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Kyoto Protocol : impact on wood products industry

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39288
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
11 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Pollution
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 15
E-4621
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Canada has recently published our national Kyoto Protocol final GHG reduction target and fixed at 17% reduction for 2020 based on year 2005 after Potsdam UN conference. In order to meet our national target, the federal government has put in place many plans to assist different industrial sectors in reducing their GHG emissions resulting from their activities. One of the last plans set by the Government called “Green Plan” for the Pulp and Paper sector provides incentives to convert the black liquor into green energy or invest in more efficient technology to reduce energy consumption or produce greener energy and consequently reduce or eliminate the fossil fuel energy, which is related to GHG emission. Up to 24 pulp mills have been qualified to submit projects under the program. The Plan has been very well accepted and contributes to maintain our competitiveness vis-à-vis US mills that have benefitted from a similar program by simply optimizing their existing burners. Proven technologies are now available for better conversion of the black liquor into energy and/or chemicals through gasification and mills should certainly consider these options. Black Liquor gasification can be used to produce methanol, dimethyl ester (DME) or Fisher-Tropsch Siesel (FTD). This technology also has strong potential synergies with power generation and could be an option for the pulp and paper mills generate additional revenues while providing a contribution to the production of substitutes for the fossil fuels used in transportation. Total greenhouse gas emissions in Canada were estimated at in 721 megatons of carbon dioxide equivalent (Mt of CO2 eq) in 2006 and 80% of these GHG are emitted from the production and transportion these fuels. Hence, conversion of biomass & black liquor by gasification could help in reducing emissions from transportation fuels and also potentially reduce indirect emissions by increasing power generation from the pulp mills. The forest sector is known as having a huge potential for GHG reduction and offsets, investing more in this sector as proposed by the federal Green Plan, could assist other sectors in meeting their GHG target through offsets generated by the wood industry sector.
Air pollution
Documents
Less detail

Investigation of combination formaldehyde scavengers for particleboard and MDF

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39289
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
4 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Particle boards
MDF
Air pollution
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 41
E-4623
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Scavengers
Documents
Less detail

Development of an improved method for analysis of panels with low formaldehyde emission (Part B)

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39297
Author
Dechamplain, F.
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Dechamplain, F.
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
13 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Pollution
Panels
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 20
201000329
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
In April 2008, the State of California adopted an airborne toxic control measure (ATCM) to reduce formaldehyde emissions from composite wood products, proposed by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), part of the California Environmental Protection Agency. Phase 1 started in January 2009, and at the end of the implementation, in July 2012, formaldehyde emission limits will range between 0.05 and 0.13 ppm, depending on the type of products, based on the ASTM E 1333 Large Chamber Method. These new limits are in the order of the limits of detection of the current analytical methods presently used, and rendered the chromotropic acid reaction, on which the ASTM E 1333 is based, with a limit of detection of 0.01 ppm less precise. The use of Near Infrared technology was investigated in 2009/2010. This analytical technique was not initially considered to be sensitive enough to measure formaldehyde emissions at very low levels. Recent developments in the broadband sources of near infrared radiation available and the type of detectors used have contributed in recent years to improve spectral stability and sensitivity. Some instruments have recently been tested in Europe and equipment suppliers claim that these systems can be used for online monitoring of formaldehyde emissions. This analytical technique is not recognized at this time by Canadian and US regulatory authorities and more testing was required to demonstrate the system’s reliability. Commercial products with very low free formaldehyde have been tested in 2009 with NIR sensors and results have been correlated with the ASTM E 1333 Large Chamber test results. At least one Canadian panel manufacturer has already expressed interest in running a mill trial. Results will be presented to regulatory authorities.
Air pollution
Formaldehyde
Panels
Documents
Less detail

Investigation of combination formaldehyde scavengers for particleboard and MDF

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39219
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
3 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Particle boards
MDF
Air pollution
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 41
6293
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Scavengers
Documents
Less detail

Kyoto protocol impact on wood products industry

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39221
Author
Barry, A.
Date
July 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Date
July 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
9 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Pollution
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 15
4005
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Air pollution
Documents
Less detail

Development of an improved method for analysis of panels with low formaldehyde emission

