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Field performance of preserved shakes and shingles

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub52838
Author
Stirling, Rod
Wong, Daniel
Date
October 2013
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Stirling, Rod
Wong, Daniel
Date
October 2013
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
16 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Shingles
Shakes
Shingles durability
Shingles preservation
Testing
Preservatives
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
A series of long-term field tests have been evaluating the performance of various preservative treatments for shakes and shingles. This report updates the performance data for these products. CCA continues to be highly effective in protecting shakes. After 45 years in test, western redcedar shakes treated with CCA-B remain serviceable. After 20 years in test, pine and spruce shakes, treated with CCA, had no confirmed decay. ACQ-D and CA-B were effective in protecting western redcedar shingles, with little decay observed after 15 years of exposure. Propiconazole and oxine copper were associated with greater levels of decay and would not be recommended for protecting western redcedar shingles at the retentions evaluated. Longer exposure time is needed to evaluate the efficacy of the DDACarbonate and alkylamine oxide treatment.
Documents
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Peupliers exotiques en America du nord: pollution génétique ou source de biodiversité

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub53148
Author
Isabel, Nathalie Godbout, Julie
Date
Novembre 2013
Material Type
Presentation
Field
Partnerships

  1 video

Author
Isabel, Nathalie Godbout, Julie
Contributor
NRCAN
Date
Novembre 2013
Material Type
Presentation
Physical Description
Video ; 1:14:58
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Partnerships
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
PIF
Series Number
PIF ; 2013
Language
French
Abstract
A presentation by Nathalie Isabel and Julie Godbout for PIF (Partenariat Innovation Forêt)
Video Tracks
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Des opérations sylvicoles efficaces et équitables: des outils pour s'en donner les moyens

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub53162
Author
Cormier, Denis
Date
Février 2013
Material Type
Presentation
Field
Partnerships

  1 video

Author
Cormier, Denis
Contributor
NRCAN
Date
Février 2013
Material Type
Presentation
Physical Description
Video ; 1:14:19
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Partnerships
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
PIF
Series Number
PIF ; 2012-13
Language
French
Abstract
A presentation by Denis Cormier for PIF (Partenariat Innovation Forêt)
Video Tracks
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L'industrie forestière en évolution, un virage vers les bioproduits

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub53270
Author
Brunette, Gilles
Date
janvier 2013
Material Type
Presentation
Field
Partnerships

  1 video

Author
Brunette, Gilles
Date
janvier 2013
Material Type
Presentation
Physical Description
Video ; 1:123:00
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Partnerships
Research Area
Forestry
Series
PIF ; 2013
Language
French
Abstract
A presentation by Gilles Brunette for PIF (Partenariat Innovation Forêt)
Video Tracks
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Hardwood Initiave project reviews: Innovative harvesting approaches for tolerant hardwood forests; Quality and value-based hardwood forest management

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub53284
Author
Fournier, Francis Gingras, Jean-Francois Lihra, Torsten Lavoie, Patrick McDonald, Jean Normand, Dany Meek, Philippe Swift, Edwin
Date
May 2013
Material Type
Presentation
Field
Partnerships

  1 video

Author
Fournier, Francis Gingras, Jean-Francois Lihra, Torsten Lavoie, Patrick McDonald, Jean Normand, Dany Meek, Philippe Swift, Edwin
Date
May 2013
Material Type
Presentation
Physical Description
Video ; 2:52:44
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Partnerships
Research Area
Forestry
Series
PIF ; 2013
Language
English
Abstract
A webinar with various presentations by Francis Fournier, Jean-Francois Gingras,Torten Lihra, Patrick Lavoie, Jean McDonald, Dany Normand, Philippe Meek, Edwin Swift for PIF (Partenariat Innovation Forêt)
Video Tracks
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Webinar, Hardwood Research Initiative Program

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub53285
Author
Fournier, Francis
Gingras, Jean-Francois
Lihra, Torsten
Lavoie, Patrick
Date
mai 2013
Material Type
Presentation
Field
Partnerships

  1 video

Author
Fournier, Francis
Gingras, Jean-Francois
Lihra, Torsten
Lavoie, Patrick
Date
mai 2013
Material Type
Presentation
Physical Description
Video ; 0:33:14
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Partnerships
Research Area
Forestry
Series
PIF ; 2013
Language
English
Abstract
A webinar by Phiippe Meek, Jean-Francois Gingras, Torsten Lihra and Patrick Lavoie for PIF (Partenariat Innovation Forêt)
Video Tracks
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Expansion nordique de la tordeuse des bourgeons de l'épinette et résilience de la forêt boréale

