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Fire-resistance and sound-transmission-class ratings for generic wood-frame assemblies

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5959
Author
Richardson, L.R.
Batista, M.
Date
March 2001
Edition
42019
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Richardson, L.R.
Batista, M.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2001
Edition
42019
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
28 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Wood frame
Wood
Transmission
Sound transmission
Resistance
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 2
E-3523
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Sound-transmission-class (STC) and fire-resistance (FR) ratings for many of the generic construction assemblies traditionally used in construction of Canadian housing and small buildings have been published in the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) since 1950. While some of those ratings were updated over the intervening years, many of them had not been revised since 1965. Therefore, in 1992 the Canadian Commission for Building and Fire Codes decided to delete from the 1995 edition of the NBCC, every STC and FR ratings that could not be supported by contemporary data. Canadian architects, fire-protection engineers and building officials make extensive use of the STC and FR ratings in the NBCC when designing and approving housing and small buildings in Canada. The STC ratings are also used extensively in the design of engineered structures. Wood-frame assemblies, more than any other, are designed and constructed in accordance with the STC and FR ratings listed in the NBCC. Therefore, it was crucial for the wood industry to generate the necessary data to retain STC and FR ratings for wood-frame assemblies. No single organisation in Canada could afford to bear the costs associated with a testing program to determine STC and FR ratings for all assemblies commonly used in Canadian housing and small buildings. Therefore, a partnership of affected industries and governmental organisations was created, and the National Research Council Canada (NRC), in collaboration with those partners, commenced a research program to quantify STC and FR ratings for generic building assemblies protected by gypsum board. Forintek Canada Corp., in conjunction with the Canadian Wood Council, and a number of North American manufacturers of engineered wood products, is participating in that program on behalf of Canada’s wood products industry. This report describes progress achieved in that research program between April 1, 2000 and March 31, 2001. A paper entitled “Observations on fire-endurance tests of wood-frame assemblies protected by gypsum board” was presented at the 4th International Wood & Fire Safety Conference in ÒrbskJ Pleso, Slovak Republic. A paper entitled “Sound-transmission-class and fire-resistance ratings for wood-frame floors” was published in Fire and Materials. A 26-page paper entitled “Thoughts and observations on fire-endurance tests of wood-frame assemblies protected by gypsum board” was submitted for publication in Fire and Materials. The second meeting of the steering committee for the collaborative research project to assess fire and acoustical performances of floor assemblies was held on September 12, 2000. When completed, the total value of the work carried out for this part of the overall collaborative testing program will be about $2,200,000. NRC is contributing 40%. The wood industry is contributing about 20%. There are no differences in the fire endurance times of floor assemblies constructed with nominal 2x8’s, compared to those for assemblies constructed with nominal 2x10’s, provided all other construction details are identical and applied structural loads are proportionally the same. The addition of 25-mm thick gypsum-concrete toppings (1957 kg/m3) on wood-frame floors does not reduce the fire endurance of the floor. There are no differences in the fire endurance times of wood-frame floor assemblies having ceilings constructed with two layers of gypsum board, irrespective of whether the gypsum board is fastened directly to the bottom of the joists or attached to the bottom of the joists using resilient channels. Attempts to design wood-joist floor assemblies having 45-min fire-resistance-ratings were unsuccessful when there was no insulation between the joists and the ceiling consisted of a single layer of gypsum board. Similarly, attempts to design wood-joist floor assemblies having 1-hr fire-resistance ratings failed when the ceiling consisted of only one layer of gypsum board and rock-fibre insulation was placed between the joists. The third meeting of the steering committee for the Phase-II collaborative research project to assess flanking sound transmission in multifamily dwellings was held on June 13, 2000. The fourth meeting was held at USG’s Research and Technology Center on October 12 and 13, 2000. When acoustical performance is considered, and particularly impact-noise-transmission, wood-frame construction has an almost insurmountable advantage over heavy concrete. A meeting of the steering committee for the collaborative research project to assess fire and acoustical performances of wall assemblies was held on September 13, 2000. The results of fire tests on wood-frame walls were reported in two Internal Reports published by NRC. The first draft of a NRC Internal Report on the acoustical testing carried out for this project has been written. A representative of Forintek attended meetings of the AF&PA Subcommittee on Fire Performance of Wood, and the AF&PA Technical Committee from August 8 to 10, 2000. AF&PA funded a series of fire endurance tests on wood-frame walls. By selecting only the strongest studs and using specially selected Type X gypsum board, they were able to achieve greater fire resistance ratings for wood-stud walls than were observed in the collaborative project described in this report. This research project will continue in 2001/2002. Forintek will continue to write papers for presentation at conferences, seminars and workshops and for publication in journals and other written media in order to get the message out about this project and the acoustical and fire performance of wood-frame construction. One of the major points that will be made in those papers is that wood-frame construction provides superior sound insulation, compared to concrete assemblies, and that it is less expensive to construct acoustically superior wood-frame assemblies than steel-frame ones. In addition, Forintek will work with CMHC and NRC to develop a “best-practice” guide describing construction details for party-walls separating adjacent units in multifamily dwellings.
Wood-frame assemblies
Sound-transmission-class ratings
Fire-resistance
Documents
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Study of volatile organic chemical emissions from the pressing of composite panels