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39223
Author
Dechamplain, F.
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Dechamplain, F.
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
28 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Pollution
Panels
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 20
5763
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
In April 2008, the State of California adopted an airborne toxic control measure (ATCM) to reduce formaldehyde emissions from composite wood products, proposed by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), part of the California Environmental Protection Agency. Phase 1 started in January 2009, and at the end of the implementation, in July 2012, formaldehyde emission limits will range between 0.05 and 0.13 ppm, depending on the type of products, based on the ASTM E 1333 Large Chamber Method. These new limits are in the order of the limits of detection of the current analytical methods presently used, and rendered the chromotropic acid reaction, on which the ASTM E 1333 is based, with a limit of detection of 0.01 ppm less precise. An alternative method to determine formaldehyde concentration in air has been developed to be used as part of the ASTM E1333 Large Chamber Method. 60 L of air are sampled through an impinger containing an acetylacetone-ammonia solution. The solution is then heated, and analyzed by fluorimetry using a Turner Quantech filter fluorometer equipped with a NB430 excitation filter and a SC500 emission filter. The test method is inexpensive, easy to use, compatible with the Large Chamber, Perforator and Desiccator Methods, and is very sensitive. The minimum detection limit (MDL) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) of this analytical method are 0.0004 and 0.0013 ppm, respectively.
Air pollution
Formaldehyde
Panels
Documents
Less detail

Review of technologies to lower formaldehyde emissions from composite wood panels

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5628
Author
Feng, Martin
He, G.
Date
June 2009
Edition
37963
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Feng, Martin
He, G.
Date
June 2009
Edition
37963
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
23 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Toxicity
Pollution
Gluing
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
General Revenue Report Project No. 5726
W-2674
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This report examines various aspects of the formaldehyde emission issue facing the wood composite panel industry in order to help Forintek member companies best navigate this extremely important but increasingly complex problem. It is a state-of-the-art review of fundamentals associated with the formaldehyde emission problem, various standards and regulations, and known technologies for the reduction of formaldehyde emissions. It has distilled and concentrated a vast amount of information based on the literature review, international conferences, known industrial practices and experiences of the authors. Due to its hydrolytic instability, urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesive is the main source of formaldehyde emissions from UF-bonded particleboard, medium density fiberboard (MDF), high density fiberboard (HDF) and hardwood plywood through out their service life. There are various technologies available to reduce formaldehyde emission. These are: 1. Chemical modifications of UF resin (lower formaldehyde/urea (F/U) molar ratios, improved resin synthesis procedures, condensed with small amounts of melamine, use of formaldehyde scavengers, use of catalysts/hardeners, cross-linked with methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) or various combinations of these); 2. Panel post-treatments (anhydrous ammonia treatment, panel overlay, coating, etc.); 3. Manipulation of production process conditions; 4. Using alternative adhesives to replace UF resin; 5. Making binderless panel products. Some of these technologies can meet the challenges of the most stringent regulations, but likely at higher cost or lower productivity. The most promising options are using commercially available alternative wood adhesives (phenol-formaldehyde (PF), MDI, melamine-formaldehyde (MF), polyvinyl acetate (PVA) or soy) to replace UF. Depending on end use and target market, using ultra-low formaldehyde emitting UF or urea-melamine-formaldehyde/melamine-urea-formaldehyde (UMF/MUF) in combination with an effective catalyst/hardener and/or formaldehyde scavenger can also be a practical option.
Air pollution - Sources - Gluing
Formaldehyde Emissions - Control
Formaldehyde - Toxicity
Documents
Less detail

