Thirty full-length sample trees from the B.C. Interior were selected for a study to determine whether external log characteristics can predict internal log quality. The sample trees were also used to create 3-dimensional log images for sawmill simulation purposes. "LogSaw", a simulation tool with internal log defect detection capabilities, was used to explore the extent to which internal and external log quality information can improve log breakdown optimization. A model of a hypothetical sawmill producing lumber for the standard North American dimension market was created to study how lumber value recovery depends on different sawing optimization scenarios.
Three sawing optimization scenarios using different levels of knowledge of internal log defects were compared to currently used sawing optimization technique:
Ideal sawing optimization - all defects within log interior are known.
Sawing optimization using only the knowledge of surface knots.
Sawing optimization using log rotation instructions based on zones of least external knot density.
Simulation results have shown that it is worthwhile to “look into the log”. When compared with the current optimization technique, the sawing optimization, including the full knowledge of log interior, has increased the value recovery by 6.2%. When only the surface knots were projected into the log interior and included in the optimization, the value recovery had increased by 4.3%. Even this 4.3% increase is still a big improvement because this sawing optimization could be implemented using currently available scanning technologies and optimization software enhanced to include log surface knots. The scenario of using log rotation instructions based on predicted zones of least internal knot density did not show value recovery improvement.
Including surface knots in the log breakdown optimization has considerably increased sawmill revenue; the hypothetical sawmill considered in this study, processing 400,000 m3 of log per year, has increased its revenue by $2.2 million.
Harvest operations on soft soils can be particularly challenging in order to respect site and soil disturbance guidelines as well as operational requirements. To address the challenges of operating on soft soils, FPInnovations has worked on solutions designed to reduce disturbance on weak soils while minimizing implementation and investment costs by using machines already being used in the operation.
A field test of six millwork preservatives has been ongoing for twenty years, using a simulated window corner, or "Y-joint", as the test unit. Three preservatives provided excellent protection to white pine and white spruce: 5% pentachlorophenol in varsol, phenyl mercury oleate in varsol, and 0.75% oxine copper in varsol.
A transparent coating with long-term performance could help wood maintain its share of residential markets against material substitution and potentially expand markets in recreational property and non-residential buildings. While transparent coatings can be made reasonably resistant to UV some UV likely penetrates to the wood and by necessity clear coatings are transparent to visible light. Visible light can also cause damage over the long term thus the underlying wood needs additional protection. Four novel UV protection systems were tested as pre-treatments on uncoated wood and under three coatings, a water-based film forming coating, a water-based acrylic varnish and a solvent based water repellent. Samples were exposed to natural weathering facing South at 45° at a test site in Gulfport, Mississippi, in collaboration with the USDA Forest Products Laboratory. The test material was inspected every six months for discolouration, mold and stain, coating water repellency, flaking, erosion and cracking and substrate condition. After 24 months exposure, coatings over the combination of UV absorber and lignin stabilizer identified by Stephen Ayer were performing better than the same coatings applied over the combination recommended by Ciba and coatings over both pre-treatments were performing substantially better than controls with no pre-treatment. Projection of fitted curves beyond the data appears to indicate that pretreatment may double the life expectancy of the coating. There was no consistent effect of the synergists on either combination at this time.
A field test of six millwork preservatives has been ongoing for 25 years, using a "Y-joint" as the test unit. Three preservatives provided excellent protection to white pine and white spruce: 5% pentachlorophenol in varsol, phenyl mercury oleate in varsol, and 0.75% oxine copper in varsol.
THIS REPORT DESCRIBES THE RESULTS OF A JOINT EFFORT BETWEEN FERIC AND THE TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY (DIVISION OF LAND AND FOREST RESOURCES) AND WAS PART OF THE ENFOR PROGRAM OF THE CANADIAN FORESTRY SERVICE. IT DESCRIBES THE PERFORMANCE OF A PROTOTYPE ROLL SPLITTER TO DEWATER THE STEMS OF THREE TREE SPECIES AND THE ENHANCEMENT BY AIR DRYING OF THE DEWATERING OF THE CRUSHED ITEMS. MECHANICAL COMMINUTION ENERGY DATA ARE PRESENTED.