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5960
Author
Barry, A.
Lépine, R.
Lovell, R.
Corneau, D.
Date
March 2001
Edition
42026
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Lépine, R.
Lovell, R.
Corneau, D.
Date
March 2001
Edition
42026
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
23 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
VOC Volatile Organic Compounds
Pressing
Panels
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 23
E-3530
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Pressing
Composite panels
VOCs
Emissions
Documents
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Process modifications to minimize washboarding in high-temperature borate treated SPF

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41232
Author
Morris, Paul I.
McFarling, S.M.
Date
February 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Morris, Paul I.
McFarling, S.M.
Contributor
Forest Renewal BC
Alberta Innovation and Science. Agriculture and Life Sciences Research
Date
February 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
11 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Softwoods
Preservatives tests
Preservatives boron
Preservatives
Preservation
Series Number
W-1730
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The lumber industry producing spruce-pine-fir (SPF) is interested in marketing a termite-resistant wood product in regions where subterranean termites adversely affect consumer confidence in wood-frame construction. The use of borate treatment appears to be a promising approach to overcoming the difficulty of pressure treating unincised Eastern SPF, particularly black spruce. Recently at a commercial trial at the Légaré plant in Quebec, Canadian SPF was treated with borates and met the AWPA standard. Washboarding was however noted after treating and storage in red spruce, white spruce, balsam fir and alpine fir. The effect was even more pronounced after kiln drying. This experiment was designed to determine whether washboarding could be reduced or eliminated by modifying the treating schedule used at the Légaré plant. Seven charges were carried out with various modifications to the Légaré schedule. From these results an eighth charge, combination treatment, was devised using all the modifications that appeared to reduce washboarding. The modifications that significantly reduced washboarding were: reducing solution temperature from 60oC to 50oC, adding a 15-minute pressure rise, and using constant pressure. The modifications that did not reduce washboarding were: 60-minute pressure relief and no final vacuum. However, eliminating the final vacuum did not affect, uptake or kickback of treating solution thus this modification was added to the combination treatment to compensate for the added time. The combined treatment schedule included a solution temperature of 50oC, a 15-minute pressure rise, constant pressure and no final vacuum. The combination treatment reduced the washboarding effect to a similar degree to the reduced temperature. Washboarding appeared to develop mostly in post-treatment drying, and mainly (if not always) on the heartwood face of the lumber. Washboarding was much lower for end-sealed samples than for full-length material. The modifications that substantially reduced preservative uptake were: no initial vacuum, 15-minute pressure rise and constant pressure. The last two of these in the combined treatment produced the greatest reduction in uptake. Measurements of preservative penetration were affected by treatment schedule and storage time prior to drying, however, the penetrations were not out of line with those in the commercial trial at the same storage time where red spruce met the AWPA standards. Washboarding can be reduced to an acceptable level without compromising treatment quality by reducing the solution temperature to 50oC. If it proves necessary to eliminate washboarding altogether, further work could include further reduction in treating solution temperature, the addition of ethanol or surfactants and the use of end seals.
Preservatives - Boron
Preservatives - Tests
Softwoods - Preservation
Documents
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Preventing stain in pine logs by "sour-felling"

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41234
Author
Minchin, D.
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Minchin, D.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
3 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Stain fungal
Stain
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Series Number
CFS Simple Progress Report No. 32;2281
W-1742
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The objective of this project is to determine if sour felling can reduce nutrient status and/or incidence of stain in lodgepole pine roundwood
Stains - Fungal - Control
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Stains - Fungal
Documents
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Performance of treated lumber against termites after 11 years of test in Ontario|Compilation of reports