Impact of Kyoto protocol on composite panel industries

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39104
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
73 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Regulations
Pollution
Canada
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 15
4005
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
One can summarize the work conducted under the Kyoto protocol by extracting some paragraphs from the Montreal climate conference press release. Under the Kyoto Protocol, which entered into force 16 February 2005, more than 30 industrialized countries are bound by specific and legally binding emission reduction targets. As a first step, these cover the period 2008-2012. The Kyoto Protocol is now fully operational. The adoption of the Marrakesh accords formally launches emissions trading and the other two mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol. Carbon has now a market value. Under the clean development mechanism, investing in projects that provide sustainable development and reduce emissions makes sound business sense. The Joint Implementation (JI) adopted by the parties is one of the mechanisms which allow developed countries to invest in other developed countries and thereby earn carbon allowances which they can use to meet their emission reduction commitments. In addition to this, the clean development mechanism allows industrialized countries to invest in sustainable development projects in developing countries and thereby earn carbon allowances. “With these decisions in place, we now have the infrastructure to move ahead with the implementation of the Kyoto protocol” said Richard Kinley, head of the United Nations Climate Change conference. It sets solid basis for future steps to bring emissions down he added. All Kyoto Protocol Parties, including Canada, are now moving ahead to meet their GHG emission reduction commitments. In the past few years, Canada has developed and set strategies to meet our commitments. However, Canada has since changed for a new conservative government and a new strategy has been published first in April and the proposed greenhouse gas regulations are expected to be published in the Canada Gazette later this year, and the regulations finalized in 2009 to come into force as planned on January 1, 2010 according to the minister. During this fiscal year two Canadian provinces took important steps in regards to climate change by adopting regulations to reduce their respective GHG emissions. The province of BC has published its own green house gas reduction targets through the Bill 44 in which the province has set reduction targets by 2020 for 33% and 80% by 2050 relative to 2007 emissions levels for both. In 2007 the Quebec government announced the first carbon tax in Canada to Oil companies to pay a new energy tax of 0.8 cents a litre for gasoline distributed in the province and 0.938 cents for diesel fuel. The province has also adopted California’s greenhouse gas standards for new light-duty vehicles.
Composites
Air pollution - Canada - Laws and regulations
Carbon
Documents
Less detail

Using urea to reduce formaldehyde, acrolein and VOC emissions from OSB pressing.

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5620
Author
Feng, Martin
Date
January 2008
Edition
37870
Material Type
Pamphlet
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Feng, Martin
Date
January 2008
Edition
37870
Material Type
Pamphlet
Physical Description
7 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Pollution
Materials
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
W-2497
Language
English
Abstract
This research work involved the production of aspen OSB panels in a pilot plant using three types of commercial adhesive systems respectively as a wood binder (PF, PF/MDI and MDI). It was demonstrated that spraying urea aqueous solution to dry wood strands at 0.2% and 0.5% urea loading rates (urea solids on a dry wood weight basis) can effectively reduce the emissions of formaldehyde, acrolein and some other volatile organic compounds from OSB pressing without adversely affecting the board properties regardless which type of adhesive is used. The side-effect of the urea addition was the dramatic increase of press emission of nitrogen compounds, most likely due to the slow decomposition of urea to ammonia at high press temperatures. This approach may also be effectively and economically applied to lowering formaldehyde, acrolein and VOC emissions from OSB dryer and the side-effect of increased nitrogen compounds emission could be less due to lower wood temperatures inside the OSB dryer than those inside the OSB press. It was also demonstrated that using MDI adhesive to partially or completely replace PF adhesive can lower formaldehyde, phenol and total VOC emissions from OSB pressing. Under the test conditions of this work and without urea addition, the MDI-bonded aspen OSB panels emitted about 87% less formaldehyde, 80% less phenol and 25% less water-soluble VOC than the PF-bonded aspen OSB panels. The PF/MDI-bonded aspen OSB panels emitted about 61% less formaldehyde, 41% less phenol and 11% less water-soluble VOC than the same PF-bonded panels. However, the MDI-bonded panels produced 65% higher water-insoluble VOC than that of the PF-bonded panels although the water-insoluble VOC accounted for less than 3% of the total VOC emitted from the MDI-bonded panels.
Composite materials - Manufacture
Formaldehyde
Air pollution
Air pollution - Sources
Documents
Less detail

Effectiveness of barriers to minimize VOC emissions, including formaldehyde

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37914
Author
Barry, A.
Date
April 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Date
April 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
4 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Toxicity
Pollution control
Pollution
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
RDS 08-06
W-2581
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
In this study, various finishing materials used by primary and secondary particleboard and medium-density fibreboard (MDF) manufacturers were subjected to emissions testing in order to determine the most efficient barriers to eliminate (or at least reduce) formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from MDF and particleboard products.
Air pollution - Control
Formaldehyde - Toxicity
Documents
Less detail

