Softwood lumber producers have been using conventional drying systems (batch drying) for many years. The original premise of those systems was to design kilns that could dry large quantities of lumber at relatively low costs. Based on the evidence throughout the industry across Canada, those
requirements have been historically met and the industry has greatly benefitted from the existing system for decades. Currently, however, due to environmental pressures, increased processing costs, more stringent quality and moisture content requirements and the need to improve productivity, softwood lumber producers must consider alternative ways to dry lumber to ensure their competiveness in traditional markets and to explore opportunities for entering new markets. Drying faster without compromising the quality of the final product will position Canadian lumber producers to achieve the
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This study develops and tests a simple model for the effect of knots on MOR: assuming that a knot is hole in the cross-section of a board a strength ratio is calculated and the MOR is the product of the strength ratio and the strength (MOR) of clear wood. This knot model is based on the stresses being in the elastic range and ignores the effect of grain angle and the orthotropic properties of wood and so should not accurately predict either loads for initial failure or the loads at final failure, on which MOR is based. However, the predicted values of MOR for SPF and Douglas fir compare well to measured values. This lead to the conclusion that while the model is physically wrong, the results imply that the strength ratio of the knot model are related to the strength ratio at final failure, which usually occurs at the end of a crack that starts at the knot but propagates some distance along the board. A model for the strength of the remaining section at the end of the crack was developed and tested on six boards. Not only were the strength ratios for the remaining section model similar to those of the knot model, but the remaining section model predicted MOR values closer to the measured values than the knot model did. The task of future work is to predict the location of the initial crack, the path that it propagates and the strength of the clear wood.
This report describes the building, tested floor and wall assemblies, test methods, and summarizes the test results. The preliminary performance data provides critical feedback on the design of the building for resisting wind-induced vibration and on the floor vibration controlled design. The data can be further used to validate the calculation methods and tools/models of dynamic analysis. Originally confidential to FII, they have provided permission to make the report available.
FPInnovations, with funding from the Canadian Forest Service, is currently investigating the feasibility and form of standardized road - pipeline crossings. FPInnovations and Access Pipeline Inc. jointly conducted a field trial to evaluate the structural responses from heavy vehicle traffic to large (National) pipeline segments buried within a native earth road. This field trial was intended to contribute to the general knowledge of the industry, and more specifically to document the structural performance of large diameter, stiff-walled (pipeline) pipe buried under roads that are crossed by heavy equipment.
FPInnovations was approached in January 2015 by the Engineering Brach of the British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations (FLNRO) to assess the state-of-practice of bridge approach alignment design on forest roads, and to make recommendations for the standardization of this process.
Glulam manufactured from laminating stock of three species pre-treated with ACQ-D or CA was exposed outdoors in an above-ground field test using a modified post and rail test design. After six years’ exposure, early to moderate decay was found in untreated test units, while those which were preservative-treated were completely sound.
Field tests of untreated and preservative-treated glulam beams in outdoor exposure, in ground contact and above ground, were inspected for decay after five years. Copper azole and ACQ-D-treated material was in excellent condition, while moderate to severe decay was present in untreated non-durable material. Early stages of decay were also noted in yellow cedar glulam in the above-ground test. Using galvanized rather than stainless steel fasteners appeared to have a protective effect against decay in untreated material, supporting the hypothesis that zinc from the sacrificial coating on galvanized bolts inhibits germination of basidiospores.
Attracting, retaining and training labor is a challenge for forest operations in North America. FPInnovations attended the Pacific Logging Congress (PLC) in November 2015 where one of the technical sessions focused on attracting and retaining people to the industry, in particular to contractor operations. The majority of the strategies presented in this Info-Note were suggested by logging contractors presenting at the PLC. A few others gleaned from other sources were added as well.
Attirer, retenir et former la main-d’œuvre représentent des défis pour les opérations forestières d’Amérique du Nord. FPInnovations a assisté au Pacific Logging Congress (PLC) en novembre 2015, dont l’une des sessions portait sur les meilleures pratiques pour attirer et retenir les employés dans l’industrie, en particulier pour les entrepreneurs. La majorité des stratégies présentées ici ont été adoptées par les entrepreneurs forestiers qui faisaient une présentation au PLC. Nous en avons ajouté quelques autres obtenues d’ailleurs.