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41236
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
8 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Ontario
Termites
Preservatives tests
Preservatives chromated copper arsenate CCA
Preservatives ammoniacal
Preservatives
Ammonia
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 14;1054
W-1745
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
North American subterranean termites have become a major factor limiting the service life of wood products in southwestern Ontario. If preservative treatment can be demonstrated to prevent termite attack, the market for wood products could be maintained and expanded. With the assistance of the town of Kincardine, Ontario, Forintek set up a termite test site in 1988. The material used included red pine, lodgepole pine, jack pine, hemlock, white spruce and mixed spruce-pine-fir. The preservatives were chromated copper arsenate (CCA-C), ammoniacal copper arsenate (ACA) and ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ). Both incised and unincised lumber was included in the tests where possible. Also used was CCA-treated hem-fir plywood. The material was inspected in the summer of 1999. Treated material was generally performing well, with some pieces starting to show signs of superficial surface feeding, or cosmetic damage. Some samples that had lower assay retentions and preservative penetrations showed more than just trace nibbles and termites appeared to have actually penetrated through the outer treated zone. It appeared that termite entry occurred in areas on the wood surface where defects may have facilitated such entry. Material that came close to meeting CSA O80 standards for ground contact generally suffered only minor damage.
Termites - Control
Preservatives - Tests
Preservatives - Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)
Preservatives - Ammoniacal copper arsenate (ACA)
Documents
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Performance of borate-treated wood against subterranean termites in above-ground protected conditions in Canada|Compilation of reports

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41237
Author
Morris, Paul I.
Ingram, Janet K.
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Morris, Paul I.
Ingram, Janet K.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
7 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Termites
Preservatives tests
Canada
Preservatives
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 14;1054
W-1746
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Forintek Canada Corp. set up a ground-contact termite test site in 1988 with the assistance of the town of Kincardine, Ontario. In 1996, the test was expanded to include borate-treated material above-ground, protected from rain. This method simulates the sillplate, or dodai, used in traditional Japanese housing construction. The material included hemlock and amabilis fir lumber treated with borate and chromated copper arsenate (CCA). When it was inspected in the autumn of 2000, the treated material was generally found to be performing well, with some pieces starting to show signs of superficial feeding or cosmetic damage. Attack was moderate on untreated controls.
Preservatives - Tests
Termites - Control
Preservatives - Disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT)
Documents
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Compilation of reports. 1. Performance of treated lumber against termites after 11 years of test in Ontario. 2. Performance of borate-treated wood against subterranean termites under above-ground protected conditions in Canada

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41238
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
15 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Termites
Preservatives tests
Preservatives chromated copper arsenate CCA
Preservatives ammoniacal
Preservatives
Ammonia
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 14;1054
W-1747
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
North American subterranean termites have become a major factor limiting the service life of wood products in southwestern Ontario. If preservative treatment can be demonstrated to prevent termite attack, the market for wood products could be maintained and expanded. With the assistance of the town of Kincardine, Ontario, Forintek set up a ground-contact termite test site in 1988. The material used included red pine, lodgepole pine, jack pine, hemlock, white spruce and mixed spruce-pine-fir. The preservatives were chromated copper arsenate (CCA-C), ammoniacal copper arsenate (ACA) and ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ). Both incised and unincised lumber was included in the tests where possible. Also used was CCA-treated hem-fir plywood. The material was inspected in the summer of 1999. Treated material was generally performing well, with some pieces starting to show signs of superficial surface feeding, or cosmetic damage. Some samples that had lower assay retentions and preservative penetrations showed more than just trace nibbles and termites appeared to have actually penetrated through the outer treated zone. It appeared that termite entry occurred in areas on the wood surface where defects may have facilitated such entry. Material that came close to meeting CSA O80 standards for ground contact generally suffered only minor damage. Forintek expanded the test in 1996 to include borate-treated material above-ground, protected from rain. This method simulates the sillplate, or dodai, used in traditional Japanese housing construction. The material included hemlock and amabilis fir lumber treated with borate and chromated copper arsenate (CCA). When it was inspected in the autumn of 2000, the treated material was generally found to be performing well, with some pieces starting to show signs of superficial feeding or cosmetic damage. Attack was moderate on untreated controls.
Termites - Control
Preservatives - Tests
Preservatives - Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)
Preservatives - Ammoniacal copper arsenate (ACA)
Preservatives - Disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT)
Documents
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Decision aids for durable wood construction

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41239
Author
O'Connor, J.
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
O'Connor, J.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
15 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Process control
CAD Computer aided design
Design
Building construction
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 19;1052
W-1748
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This report describes key results of the Decision Aids project for 1999-2001. This project seeks to partially fulfil Forintek's need for a "Durability by Design" component in its durability program. The project's objective is to participate with the building industry in improving design and construction practice to ensure the long-term performance of wood. Methods include assisting in better technology transfer of known information, and initiating research projects to fill in information gaps. Key results were further development of strong ties within the building industry and the building science research community; development of a content-rich public web site on durable wood design and construction; development of other technology transfer vehicles for information on best use of wood for durable construction; extensive participation in two leading North American research consortia on durable wood construction; and, two spin-off research projects.
Process control - Computers
Building construction - Process control
Buildings - Durability
Building construction - Design
Documents
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Prevention of bluestain in lodgepole pine by sour felling : compilation of reports|Prevention of bluestain in lodgepole pine by sour felling : Trial 1 - Final report