Effectiveness of barriers to minimize VOC emissions, including formaldehyde

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39025
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 2007
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Contributor
Canada. Natural Resources Canada
Date
March 2007
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
39 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Pollution control
Pollution
Materials
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Value to Wood No. FCC 72
5351
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Since the energy crisis in the early 1970s, there has been a decided trend towards tightly constructed buildings that conserve energy and reduce costs. The downside of these well-intended efforts has been the lowering of interior air exchange rates, to the extent that many chemical contaminants are now being trapped indoors where people spend most of their lives. These contaminants may include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as formaldehyde, that have been suggested by some to be among the factors responsible for this air quality deterioration. Wood composite panels, which contain formaldehyde such as particleboard and medium density fiberboard (MDF)are often targeted for strict emission regulations or prohibited altogether, despite the fact that this industry has reduced formaldehyde emissions of raw panels by more than 80% over the past twenty years, thereby actually minimizing indoor air contaminants. Moreover, most consumer products made with composite panels are not used in a raw form, but instead have some type of surface finish over the substrate, that generally acts as a barrier to off-gassing, and subsequently reduces emissions. In this 2003 research, ten commonly used finishes were evaluated for their effectiveness as emissions barriers for formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC). It appeared that the powder coating is among the most effective barriers for both formaldehyde and VOCs, with more than 90% emission reduction when applied to MDF. A similar efficiency was observed with phenolic, vinyl, melamine paper, aluminium oxide overlay, Syn Décor laminates, thermofoil 12mil, and 2 mils Natural vinyl applied on particleboard panels. Some finishing material showed excellent efficiency towards formaldehyde reduction with, however, a lower VOC emission reduction such as birch finishing etc. Results also suggested an evaluation of powder coatings on particleboard, and, if practical the clear coating and vinyl laminate on MDF to more fully evaluate the impact of the substrate, if any, on emission characteristics of these surface treatments. The evaluation of the other finishing materials which showed an excellent efficiency on a particular type of product such as particleboard also need to be evaluated on the other product such as MDF in order to complete the evaluation of the effectiveness of any given barrier. The paper finish, water based topcoat, and the multiple (3) topcoat wet process appeared to be the less efficient barriers towards either formaldehyde and/or VOCs with, 41% and 28% formaldehyde emission reduction respectively and an increase of VOC emissions by 79% and 57% respectively, suggesting that these barriers may have high solvent contents. A limitation of this trial study was that the formaldehyde and VOC contribution of the surface coating or laminate were not tested by themselves without a substrate. The very limited number of tests conducted for any individual barriers suggests that these preliminary results should be viewed with caution and that more sampling (confirmatory as well as additional coatings/laminates) is necessary to ensure completeness as well as confidence in the data. The inter-laboratory comparison study, showed some discrepancies on both formaldehyde and TVOC results. The techniques used such as one sample face against two faces, the analytical techniques, the air exchange rates could be responsible for some part of these discrepancies and the very limited number of tests did not help improve the reliability of the results. A very good correlation between ASTM D 5116 and ASTM D 6007 has been established by comparing formaldehyde emission results from the two methods. An R² of 0.94 has been obtained and could be improved by upgrading the database. The decay tests conducted for a long period of time, some samples were tested for more than 200 days, indicated a net decrease of formaldehyde and VOCs emission over time especially for samples with high initial emission rates. For some low initial formaldehyde emitting samples there was no discernable decrease of emissions over time. Decay emission patterns models varied from sample to sample and some were exponential especially for high initial emitting products and some other were polynomial as reported in the literature. The decaying study showed that VOC emissions decayed favourably other time and some sample products showed almost zero emission after few months. This observation is very encouraging because it indicates that most products before being purchased by the client had emitted more than 60 to 70% of their initial emissions levels, particularly those with high initial emission rates. For those with very emission rates such as those finished with powder coatings, melamine, etc, the decaying is not relevant because their emission levels were already at the detection levels.
Air pollution - Control
Composite materials
Finishes
Documents
Less detail