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub53294
Author
DeGrandpré, Louis Pureswaran, Deepa
Date
2013
Material Type
Presentation
Field
Partnerships

  1 video

Author
DeGrandpré, Louis Pureswaran, Deepa
Date
2013
Material Type
Presentation
Physical Description
Video ; 1:09:10
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Partnerships
Research Area
Forestry
Series
PIF ; 2013
Language
French
Abstract
A presentation by Louis de Grandpré and Deepa Pureswaran for PIF (Partenariat Innovation Forêt)
Video Tracks
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Wood fibre insulation. Assessment of European dry process technology and North American market overview

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub53036
Author
Grandmont, Jean-Frédéeric
Knudson, Robert M.
Lavoie, Patrick
Date
October 2013
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Grandmont, Jean-Frédéeric
Knudson, Robert M.
Lavoie, Patrick
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
October 2013
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
17 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wood
Wood fibers
Insulation
Manufacturing
North America
Europe
Series Number
Transformative Technology ; TT 2013
Language
English
Abstract
Four major forces are driving interest in wood fibre based insulation products in Canada and other parts of the world: Changing energy codes for buildings; Densification in urban areas; A need to develop alternate uses for pulp chips and low quality wood fibre; and demand for renewable and green products.
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Wood use and product development needs in major North American housing markets

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub3054
Author
Lavoie, P.
Date
March 2013
Edition
39702
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Lavoie, P.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2013
Edition
39702
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
30 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Market Analysis
Subject
Test methods
United States (USA)
Markets
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. TT 1.1.14
W-3002
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Survey work conducted in 2012-13 focused on residential and remodeling. Both builders / contractors / remodelers and homeowners received questionnaires. In the case of builders (924 respondents) questions centered on material use and volumes consumed. Homeowner questionnaires (993 respondents) were designed to capture the rate at which typical projects were completed in (2012) as well as intentions to complete undertake projects in 2013-14. Survey highlights include: Types of projects completed
Most common projects completed in 2012 include flooring (22.5%) and insulation (14%).
Both types of projects are expected to remain popular in 2013-14.
Increased incidence is expected in cabinets, decking and windows. Lumber use
#2 and better lumber represents half (50%) of all lumber used in R&R.
Treated lumber is the most used lumber type used (22%). It is followed by SYP, Douglas fir and SPF. Decking
Metropolitan markets with the largest decking installations on average are typically located on the west coast. They include Seattle, Portland and San Francisco. The Detroit area displays decks of a similar average size (800 sq ft).
Treated wood remains the number one decking product used (34%) slightly ahead of composite decking (31%). Siding
Fiber cement is the top siding choice in Top 20 metro (US average) with a 28% market share. Vinyl (14%), cedar (13%), OSB (7%), other lumber (7%) and fiberboard (3%) are also commonly seen in repair and remodeling. Flooring
Hardwood flooring (and engineered wood flooring) has a large market share (38% combined) in repair in remodeling. Results for repair and remodeling combining both datasets will be published in April at http://podium.fpinnovations.ca/en/connexion.[1] Past results on new residential construction are presently available. Data presented in PODIUM is based on original survey work which has historically been a staple of FPInnovations’ research program. This data can be used by industry and associations in combination with other more generic data sources to provide better understanding of specific markets both regionally and by application. It is expected that PODIUM will become the main display of FPInnovations’ business analysis group expertise offering not only Top 20 data, but also links to presentations given recently and research reports.
Buildings - Houses
Markets - United States
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Automated log pocket monitoring system for OSB mills

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub3063
Author
Groves, C. Kevin
Date
April 2013
Edition
39712
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Groves, C. Kevin
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
April 2013
Edition
39712
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
14 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Test methods
Strandboards
Oriented strandboard
Orientation
Series Number
W-3008
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
A prototype scanning system successfully demonstrated the capability of real-time, log pocket monitoring that can be used to alert operators of improper pocket filling practice. Several previous FPInnovations studies have shown that the log pocket filling is often poorly controlled resulting in poor log alignment and/or incomplete filling that adversely affects both flake quality and strander productivity. Until now there have been no systems available to automatically measure the alignment of logs being fed into the strander or measurement of the actual filling of the strander pockets. An automated monitoring system is needed to signal operators when the log pocket is improperly loaded. This feedback can allow operators to maintain proper log filling procedure to maximize flaking quality. In March 2013 a machine vision scanning system comprised of a camera, 2 line lasers and computer with image analysis software, was tested for two days at the Peace Valley OSB mill (PVOSB) in Fort Saint John, BC. The scanner’s camera and lasers were mounted 13 feet above the center of the log pocket base. Images of pocket filling were acquired and analyzed for pass/fail conditions. Two image groups were selected for analysis, one of full pocket, aligned logs (pass) and the other containing misaligned logs and/or insufficient pocket fill (fail). For all pocket scans, scanner measurements were compared to manual visual classification. Approximately 50 different pockets were scanned with results and images saved for analysis. For fill height and vertical log alignment measurement, the scanner correctly identified >95% of all the pockets examined. However, log alignment measurement in the horizontal x-y plane did not function as intended due to poor image contrast that could not be resolved during the mill trial. This technique has been shown to work well in previous pilot plant tests (Groves, 2012) which confirms that the underlying measurement fundamentals are sound. It is recommended that only minor lighting adjustments are required for the scanning system to work well in a mill setting. Implementing this technology in OSB mills should help to reduce the occurrence of poor pocket filling that can adversely affect strand quality. It should be noted that even small improvements to strand quality and productivity can yield significant cost benefits. It is estimated that reducing fines by a modest 1% and improving productivity by 1% can return in excess of $1 million/year based on an average size Canadian OSB mill.
Oriented strandboard - Manufacture
Documents
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Automated plywood edge grading system