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41240
Author
Minchin, D.
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Minchin, D.
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
23 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Stain fungal
Stain
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 32;2281
W-1749
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Development of bluestain in logs prevents the Canadian forest industry from producing maximum-value products from a considerable proportion of the resource every year. Bluestain-control strategies that can be implemented without disrupting woodlands or mill productivity are required and one of the most promising is sour felling. This involves felling the trees and leaving the foliage on for about a month before delimbing. Sour felling has been proposed as a method of reducing the moisture content and transportation costs of trees. However, due to continued respiration and transpiration the sapwood nutrients are also expected to be somewhat depleted during the period in which delimbing is delayed. These nutrients would then not be available for staining fungi. We therefore focused on sour felling as a possible control measure for stain in lodgepole pine and did trials to determine if sour-felling can reduce nutrient status and/or incidence of stain in lodgepole pine roundwood. In 1999 a trial (Trial 1) of sour felling proceeded in Alberta. Trees were felled with mechanical harvesting equipment and either delimbed or left with the limbs intact. After six weeks, trees were destructively sampled for measurement of bluestained area and for chemical analyses of four classes of wood extractives. The trial was repeated twice again in 2000 (Trials 2a and 2b) but wet conditions delayed access and felling and set-up of the Trial 2a could not be done until June 2000. An additional experiment was done alongside Trial 2a, and consisted of forest storage of sour felled trees which had none of the bark damage that normally occurs during the process of forwarding the trees to the roadside. Non-destructive sampling of trees for analysis of nutrient content occurred at 0 and 7 weeks for Trials 2a and 2b and at 13 weeks for Trial 2a only. Destructive sampling of trees for assessment of stain development was done only for Trial 2a at 13 weeks; Trial 2b was abandoned at 12 weeks due to cool fall weather which was unsuitable for the development of stain. The 1999 trial (Trial 1) gave indeterminate results because no bluestain appeared in the freshly felled (control) trees. However chemical analyses of the discs resulted in a body of information about changes in the nutrient status of the trees with storage. Starch was the extractive most depleted during the storage period. For the first time we have detailed information about the extractive content of lodgepole pine sapwood that provides the nutrients for development of bluestain. Measurements of stained area done on the discs from the 2000 Trial 2a indicated that there was less stain in the sour-felled logs than in the delimbed trees. However both 1999 and 2000 years were less severe for bluestain than normal and the experiment must be repeated to provide industry with sufficient confidence in the benefits of changing harvesting practices. It is planned to re-test the concept by repeating a sour-felling trial in 2001-2. This requires extending the project for an additional year. This summary covers three reports: 1) Prevention of Bluestain in Lodgepole Pine by Sour Felling: Trial 1 – Final report (report to CFS); 2) A trial of “sour”felling to prevent bluestain by depletion of sapwood nutrients (draft publication: International Research Group on Wood Preservation Paper); 3) Prevention of bluestain in lodgepole pine by sour felling: Trial 2 - Progress report (to CFS)
Stains - Fungal - Control
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Stains, Fungal
Documents
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Source and spread of bluestain fungi