Impact of Kyoto Protocol on composite panel industries

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38939
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Regulations
Pollution
Materials
Canada
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 15
4005
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
The work conducted under the Kyoto Protocol, can be summarized by extracting some paragraphs from the Montreal Climate Conference press release. Under the Kyoto Protocol, which entered into force February 16, 2005, more than 30 industrialized countries are bound by specific and legally binding emission reduction targets. These cover the period 2008-2012, as a first step. The Kyoto Protocol is now fully operational. The adoption of the Marrakesh accords formally launches emissions trading and the other two mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol. Carbon now has a market value. Under the clean development mechanism, investing in projects that provide sustainable development and reduce emissions makes sound business sense. The Joint Implementation (JI) adopted by the parties is one of the mechanisms which allows developed countries to invest in other developed countries and thereby earn carbon allowances, which they can use to meet their emission reduction commitments. In addition to this, the clean development mechanism allows industrialized countries to invest in sustainable development projects in developing countries and thereby earn carbon allowances. “With these decisions in place, we now have the infrastructure to move ahead with the implementation of the Kyoto protocol” said Richard Kinley, head of the United Nations Climate Change conference. “It sets solid basis for future steps to bring emissions down,” he added. All Kyoto Protocol Parties, including Canada, are now moving ahead to meet their GHG emission reduction commitments. In the past few years, Canada has developed and set strategies to meet our commitments. Canada has recently elected a new Conservative Federal government and the new position in regards to the Protocol and what strategies will be adopted by this government, is unknown at this time. However, because H.E. Ms Rona Ambrose has been confirmed by both the Canadian Government and the United Nations as the new President of the Conference of the Parties (COP), we will very soon know what will be the new Canadian position.
Composite materials
Air pollution - Canada - Laws and regulations
Documents
Less detail

Study of VOC emissions from a MDF pilot plant

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38940
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
39 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Pollution
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 40
1953
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
A series of experiments were conducted with Forintek’s MDF pilot plant to investigate the impact of various process parameters on MDF dryer stack emissions. Resin types, resin loading, wood furnish and scavenger levels were among the factors investigated in this study. Stack emissions were analyzed for particulate matters (PM), speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC). Two series of results were reported. During the first series of test runs, the isokinetic PM sampling was not obtained while with the second series, all test runs were conducted under isokinetic conditions, which make results more reliable. PM results from the second series of runs did not indicate a clear impact of the investigated refining conditions. However, all PM results were well below provincial guidelines for PM emission limits, particularly those from the province of British Columbia. Other results clearly showed that increasing resin loading resulted in an increase of individual VOCs (IVOCs) and total VOC. The replacement of UF resin by MUF resin contributed to a decrease of both IVOCs and TVOC.
Fibreboard
Air pollution - Sources
Documents
Less detail