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub3066
Author
Groves, C. Kevin
Date
April 2013
Edition
39715
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Groves, C. Kevin
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
April 2013
Edition
39715
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
17 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Test methods
Plywood
Grading
Series Number
W-3009
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
In plywood mills finished panels are manually graded and sorted based on specific defects. The panel edges are especially difficult to grade by human visual inspection due to the small nature of different defects, especially at higher line speeds. This can result in misread errors that can be costly. In this project a prototype scanner, based on 3D laser profilometry, was developed by FPInnovations and demonstrated in two Canadian plywood mills for automatic edge grading. At both mills, panels were scanned on the production line in real time, collecting full length, 3-dimensional edge profiles in the x, y and z coordinate fields that were then analyzed by computer software sub-routines to identify defects for each panel. The data was processed to categorize groups of data points, depending on the edge profile depth (z-axis) variation, length (x-axis) and height (y-axis) into the specific defect categories of core, top and bottom edge void, core gap and core overlap, based on the values of predetermined edge profile thresholds. Results from the two mill tests showed that the scanner was effective with a correct identification rate greater than 80%. The lack of panel hold-downs at each mill resulted in extreme height variation of the panel edges and this limited the defect detection accuracy. Based on the tests, the technology for automated edge grading is feasible. Longer term mill evaluations are recommended with adequate panel hold-downs in place before confirming that this technology is ready for commercialization.
Plywood - Grading
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Bilan de la personnalisation de masse de l'industrie canadienne de meubles

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub3070
Author
Drouin, M.
Date
March 2013
Edition
39719
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Drouin, M.
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2013
Edition
39719
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
33 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Test methods
Furniture
Canada
Series Number
301006974
E-4812
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Cette étude avait pour objectif de faire le bilan de l’utilisation de la personnalisation de masse au sein de l’industrie manufacturière canadienne de meubles en bois. Nous avons mesuré l’importance de cette stratégie pour l’industrie du meuble et les niveaux de personnalisation proposés par les manufacturiers. Cette étude a également été l’occasion de sonder quelques détaillants de meubles pour connaître l’impact de la personnalisation de masse sur la vente au détail. Les analyses réalisées témoignent de l’importance de la personnalisation de masse comme stratégie commerciale pour les manufacturiers de meubles canadiens dans leur offre de produits. L’évaluation des sites internet de cent (100) manufacturiers de meubles permet constater qu’une faible proportion de manufacturiers n’offre aucune option de personnalisation aux consommateurs. La majorité des manufacturiers s’est lancée à différents niveaux, soit dans une stratégie de variétisation, d’accessorisation, de configuration ou de production sur mesure. La variétisation est le niveau de personnalisation le plus rencontré, à la fois pour les segments du mobilier en bois et du mobilier rembourré. Cette variétisation s’exprime le plus couramment par un choix de couleurs dans le segment du meuble en bois, alors qu’elle s’exprime le plus couramment par un choix de cuirs et de tissus dans le segment du meuble rembourré. Les entrevues réalisées auprès de détaillants de meubles ont permis d’établir que de façon générale, ces commerçants considèrent positivement la personnalisation de masse. Aux dires de ces détaillants, l’acquisition d’un meuble personnalisé est très appréciée par la majorité des consommateurs. Les détaillants rencontrés considèrent que les avantages liés à l’achat d’un meuble personnalisé aux besoins et goûts des consommateurs compensent amplement pour les quelques inconvénients encourus tels le temps de vente et de livraison un peu plus longs. Toutefois, il semble que la personnalisation de masse, telle que présentée actuellement par les manufacturiers, convienne davantage aux petits détaillants qu’aux magasins de détail de grandes superficies qui doivent gérer un plus grand nombre de manufacturiers, donc de stratégies de personnalisation diversifiées.
Furniture industry - Canada
Furniture - Manufacture
Abstract
Les entrevues réalisées auprès de détaillants de meubles ont permis d’établir que de façon générale, ces commerçants considèrent positivement la personnalisation de masse. Aux dires de ces détaillants, l’acquisition d’un meuble personnalisé est très appréciée par la majorité des consommateurs. Les détaillants rencontrés considèrent que les avantages liés à l’achat d’un meuble personnalisé aux besoins et goûts des consommateurs compensent amplement pour les quelques inconvénients encourus tels le temps de vente et de livraison un peu plus longs. Toutefois, il semble que la personnalisation de masse, telle que présentée actuellement par les manufacturiers, convienne davantage aux petits détaillants qu’aux magasins de détail de grandes superficies qui doivent gérer un plus grand nombre de manufacturiers, donc de stratégies de personnalisation diversifiées.
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Cartographie des exigences techniques des architectes pour les lames de planchers en bois

