A sizeable increase in industrial and remodelling market is anticipated for the Canadian plywood industry. This will be mainly driven by a number of specialty plywood products, such as container floor and pallet, light truck, utility vehicle, trailer and camper manufacturing. However, these products are not commonly manufactured by larger commodity manufacturers in Canada. China is currently the largest global supplier of container floors, most of which are made from imported plywood, bamboo and poplar veneer. To meet their stringent requirements and gain a market share, Canadian plywood industry should take appropriate actions in adjusting veneer thickness, veneer grade, veneer treatment, and panel lay-up.
Japan has developed customized products such as oversized plywood for wall applications, and termite/mould resistant plywood for above ground and ground-contact applications. China has developed numerous new value-added veneer products for niche markets. Such products include marine plywood, sound reducing plywood, non-slip plywood, metal faced plywood, curved plywood and medium density fiberboard (MDF) or particleboard (PB)-faced plywood.
In order to stay competitive in the global market, Canadian plywood industry needs to:
remove the trade constraints between softwood plywood and hardwood plywood,
remove in-plant manufacturing barriers to deal with both softwood and hardwood processing,
diversify products for both appearance and structural based applications, and
develop new value-added products for niche markets.
This study suggests the following opportunities for Canadian plywood producers to
incorporate naturally decay-resistant species such as cedar as surface veneer and/or perform veneer or glueline treatment to make marine and exterior plywood for improved durability,
characterize veneer properties from the changing resource for better utilization,
peel some thinner and higher quality veneer for making specialty plywood,
conduct stress grading in combination with visual grading to maximize value recovery from the available resource,
increase the flexibility of panel lay-up for domestic/overseas markets and various applications,
develop mixed species plywood by mixing available hardwood species such as birch, maple, alder, aspen veneer (as overlay materials) with softwood plywood to achieve better appearance and higher performance,
develop new structural composite lumber (SCL) products such as veneer strand lumber (VSL) from low quality logs, particularly beetle-killed, and random veneer or waste veneer,
develop new drying, pressing and adhesive technologies for processing high moisture veneer, particularly hem-fir and spruce, to improve productivity and bond quality and reduce panel delamination,
develop light weight and strong hybrid plywood panels for furniture applications, by adding MDF or PB on the face of plywood,
develop hybrid plywood for floor applications to reduce thickness swell and increase dimensional stability and stiffness,
develop hybrid cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels from lumber, plywood and laminated veneer lumber (LVL) for low- and mid-rise residential and non-residential applications, and
develop a series of new product standards for specialty plywood.
A market research study for each product opportunity is recommended to develop a solid business case for each.
This project is a product of the merger of two continuing projects, namely “Fire Safety in Canadian Housing” and “Characterization of Fires in Residential Buildings”. The project formerly called “Fire Safety in Canadian Housing” included FPInnovations’ contribution to the National Research Council’s (NRC) consortium project looking at the effect of different fire protection measures on wood floor/ceiling assemblies on the life safety of occupants in single family houses. The current project is Phase Ib which is an extension of the original project which investigated the impact of different unprotected wood floor assemblies such as solid sawn joists, wood I-joists, wood trusses, etc. on the life safety of occupants. The project formerly called “Characterization of Fires in Residential Buildings” included FPInnovations’ contribution to the NRC’s consortium project looking at the development of design fires and design fire scenarios for residential buildings. Specifying design fires is an important step in a performance-based design. Since both of the research projects involve overseeing research conducted by the NRC dealing with fire in residential housing, they have been combined to allow simplified reporting.
A study was conducted with the primary objective of gathering information for the development of a protocol for evaluating the surface quality of cross-laminated timber (CLT) products. The secondary objectives were to examine the effect of moisture content (MC) reduction on the development of surface checks and gaps, and find ways of minimizing the checking problems in CLT panels. The wood materials used for the CLT samples were rough-sawn Select grade Hem-Fir boards 25 x 152 mm (1 x 6 inches). Polyurethane was the adhesive used. The development of checks and gaps were evaluated after drying at two temperature levels at ambient relative humidity (RH).
The checks and gaps, as a result of drying to 6% to 10% MC from an initial MC of 13%, occurred randomly depending upon the characteristics of the wood and the manner in which the outer laminas were laid up in the panel. Suggestions are made for minimizing checking and gap problems in CLT panels. The checks and gaps close when the panels are exposed to higher humidity.
Guidelines were proposed for the development of a protocol for classifying CLT panels into appearance grades in terms of the severity of checks and gaps. The grades can be based on the estimated dimensions of the checks and gaps, their frequency, and the number of laminas in which they appear.