Effectiveness of barriers to minimize VOC emissions, including formaldehyde

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38953
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Contributor
Canada. Natural Resources Canada
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Pollution control
Pollution
Materials
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Value to Wood No. FCC 32
4506
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Since the energy crisis in the early 1970s, there has been a decided trend towards tightly constructed buildings that conserve energy and reduce costs. The downside of these well-intended efforts has been the lowering of interior air exchange rates, to the extent that many chemical contaminants are now being trapped indoors where people spend most of their lives. These contaminants may include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as formaldehyde, that have been suggested by some to be among the factors responsible for this air quality deterioration. Wood composite panels, which contain formaldehyde such as particleboard and medium density fiberboard (MDF) are often targeted for strict emission regulations or prohibited altogether, despite the fact that this industry has reduced formaldehyde emissions of raw panels by more than 80% over the past twenty years, thereby actually minimizing indoor air contaminants. Moreover, most consumer products made with composite panels are not used in a raw form, but instead have some type of surface finish over the substrate, that generally acts as a barrier to off-gassing, and subsequently reduces emissions. In this year’s research, ten commonly used finishes were evaluated for their effectiveness as emissions barriers for formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC). It appeared that the powder coating is among the most effective barriers for both formaldehyde and VOCs, with more than 90% emission reduction when applied to MDF. A similar efficiency was observed with phenolic, vinyl, melamine paper, aluminium oxide overlay, Syn Décor laminates, thermofoil 12mil, and 2 mils Natural vinyl applied on particleboard panels. Some finishing material such as birch veneer showed excellent efficiency towards formaldehyde reduction with, however, a lower VOC emission reduction. Results also suggested further evaluation of other combinations of substrate and finish need to be considered (powder coatings on particleboard, clear coating or vinyl laminate on MDF) to more fully evaluate the impact of the substrate, if any, on emission characteristics of these surface treatments. The evaluation of the other finishing materials which showed an excellent efficiency on a particular type of product such as particleboard also need to be evaluated on the other product, in this case MDF in order to complete the evaluation of the effectiveness of any given barrier. The paper finish, water based topcoat, and the multiple (3) topcoat wet process appeared to be the less efficient barriers to either formaldehyde and/or VOCs with, 41% and 28% formaldehyde emission reduction respectively and an increase of VOC emissions by 79% and 57% respectively, suggesting that these barriers may have high solvent contents. A limitation of this first study was that the formaldehyde and VOC contribution of the surface coating or laminate were not tested by themselves without a substrate. The very limited number of tests conducted for any individual barriers suggests that these preliminary results should be viewed with caution and that more sampling is necessary to ensure completeness as well as confidence in the data. The next phase of this study will include an inter-laboratory comparison study, further evaluation of the finishes and the effect of sample aging as it relates to emissions. A very good correlation between ASTM D 5116 and ASTM D 6007 has been established by comparing formaldehyde emission results from the two methods. An R² of 0.94 has been obtained and could be improved by expanding the database.
Air pollution - Control
Composite materials
Finishes
Documents
Less detail

Systèmes d'extraction des poussières

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38990
Contributor
Forintek Canada Corp.
Date
November 2006
Material Type
Pamphlet
Field
Sustainable Construction
Contributor
Forintek Canada Corp.
Date
November 2006
Material Type
Pamphlet
Physical Description
4 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Air pollution
Series Number
E-4171
Language
French
Abstract
Dust
Air pollution - Control
Documents
Less detail

Dust collection systems

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38991
Contributor
Forintek Canada Corp.
Date
November 2006
Material Type
Pamphlet
Field
Sustainable Construction
Contributor
Forintek Canada Corp.
Date
November 2006
Material Type
Pamphlet
Physical Description
4 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Air pollution
Series Number
Technology Profile ; TP-06-01W
E-4172
Language
English
Abstract
Dust
Air pollution - Control
Documents
Less detail

Manufacture of MDF using a powder resin

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5591
Author
Feng, Martin
Deng, James
Date
March 2005
Edition
37741
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Feng, Martin
Deng, James
Date
March 2005
Edition
37741
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
65 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Toxicity
Synthetics
Polymers
Pollution
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
4529
W-2179
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The objective of this project was to help Forintek members to reduce formaldehyde and VOC emissions from MDF mills and increase resin efficiency. Five novel blending methods were examined: 1. Post-dryer air-suspension blending with a PF powder resin (resol). 2. Post-dryer air-suspension blending with a PF powder resin and a liquid PF resin (resol). 3. Post-dryer air-suspension blending with a UF powder resin. 4. Post-dryer air-suspension blending with a UF powder resin and a liquid UF resin. 5. Refiner blending with a PF powder resin (novalac) The following conclusions and recommendations are made: It is feasible to produce MDF panels from blending powder PF resin (resol) with wood fibre at 8% MC & 5% wax using a post-dryer air-suspension blender. Combination of liquid and powder PF resins at a ratio of 1:1 appeared to work better. The thickness swell and water absorption were significantly lower than those obtained from panels bonded with liquid PF or powder PF alone. It is feasible to produce MDF panels from blending powder UF resin with wood at 7% MC & 5% wax using a post-dryer air-suspension blender. Similar to the case of PF resin, the combination of liquid UF and powder UF at a ratio of 1:1 appeared to work better than liquid UF or powder UF alone. Unlike PF powder resin, however, UF powder was softened quickly by moisture, causing some blender build-up. There is room for improving UF powder resin performance by resin formula modification and the reduction of its water solubility. It is feasible to produce MDF panels from blending a novalac resin with wood in a MDF refiner. Further exploration of this novel blending method in Forintek's MDF pilot plant is recommended. Results from this project shoed that there are new possibilities for the next generation of MDF blending. These new methods will be able to overcome the disadvantages and preserve or even enhance the advantages of the existing blending methods. This project has demonstrated that, by changing the physical properties of a resin, it is possible to develop an improved MDF blending system. Using a powder resin in a post-dryer blending system may dramatically reduce resin consumption and formaldehyde emission from the MDF mills. The combination of a liquid resin with a powder resin is another possibility. In this case, perhaps a certain amount of liquid resin is delivered to a post-dryer mechanical blender or post-dryer air-suspension blender or via the blowline to produce some tack in the fibre while a powder resin is blended with the fibre in this post-dryer mechanical blender or post-dryer air-suspension blender. The powder resin may also be delivered at the end section of the tube dryer. Because the powder resin is blended after the dryer, the loss of resin efficiency can then be greatly reduced. The authors believe that there is great potential for technological advancement in this area. In order to explore the full potential of powder resin blending in MDF manufacturing, joint research with a reputable blending equipment manufacturer is highly recommended.
Polymers, Synthetic
Fibreboard
Air pollution - Sources
Formaldehyde - Toxicity
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Impact of Kyoto Protocol on composite panel industries