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub3099
Author
Drouin, M.
Date
March 2013
Edition
39756
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Drouin, M.
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2013
Edition
39756
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
19 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Flooring
Design
Series Number
301007065
E-4856
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Cette étude avait pour objectif principal de déterminer les exigences techniques requises par les architectes pour prescrire des lames de planchers dans le but de diriger les manufacturiers dans la rédaction de leurs fiches techniques et dans la réalisation des tests associés. Pour ce faire, deux approches de recherche ont été utilisées. D’une part, des interviews semi-dirigées auprès des manufacturiers de planchers en bois ont été conduites afin de détailler la nature de leur relation avec les architectes et la nature des demandes reçues de ces professionnels. D’autres parts, deux groupes de discussion ont été réalisés auprès d’architectes des régions de Montréal et de Toronto afin d’évaluer les habitudes et les besoins de ces professionnels lorsqu’ils spécifient des lames de planchers en bois. Ces rencontres ont également été l’occasion de sonder les besoins des architectes en matière d’information techniques pour les moulures en bois, ainsi que leurs besoins plus généraux en matière de communication et d’innovation en ce qui a trait au secteur des produits de recouvrement de planchers en bois. Bien qu’ils partagent à l’occasion cette responsabilité avec les clients, les designers d’intérieur, les promoteurs et entrepreneurs, ainsi que les techniciens en architecture, cette étude aura dans un premier temps permis de valider le rôle important des architectes dans la spécification des produits de revêtements de sol dans les projets de construction au Canada. Le bois est ressorti comme étant un matériau de base dans la gamme de matériaux couramment utilisé pour les revêtements de sol par ces professionnels qui ont cependant affirmé qu’il était plus difficile de l’intégrer au sein des bâtiments non résidentiels que résidentiels. Cette situation s’explique notamment par des raisons d’entretien, de coût, d’insonorisation, de résistance à l’humidité, d’hygiène et de durabilité dans les zones à forte occupation. En matière d’information technique, les architectes se sont montrés généralement satisfaits de l’information disponible sur les sites web des fabricants et de celle qu’ils peuvent obtenir des représentants. En d’autres mots, ils ont affirmé trouver assez facilement l’information technique nécessaire à leur travail de spécificateur. Les informations qu’ils souhaitent retrouver en priorité sur les fiches techniques des fabricants sont notamment : le type de produit (massif ou ingénierie), les essences, grades et finis offerts, les dimensions du produit, les garanties, les usages pour lesquels le produit est destiné (résidentiel, commercial, commercial léger, etc.), les lieux d’origine de la matière première et de transformation, les directives d’entretien dans un contexte non résidentiel, les données techniques permettant de constater si le produit respecte les normes du code du bâtiment, ainsi que les différentes certifications environnementales. Les besoins d’information technique pour les moulures sont sensiblement les mêmes que pour les produits de plancher, avec une attention particulière pour les informations qui touchent l’entretien et tous les aspects en lien avec l’apparence des produits. Bien que chaque architecte ait ses habitudes et préférences en matière de communication, ces professionnels ont affirmé que les sites web des manufacturiers, les représentants et les échantillons constituent tous des médiums importants lorsqu’ils sont en phase de recherche, de sélection et de spécification des produits. Les représentants ont fréquemment été cités comme des intervenants majeurs dans le travail de spécification des architectes. Selon eux, les représentants constituent la source d’information la plus fiable notamment pour voir la gamme des échantillons et connaître la disponibilité des produits, les délais de fabrication et de livraison, ainsi que les prix de vente. Les échantillons demeurent des outils incontournables pour les architectes. Toutefois, ils servent davantage aux architectes pour valider leur choix en fin de processus de sélection et pour présenter aux clients, que pour explorer la gamme des produits disponibles sur le marché. Ce sont plutôt les sites web qui constituent fréquemment le point de départ pour les architectes en recherche de produits. En plus de présenter des fiches techniques complètes, il est important que ces sites web soient à jour notamment, en ce qui a trait à la disponibilité des produits mais également en ce qui concerne la qualité des images exposées pour les différents produits offerts.
Flooring Systems - Design and Construction
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Vertical movement in wood platform frame structures : design and detailing solutions