Des manufacturiers de lames de plancher et de panneaux collés sur chant pour composants de meubles font parfois face à un problème de microfissures en surface du bois. Ces microfissures sont généralement détectées suite à l’application de la finition en usine et parfois même suite à la livraison des meubles ou à l’installation des lames de plancher chez le client. Le problème des microfissures peut donc s’avérer très coûteux pour les manufacturiers de produits d’apparence. Dans le cadre du présent projet, le partenaire de recherche, un important manufacturier de meubles de salle à dîner, témoigne de l’augmentation significative des microfissures observées en surface des composants en période hivernale. Des hypothèses de formation de microfissures en rapport aux conditions hivernales sont avancées. Ainsi, les objectifs du projet consistent en 1) l’évaluation de l’impact des changements climatiques en cours de transport et d’entreposage de panneaux de type lamellé-collé sur la formation des microfissures en surface et 2) l’étude de l’influence du gel en période hivernale sur la formation de microfissures en surface du bois suivant la sortie des chargements des séchoirs.
Des essais de conditionnement de composants de tables caractérisés par des cycles de gel et de dégel du matériel ont eu lieu en laboratoire. Les résultats n’ont démontré aucun impact du gel sur la formation de microfissures en surface. Ainsi, les conditions de transport et d’entreposage en conditions hivernales caractérisées par le gel du matériel ne favorisent pas la formation de microfissures en surface des composants de meubles.
Un essai de séchage impliquant deux scénarios de refroidissement du bois caractérisés par une sortie rapide du chargement au gel et un refroidissement graduel en séchoir a été réalisé. Les résultats ont révélé que le refroidissement du bois à l’extérieur du séchoir en fin de procédé par temps hivernal n’a pas d’impact sur la formation de microfissures en surface du matériau. Ainsi, sur la base de ce résultat, la sortie rapide d’un chargement de bois (à 50oC) à l’extérieur du séchoir en période de gel ne favorise pas la formation de microfissures.
L’évaluation du matériel en usine dans le cadre des essais réalisés a démontré la présence de microfissures localisées en grande proportion dans des portions colorées du bois. Ces zones de couleur s’expliquent par la présence du bois de cœur mais aussi par des taches d’origines chimique et fongique. Certains types de taches associés par exemple à une dégradation fongique ou carie sont caractérisés par une altération des composants cellulaires du bois et une réduction de la résistance mécanique. Ces portions colorées s’avèrent donc propices à la formation de microfissures. La qualité de la ressource aurait donc un impact sur la formation des microfissures observées en surface des composants de bois.
The objective of this technical note is to help road owners and managers assess the suitability of heavy vehicle configurations for resource roads. Basic information is presented about the relationship between truck weights and dimensions and elements of road geometry. The information should be useful when evaluating new truck and trailer combinations for a road system, planning the use of specialized equipment transport vehicles, or considering road upgrades. The intent is to encourage managers to ask the right questions and, perhaps in some cases, draw attention to the need for specific analysis to ensure road safety.
The BiOS (Biomass Opportunity and Supply) module in FPInterface is a tool for spatially evaluating available volumes and recovery costs of forest-origin biomass from a provided timber harvest area.
Modèles et simulation
Approvisionnement de fibre
Le module BiOS (Biomass Opportunity and Supply) de FPInterface permet d'évaluer spatialement les volumes disponibles et les coûts d'approvisionnement de la biomasse d'origine forestière provenant d'un territoire de coupe donné.
This study presents a cradle-to-grave environmental profile for pre-finished hardwood flooring manufactured in eastern Canada and compares this to profiles for alternative flooring products such as carpets, ceramic tiles, vinyl, cork, and linoleum flooring. This is a life cycle assessment (LCA) study.
Conduct a cradle-to-grave LCA for eastern Canadian hardwood flooring in a typical residential application;
Create cradle-to-grave profiles for alternative flooring products for which existing LCA was available (carpets, ceramic tiles, vinyl, cork , and linoleum flooring) and their use in typical residential applications;
Compare and contrast life cycle environmental impact of eastern Canadian hardwood flooring with alternative flooring types (carpets, ceramic tiles, vinyl, cork flooring, and linoleum) used in residential applications.
This report discusses eco-labeling and the rise in interest of environmental product declarations (EPDs). EPDs are ISO Type III labels conveying non-judgemental life cycle assessment (LCA)-based environmental performance data about products. These documents work in principle like nutrition labels on food packages, transparently disclosing standardized data about the contents and enabling side-by-side comparison between products. EPDs are a user-friendly vehicle for bringing LCA data to the marketplace. In Europe and Asia, EPD development is on the rise, and some jurisdictions are moving towards making EPDs mandatory; this may have trade implications for Canadian exporters. Meanwhile, North America has been slow to follow this trend, although there is movement in the US towards development of standards. It is in the best interests of the wood products industry to accelerate North American activity in EPDs and position itself as a leader in industrial sustainability by developing EPDs early. Over two decades of work in LCA by the wood industry has already indicated that environmental metrics for wood products are generally better than those for competing products. In this report, EPDs are explained in terms of applications, benefits, risks and market drivers. We discuss how EPDs are created and identify global activity in EPD development and creation of national infrastructures. We address trade implications, assess Canada’s readiness, and provide recommendations for moving more quickly to bring the potential benefit of EPDs to the Canadian wood products sector.