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42269
Author
Barry, A.
Date
September 2004
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Date
September 2004
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Regulations
Pollution
Materials
Canada
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Simple Progress General Revenue
4005
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Composite materials
Air pollution - Canada - Laws and regulations
Documents
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Review of current knowledge and trends in building microbiology and indoor-air quality

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41276
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Date
January 2003
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Date
January 2003
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
10 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Safety
Research
Pollution control
Pollution
Growth
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
W-1923
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The air quality in human dwellings, educational and work places has become a high profile issue over the last decade especially in regarding to mould. Mould spores are present everywhere. Moulds grow on a wide variety of organic substrates including wood and are easy to find in all buildings especially those that have moisture available for microbial growth. The wood industry is facing a potential problem as stain fungi (which may often be mistaken for mould) and moulds can be found growing abundantly on green timber and lumber and the public could perceive wood used in building envelopes as a major substrate and source of mould. To ensure that wood is treated fairly among other building materials Forintek has initiated several projects regarding mould and one of them is to review the existing body of literature on moulds and to develop an organized database of information in a searchable form that could be continuously updated. Thus, to update Forintek’s knowledge in this area, to maintain awareness of the latest developments and trends and to establish new contacts Adnan attended the 9th Indoor Air Conference in July 2002 which is considered to be among the most prestigious in the field. As expected, the conference and associated interactions yielded a substantial amount of information directly or indirectly related to current and future projects at Forintek in regard to moulds, substrates for their growth and potential health effects. Overall there was a general understanding that microbial ecology and health-related issues in association with a moisture-damaged site are complex phenomena and require further and thorough research. Modern building technology that uses a plethora of building materials in more or less successful building designs and in association with failures in moisture control provide specific, and in some cases, new ecological niches for microbes. Wood was not singled out or exempted as a source or important substrate for mould growth. The water damage and available moisture is the major factor in supporting microbial growth. Apart from mould there are other equally or more important elements associated with reported ill health and these may include bacteria, tobacco pollution, diesel particles, material and microbial volatile organic compounds, mites and other allergens of animal origin. This report summarizes major findings and developments in indoor air quality issues with special emphasis on mould, health issues and water-damaged human habitats. Parts of it are judged as potentially useful to Forintek members.
Microbiology - Research - Safety
Air pollution - Control
Moulds - Control
Fungi - Growth
Documents
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Effect of air pollution on wood production and quality

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37177
Author
Keith, C.T.
Date
March 1987
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Keith, C.T.
Date
March 1987
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 v.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood quality
Wood
Vegetation
Quality control
Qualitative analysis
Pollution
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
CFS No. 36;04-55-12-102
W-446
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
Wood quality
Air pollution - Damage to vegetation
Air pollution - Effects
Documents
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23 records – page 1 of 2.