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub6025
Author
Doudak, Ghasan
Lepper, P.
Ni, Chun
Wang, Jasmine
Date
October 2013
Edition
42994
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Doudak, Ghasan
Lepper, P.
Ni, Chun
Wang, Jasmine
Contributor
Canadian Wood Council
Date
October 2013
Edition
42994
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
13 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Building construction
Residential construction
Design
Moisture content
Series Number
W-3075
Language
English
Abstract
Most buildings are designed to accommodate a certain range of movement. In design, it is important for designers to identify locations where potential differential movement could affect structural integrity and serviceability, predict the amount of differential movement and develop proper detailing to accommodate it. To allow non-structural materials to be appropriately constructed, an estimate of anticipated differential movement should be provided in the design drawings. Simply specifying wood materials with lower MC at time of delivery does not guarantee that the wood will not get wet on construction sites and will deliver lower shrinkage amounts as anticipated. It is therefore important to ensure that wood does not experience unexpected wetting during storage, transportation and construction. Good construction sequencing also plays an important role in reducing wetting, the consequent wood shrinkage and other moisture-related issues. Existing documents such as the APEGBC Technical and Practice Bulletin on 5- and 6-Storey Wood Frame Residential Building Projects, the Best Practice Guide published by the Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC), the Building Enclosure Design Guide –Wood Frame Multi-Unit Residential Buildings published by the BC Housing- Homeowner Protection Office (HPO) provide general design guidance on how to reduce and accommodate differential movement in platform frame construction.
Documents
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Vertical movement in wood platform frame structures : basics

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub6026
Author
Doudak, Ghasan
Lepper, P.
Ni, Chun
Wang, Jasmine
Date
October 2013
Edition
42995
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Doudak, Ghasan
Lepper, P.
Ni, Chun
Wang, Jasmine
Contributor
Canadian Wood Council
Date
October 2013
Edition
42995
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
10 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Building construction
Residential construction
Design
Moisture content
Series Number
W-3076
Language
English
Abstract
Movement in structures due to environmental condition changes and loads must be considered in design. Temperature changes will cause movement in concrete, steel and masonry structures. For wood materials, movement is primarily related to shrinkage or swelling caused by moisture loss or gain when the moisture content is below 28% (wood fiber saturation point). Other movement in wood structures may also include: settlement (bedding-in movement) due to closing of gaps between members and deformation due to compression loads, including instantaneous elastic deformation and creep. Differential movement can occur where wood frame is connected to rigid components such as masonry cladding, concrete elevator shafts, mechanical services and plumbing, and where mixed wood products such as lumber, timbers, and engineered wood products are used. Evidence from long-term wood frame construction practices shows that for typical light frame construction up to three storeys high, differential movement can be relatively easily accommodated such as through specifying “S-Dry” lumber. However, differential movement over the height of wood-frame buildings becomes a very important consideration for taller buildings due to its cumulative effect. The APEGBC Technical and Practice Bulletin provides general design guidance and recommends the use of engineered wood products and dimension lumber with 12% moisture content for floor joists to reduce and accommodate differential movement in 5 and 6-storey wood frame buildings. Examples of differential movement concerns and solutions in wood-frame buildings can also be found in the Best Practice Guide published by the Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation and the Building Enclosure Design Guide –Wood Frame Multi-Unit Residential Buildings published by the Homeowner Protection Office of BC Housing. This document illustrates the causes and other basic information related to vertical movement in wood platform frame buildings and recommendations on material handling and construction sequencing to protect wood from rain and reduce the vertical movement.
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Serviceability of next generation wood buildings : case study of three innovative mid-rise wood buildings