The overall objective of this research is to develop a methodology that will foster the design of fire-safe buildings of wood or hybrid construction. This project aims to develop a design methodology (i.e., calculation methods) which will allow the calculation of the fire-resistance of CLT assemblies/construction. The methodology will take into account the thickness and number of laminations and their orientation, the species and strength properties of the laminations, the load imposed on the panel, and any additional fire protection such as gypsum board or plywood. This will provide manufacturers and designers a methodology to predict the fire-resistance of panels for use in various applications.
In order to establish calculation methods a series of experimental tests has been undertaken. To date, two CLT fire-resistance tests have been conducted at the NRC fire laboratory where the panels were subject to standard CAN/ULC-S101 fire exposure. Both 3-ply CLT assemblies consisted of 38 x 89 mm black spruce boards, where the two outer longitudinal plies consisted of SPF 1650Fb-1.5E machine stress-rated (MSR) lumber, and the inner transverse ply was SPF No.3/stud. Each panel was protected with two layers of 12.7 mm CGC Sheetrock® FireCode® Core Type X gypsum board. Thermocouples were placed behind each layer of gypsum board and embedded at 19-mm increments into the panels to a depth of 76 mm.
The first test was a floor assembly, where a load of 2.7 kPa was applied. The test was ended after 77 minutes due to equipment concerns from the laboratory staff, therefore structural failure was not reached. The greatest measured char depth in the panel was 11.2 mm. The maximum deflection of the floor was 32.1 mm.
The second test was a wall assembly, which failed due to buckling after 106 minutes when subjected to 333 kN/m. From one data point a charring rate of 0.4 mm/min was calculated. The maximum deflection of the wall was 55.3 mm. From the thermocouple data, it was determined that the two layers of gypsum delayed the onset of charring in both the floor and wall tests by approximately 60 minutes.
So far the proposed calculation methods have proved to be conservative in predicting the time to structural failure and charring rates.
Due to the difficulty of sourcing CLT assemblies to test, six additional full-scale fire resistance tests are to be completed in 2011-2012. The current test plan includes testing two more wall assemblies and four more floor assemblies. Tentatively, the next set of floor tests to be completed will be on a 5 ply unprotected assembly with the only difference between them being the type of adhesive used. Similarly, a 5-ply unprotected wall assembly will be tested. A composite floor assembly consisting of CLT with a concrete toping is also planned to be tested. This leaves one wall and one floor test to be finalized allowing for investigation of any questions raised in the tests identified above.
Starting with a brief introduction on energy efficiency trends and initiatives/programs in the residential construction sector, this report focuses on the causes of, and ways to reduce vapour condensation. It also covers performance of wood-frame building enclosures, specifically walls, traditional vented roofs and relatively new unvented roofs, during laboratory/field testing and service. It confirms that the key to achieving long-term durability for highly insulated walls and unvented roofs in cold and coastal mild climates is to ensure good air tightness and reduce air exfiltration, control indoor humidity, reduce outward vapour diffusion, and keep wood elements warm. For traditional vented roofs in cold climates the key is to ensure good sealing at ceilings, reduce indoor humidity and maintain good attic ventilation. Studies on ventilation reduction and optimization to potentially reduce attic humidity, in coastal mild climates in particular, are also discussed.
Based on the identified knowledge gaps in how to ensure good durability performance of highly insulated wood-frame building enclosure assemblies, the report provides recommendations for future work:
Conduct field testing of highly insulated building enclosure assemblies to further quantify vapour condensation potential under realistic indoor and outdoor conditions in the representative climates in North America.
Inspect older houses/buildings built with high levels of insulation in the building enclosure to assemble service performance data, and summarize solutions to achieving good durability and energy efficiency.
Further improve hygrothermal simulation tools to improve the prediction of moisture and energy performance and thereby the design and construction of highly insulated building enclosure assemblies.
Provide guidelines on durable, buildable and economical building enclosure assemblies to improve the design and construction of energy efficient wood-frame houses/buildings.
The progress related to these items has been reported.
A recent study at the University of British Columbia and FPInnovations has established a link between wood and human health. In the study the presence of visual wood surfaces in a room lowered sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation. The SNS is responsible for physiological stress responses in humans. This result opens the door to a myriad of stress-related health benefits that the presence of wood may afford in the built environment. The application of wood to promote health indoors is a new tool for practitioners of evidence-based design.
Wood & Human Health Series; Issue 1 dealing with wood aesthetics