The objective of this initiative is to re-evaluate Forintek's research strategy and the Canadian Wood Council's technology transfer strategy in durability of wood products and systems in the light of changing industrial, regulatory, environmental, and social factors. Forintek and the CWC chose to undertake this process jointly, in order to develop well-matched parallel activities that are mutually supportive and grounded in common underlying objectives. In this way, both organizations can most effectively and efficiently address our members' needs in an area of growing challenges for the wood industry.
The first step in the strategic planning process was the creation of a joint CWC/Forintek Durability Guidance Group. This group was canvassed for input on high priority issues related to wood durability. Forintek and CWC then developed ideas for deliverables or tasks in research and technology transfer, respectively. At this stage we are looking for input on the degree to which this draft strategy addresses industry needs.
The Canadian lumber industry has identified, as a high priority, the establishment of a multi-year Lumber Properties Program that pulls together a number of urgent initiatives currently underway to establish and/or maintain Canadian lumber design values. The desire is to have an overall program that emphasizes the proper development of a longer-term strategic plan and process to deal with current and future initiatives. Combining the current industry resources with Federal Government contributions through Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), the first step in the Program has been completed: to gather the various initiatives now underway and to begin the formal development of pan-Canadian policies to guide the development, implementation and on-going maintenance of such initiatives.
The key activities in 2006-07 were:
Launching of the pilot phase of the on-going monitoring program, and development of a simulation model to assist in determining what sort of trends can be reliably detected and which cannot;
Completion of the in-grade testing program on Canadian Norway spruce;
Analysis of the No.2 2x4 Hem-Fir (N) monitoring study and confirmation of the appropriateness of assigned design values;
Identification of an alternative species grouping procedure for further study;
Starting of a process under the ASTM Committee on Wood to address gaps in the Grade Quality Index provisions in ASTM Practice D1990, and
Establishing a forum for engaging the US in discussions on lumber properties issues.
Lumber properties issues crucial to maintaining the competitiveness of Canadian lumber continue to be the same as in previous years: tests and means to adjust for sample representativeness using the Grade Quality Index (GQI), species grouping and re-grouping procedures, and on-going lumber monitoring. As a result, discussion on a pan-Canadian strategy and supporting policies necessary to support Canadian lumber initiatives tend to focus on these three issues. The challenge is to ensure that these issues are dealt with in a way that balances both short and longer-term needs and provides a net overall benefit to the Canadian industry.
Computer technology continues to evolve at blinding speed. Today’s mobile technology enables what used to be recorded on desktop computers or on paper just a few years ago. Now, data can be viewed, shared and recorded on devices such as smart phones or other mobile devices used within harvesting operations. In addition, telecommunications capabilities in Canada have significantly improved, providing connectivity where it was not available in the past, although there are still large areas where forestry operates with limited cellular communication services.
In order to better orient its technology development strategies, FPInnovations has invited a number of its members throughout Canada to take an on-line survey to obtain information on the current and future state of technology platforms, data collections mechanisms and communications being used or soon-to-be used in forestry field operations. This information will help FPI understand the current state of technology and the direction its members are heading to with respect to mobile computing needs.
La technologie informatique continue à évoluer à une vitesse fulgurante. La technologie actuelle permet de saisir des informations qui étaient, il y a quelques années à peine, enregistrées dans des ordinateurs de bureau ou consignées sur papier. Aujourd’hui, les données peuvent être visualisées, partagées et enregistrées sur des appareils tels que des téléphones intelligents ou sur d’autres appareils mobiles utilisés dans le cadre des opérations forestières. Les télécommunications dans notre vaste pays se sont aussi considérablement améliorées, fournissant une connectivité dans des endroits qui en étaient auparavant dépourvus, même s’il reste encore de grandes régions où les opérations en forêt se déroulent avec des services limités de communications.
Dans le but de mieux orienter ses stratégies de développement en matière de technologie, FPInnovations a invité plusieurs de ses membres partout au Canada à répondre à un sondage en ligne afin de recueillir des renseignements relatifs à l’état actuel et futur des plateformes technologiques, aux mécanismes de collecte des données et aux communications qui sont utilisées actuellement ou qui le seront prochainement dans les opérations forestières sur le terrain.
Ces renseignements nous aideront à comprendre l’état actuel des technologies ainsi que les avenues vers lesquelles nos membres se dirigent en ce qui touche les besoins d’informatique mobile. Les résultats de l’étude seront pour leur part utilisés pour guider notre programme de recherche. Ils seront partagés avec les participants.