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39388
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Date
March 2013
Edition
2nd ed.
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2013
Edition
2nd ed.
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Test methods
Vibration
Design
Series Number
Project Nos. 301006159 and 301006715
E-4730
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
This report is a second edition of the already published [draft] report in 2012 where Phase 3 study of the project has been added. In the first edition, work was focused on evaluating building and floor vibration performance, while Phase 3 deals with sound insulation performance of innovative wood floor systems after completion and occupancy. Under the Transformative Technologies program of Natural Resources Canada, FPInnovations launched several projects on next generation wood building systems to support the expansion and diversification of wood into new markets. Next generation wood systems use innovative wood-based materials and systems beyond those defined and addressed in current building codes. As part of this initiative, the serviceability research focuses on addressing issues related to floor and building vibrations, sound insulation and creep by developing provisions and design guidelines to control vibrations and noise in next generation wood buildings. Several mid-rise next generation wood buildings were built in Quebec City and Vancouver. Taking advantage of this opportunity, this study was conducted to examine the vibration performance of the buildings and their innovative floor systems, and the sound insulation performance of the innovative wood floor systems. The data will provide good feedback to designers to ensure their confidence in using wood in their building projects. It is our hope that the collaboration through this study will demonstrate to both designers and users of the next generation wood buildings that if we work together, we can build high quality next generation wood buildings. The data collected in this study will also form a database that will be used for wind and seismic designs of next generation wood buildings, for the development of design method or guide to control vibrations in the innovative wood floor systems and staircases, and for development of construction solutions for sound insulations of the innovative wood floor systems. Ambient vibration tests were conducted on three of such buildings and the classical impact-response tests were carried out on their innovative floor systems and the wood staircases to determine their natural frequencies or periods, and damping ratios. Static tests were conducted to determine floor static deflections, i.e. the stiffness. ASTM standard tests were conducted to measure the impact sound insulation of the innovative wood floor systems. The three buildings tested were: Ÿ A 6-storey wood post-beam and concrete hybrid building (CSN Fondaction Building) in Quebec City, built in 2010; Ÿ A 5-storey wood and concrete mixed building with two wings (Earth Science Building (ESB) at the University of British Columbia campus). One wing is a wood post-beam construction hybrid with a concrete core and heavy timber braces with steel knife plates at the end. The other wing is a concrete frame construction. The building was built in 2012; Ÿ A 4-storey wood post-beam building (CIRS) on UBC campus, built in 2010. The floor systems in these three buildings are not conventional light-weight joisted floor systems. Innovative wood-based floor systems were used in these buildings. Techniques and performance criteria for assessing floor vibrations developed at FPInnovations to the floors in the three buildings were used in the evaluation. Test results showed that the floor systems in the CSN and ESB buildings may satisfy the criteria, whereas improvements would likely be necessary for the floor systems in CIRS building. The vibration performance of the staircase in the CIRS buildings and the airborne sound insulation performance of the floors in CSN building can be improved. It would be useful to conduct a survey of the users of these floor systems to validate findings from this study.
Floors - Design
Vibration control
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Mill demonstration of an FPInnovations prototype scanner for measurement of fines content, strand alignment and width

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39699
Author
Groves, C. Kevin
Date
March 2013
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Groves, C. Kevin
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2013
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
15 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Test methods
Strandboards
Oriented strandboard
Orientation
Series Number
W-2986
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
In December, 2012, Kevin Groves from FPInnovations visited a Canadian OSB mill to demonstrate an FPInnovations prototype vision scanning system for simultaneously monitoring fines, strand width and alignment on the forming line. Prior to the mill trial, the width and fines measurements were calibrated based on known quantities of fines and strand width sizes. During laboratory calibration, there was a linear relationship between scanner versus actual width values with an R² correlation of 0.98. The measurement prediction accuracy was estimated with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.1 inches. With fines, there was a linear relationship between scanner measurement versus actual values with an R² of 0.99. The measurement prediction accuracy was estimated with a RMSE of 2 % (fines percentage). The alignment angle of each strand was measured from -90° to 90° with 0° set as the principal forming line direction. The scanner’s measurement of alignment is described by percent alignment (PA) as proposed by Geimer (1976). PA gives an alignment of 100% for perfectly aligned strands and 0% alignment for random strand distribution. At the mill the camera was set up 36 inches above the top face mat on the forming line. Strand width, alignment and fines measurements were collected continuously from approximately 5:00 pm December 19 to 9:25 am December 20. On December 19 the mill ran overnight with 7/16” panel production at a former height of 5 inches. During this time scanner measurements showed that average alignment remained relatively constant at approximately 70% while average strand width gradually decreased from approximately 0.75 to 0.7 inches, and fines increased from approximately 8% to 18%. The next morning (December 20) beginning at 7:50 am, the former height was changed in stages from 5 to 8 inches with corresponding scanner measurements showing a decrease in alignment from 70% to 45%. The scanner was effective in tracking these height changes with results showing an inverse linear relationship between former height and alignment. Saved images were later analyzed to determine actual alignment for comparison to the onsite scanner measurements. Results showed a good correlation with an R² of 0.98 between measured versus actual alignment. The accuracy of strand alignment measurement was estimated with a RMSE of 3 PA. Although this was a short trial, the scanner effectively demonstrated simultaneous, real time measurements of fines, strand width and alignment.
Digital imaging
Oriented strandboard - Manufacture
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Serviceability of new generation wood buildings : case study of two cross-laminated timber (CLT) buildings

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39700
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Date
February 2013
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service.
Date
February 2013
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
26 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Test methods
Vibration
Timber
Sample
Laminate product
Design
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service
Project no.301006159
Project no.301006867
E-4804
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
FPInnovations launched the “Next Generation Building Systems” research program to support the expansion and diversification of wood into new markets. “Next Generation Wood Buildings” can be described as buildings that implement design and construction practices, and use innovative wood-based materials and systems beyond those defined and addressed in current building codes. As part of this program, the serviceability research focuses on addressing issues related to floor and building vibrations, sound transmission and creep. CLT is a next generation wood building material, which is a promising alternative to concrete slabs. To facilitate wood expansion into the market traditionally dominated by steel and concrete, several CLT buildings have been designed or built. Taking this opportunity, we conducted this study on two CLT buildings in the province of Quebec (i.e.,Desbiens and Chibougamau) to collect data that will form a database for the development of design provisions and installation guides for controlling vibrations and noise in CLT floors and buildings. The study also provides some information to designers and architects to strengthen their confidence in using CLT in their building projects. It is our hope that the collaboration through this study demonstrates to both designers and users of CLT buildings that if we work together, we can build good quality CLT buildings. During the construction, ambient vibration tests were conducted on the two CLT buildings to determine their natural frequencies (periods) and damping ratios. Vibration performance tests were conducted on selected CLT floors to determine their frequencies and static deflections. ASTM standard sound insulation tests were conducted on the selected CLT walls and floors in Chibougamau CLT building to develop the sound insulation solutions. After the two CLT buildings were completed, ASTM sound insulation tests were conducted in the selected units to determine the Field Sound Transmission Class (FSTC) of the finished floors and walls, and the Field Impact Insulation Class (FIIC) of the finished floors. We found that in general, the vibration performance of these two CLT buildings and their floor vibration performance are functional. The efforts made by the design engineers, the architects, and the contractors to make it happen are commendable, considering the lack of design provisions and guidelines in building codes for controlling vibrations in such innovative wood floor and buildings. The sound insulation of the selected units in Chibougamau building was very satisfactory. This confirmed that with proper design, construction, and installation of the sound insulation solutions studied in this report, CLT floors, walls and buildings can achieve very good sound insulation. Some specific recommendations for CLT building sound insulation:
If flanking paths can be minimized, then it is expected that better sound insulation than what we measured on the CLT floors during the building construction will be achieved ;
Increasing the stud spacing from 400mm to 600mm for the wood stud walls enhances the airborne sound insulation of the current wood stud-CLT wall assemblies tested in this study ;
Decoupling ceiling from the structure frame and from the CLT floors is a significant factor for cost-effective sound insulation solutions ;
Selection of solutions for FSTC and FIIC above fifty (50) for non-carpeted CLT floors will ensure the satisfaction of the majority of occupants ;
Conducting subjective evaluation is useful to ensure occupants satisfaction ;
For implementation of the sound insulation solutions for floating floors, it is necessary to consult wood flooring and ceramic tiles installation guides for floating the flooring.
Floors - Design
VIBRATION CONTROL
Cross-laminated timber
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Serviceability of next generation wood buildings : laboratory study of vibration performance of cross-laminated-timber (CLT) floors

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39703
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Date
March 2013
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2013
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
26 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Test methods
Vibration
Timber
Sample
Laminate product
Design
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service
Project no.301006159
E-4805
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Under the Transformative Technologies program of Natural Resources Canada, FPInnovations launched the several projects on next generation wood building systems to support the expansion and diversification of wood into new markets. Next generation wood Systems use innovative wood-based materials and systems beyond those defined and addressed in current building codes. As part of this initiative, the serviceability research focuses on addressing issues related to floor and building vibrations, sound insulation and creep by developing provisions and design guidelines to control vibrations and noise in next generation wood buildings. Cross-laminated-timber (CLT) is a relatively new building product which constitutes is an alternative to concrete in certain applications. Several innovative that incorporate CLT floors and walls have already been designed or built across Canada. Unlike the conventional lightweight joisted wood floor systems, CLT floors are a massive wood slab system generally constructed without the use of joists. There is no design method to determine vibration controlled spans for CLT floors in current codes and standards. This study was conducted from 2008 to 2010 to establish a knowledgebase and database to develop a vibration controlled design method for CLT floors. CLT floor systems were tested in laboratory with varying construction details including CLT panel thickness, floor spans, type of panel-panel joints, supports, topping and suspended ceilings. The study included performance tests and subjective evaluations to determine the natural frequencies, damping ratios, stiffness indicated by the 1.0 kN static deflections, and human perceptions to the vibration performance of the CLT floors. Findings from this study indicated that:
fundamental natural frequencies of satisfactory bare CLT floors were above 10Hz;
bare CLT floors had damping ratios around 1%, which is lower than that of the bare conventional lightweight joisted wood floors which had damping ratios around 3%;
type of panel-panel joints used in this study did not noticeably affect the vibration performance of the CLT floors ;
suspended ceiling enhanced the CLT floor damping significantly. Consequently the acceptance of the vibration performance by the evaluators improved or at least did not degrade even the ceiling added additional mass to the floor ;
the wood topping slightly enhanced floor stiffness, therefore the acceptance of the vibration performance by the evaluators improved slightly, or at least did not degrade;
the wood topping and ceiling together noticeably improved or at least did not degrade the vibration acceptance ;
human perception was correlated to the combination of floor stiffness and mass that were measured with the fundamental natural frequencies and 1.0 kN static deflections at the floor centers. This study formed a knowledgebase and database for the development of vibration controlled design method for CLT floors. Based on this study, a simple design method was developed based on CLT floor stiffness and mass (Hu and Sylvain 2011).
Floors - Design
VIBRATION CONTROL
Cross-laminated timber
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Quantifying the impacts of moisture and load on vertical movement in a simulated bottom floor of a 6-storey platform frame building

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39705
Author
Wang, Jieying
King, L.
Date
March 2013
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Wang, Jieying
King, L.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2013
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
30 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Buildings
Building construction
Moisture content
Test methods
Series Number
Transformative Technologies Project No.301006157
W-3006
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Vertical movement of wood frame buildings has become an important consideration in recent years with the increase of building height in Europe, North America, and Asia up to 6-storeys. This movement is composed of wood shrinkage and load-induced movement including initial settlement and creep. It is extremely difficult to identify the relative contributions of these components while monitoring full size buildings. A laboratory test was therefore designed to do this under controlled environmental and loading conditions. Two identical small-scale platform frame structures with dimensional lumber floor joists were designed and constructed, with built-in vertical movement and moisture content monitoring systems. The two structures were first conditioned in a chamber to achieve an initial moisture content (MC) about 20% to simulate typical MC on exposed construction sites in wintertime in Coastal BC. After the two structures were moved from the conditioning chamber into the laboratory environment, using a unique cantilever system, Structure No. 1 was immediately loaded to measure the combined shrinkage and deformation in the process of drying. Structure No. 2 was not loaded until after the wood had dried to interior equilibrium moisture content to observe the shrinkage and load-induced movement separately. The load applied on the two structures simulated a dead load experienced by the bottom floor of a six-storey wood frame building. The vertical movement and MC changes were monitored over a total period of six months. Meanwhile, shrinkage coefficients were measured by using end-matched lumber samples cut from the plate members of the two structures to predict the shrinkage amounts of the horizontal members of the two structures. The results suggested that a load must be applied for movement to “show up” and occur in a downward direction. Without loads other than the wood weight, even shrinkage could show as upward movement. Monitoring of Structure No. 1 appeared to separate the contributions of wood shrinkage, initial settlement (bedding-in movement), and creep reasonably well. The entire movement amount reached about 19 mm after six months, which was comparable to the vertical movement measured from the bottom floor of a 4-storey wood-frame building in BC. Shrinkage accounted for over 60% of the vertical movement, with the other 40% contributed by load-induced movement including initial settlement and creep (when elastic compression was neglected); the magnitude of creep was similar to the initial settlement amount. Structure No. 2 showed less vertical movement but an increased settlement amount at the time of loading, indicating the presence of larger gaps between members when the wood was dry (with an estimated MC of 11%) before loading. Depending on construction sequencing, such settlement should occur with increase in loads during construction and can therefore be ignored in design. However, this test suggested that there may be a need to consider the impact of creep, in wet climates in particular, in addition to wood shrinkage. This laboratory test will be maintained for a longer period to observe any further vertical movement and the relative contributions of shrinkage and creep. Similar tests should be conducted for structures built with engineered wood floor joists, given the fact that most mid-rise platform buildings use engineered wood floor joists instead of lumber joists.
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