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41241
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Date
April 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
April 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
16 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Stain fungal
Stain
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 33;2236
W-1750
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Bluestain, caused by fungi, is an important and costly problem for the Canadian forest products industry. Conifers, such as pines, are especially susceptible to bluestain infection and development in logs. This prevents the recovery of appearance-grade wood products from those logs. The original objective of this project was to determine what fungi cause the greatest problems in a specific sawmill yard and to determine the mechanism of dispersion of these fungi. The selected sawmill is typical of northern Alberta or BC practice where the logging is done almost entirely in winter. Sufficient logs are brought in to the mill yard to cover the year's sawmilling. However during the summer the logs become stained. We originally surmised that the logs would be virtually free of stain when cut in the winter months. Based on literature we had assumed the vector of the staining fungi would be an insect. The spores of staining fungi are normally not airborne but are sticky and adhere to insects or other arthropods that carry the spores on their bodies. An insect control program might thus be devised to stop the insects and thereby reduce stain. Shortly after starting the project we realised that the problem was more complex than it first appeared. We could not assume that the logs were largely free of infection when they reached the mill but needed to test that. We therefore extended the objective to determine the major sources of bluestain and the mechanisms of their dispersion in general in both logging sites and mill yards. This also required extending the length of the project. In project planning several action items were identified. Progress has been made on some of these. During 2000 a number of essential contacts including universities, government and industry were established. Several have already contributed to the project. A literature review of the reported insect-fungi associations was done and is included in this report. Field trapping techniques for insects likely to carry stain were tested. By using a selection of commercially available lures, Lindgren funnel traps were shown to be capable of attracting a variety of target insects. To determine their fungal associates, these insects need to be immediately isolated and put in separate clean vials for later sampling. A larger scale field trapping will be done in subsequent years. Techniques for isolating fungi from insects were investigated and refined. This work demonstrated procedures which proved efficient and which will be used for larger scale work. Methods to investigate links between harvesting and fungal infection were also developed. A collaborative trial that is looking into dissemination of fungi by harvesters was set up with Forest Research (NZ) and Oregon State University. Preliminary work has tested the methods, which will be repeated on a larger scale in 2001. The project is now considerably larger in scope than originally planned. It should determine the most significant ways of stain dissemination. The aim is to do this work as a set of collaborative experiments wherein as much of the expertise on insect and fungal identification and ecology as possible is contributed by our partners. Forintek will organize the industrial interface of the work.
Stains - Fungal - Control
Documents
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Prevention of bluestain in lodgepole pine by sour felling : trial 1 - final report

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41243
Author
Minchin, D.
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Minchin, D.
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
37 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Stain fungal
Stain
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Series Number
W-1754
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Development of bluestain in logs prevents the Canadian forest industry from producing maximum-value products from a considerable proportion of the resource every year. When considering bluestain-control strategies that could be implemented without disrupting woodlands or mill productivity one of the most promising is sour felling. This involves felling the trees and leaving the foliage on for about a month before delimbing. Sour felling has been proposed as a method of reducing the moisture content and transportation costs of trees. However, due to continued respiration and transpiration the sapwood nutrients are also expected to be somewhat depleted during the period in which delimbing is delayed. These nutrients would then not be available for staining fungi. Passing comment is made in the literature to bluestain development sometimes being less in sour-felled logs, particularly in pine. We therefore focused on sour felling as a possible control measure for stain in lodgepole pine. Sour-felling is industrially feasible for companies using a feller/buncher for the initial cutting and delimbers to remove the branches. This is the most common harvesting method used in the BC interior and Alberta. The objective of the test was to determine if sour felling can reduce the wood nutrient status and/or incidence of bluestain in lodgepole pine roundwood. In late August 1999, near Edson, Alberta, 57 lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) trees were mechanically felled. Of these, 20 were mechanically delimbed controls and 30 were left with their limbs intact (sour-felled). Discs were taken from trees growing alongside for chemical analyses of wood extractives in the laboratory. In October, the test site was revisited and a second set of samples (six-week samples) taken from the logs. As no bluestain had occurred in the logs after six weeks (probably a result of the coolness of the weather) trees from both the delimbed and sour-felled piles were removed and sampled as the original sample trees (time-0) had been, in order to determine the effect of storage on nutrient status of the sapwood. Chemical analyses were done for lipophilic extractives, phenolics, soluble sugars, starch and total nitrogen concentrations. Because the conditions were not suitable for the formation of stain in the delimbed logs the study was unable to determine whether sour felling had any effect on the prevention of bluestain during the fall of 1999. However, the project did provide baseline data on the levels of extractives known to be nutrients for staining fungi. For trees felled in August 1999, those extractives occurred in the following order of abundance: lipophilic extractives (24 g/kg); soluble sugars (1.6 g/kg); starch (1.3 g/kg); and nitrogenous compounds such as elemental nitrogen (0.45 g/kg). Generally, the viability of ray parenchyma cells, the sapwood moisture content and the amounts of nutrients present in the sapwood remained at the same level over the six-week storage period, irrespective of whether the logs were from trees that had been delimbed or whether the trees sampled had been left in their full lengths with their limbs and foliage intact. Only one nutrient, starch, was depleted to 20-30% its original amount over the six-week storage period. Pinosylvin, pinobanskin and pinocembrin, which are some of the compounds thought to prevent fungal attack of heartwood, were below detectable levels in most logs sampled. However, some stored logs had small amounts of these extractives present, possibly a response to wounding. It is recommended that the test be repeated in a hot summer to determine the maximum possible effect that sour felling might have on the prevention of bluestain.
Stains - Fungal - Control
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Stains, Fungal
Documents
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Preventing spread of bluestain fungi in short logs using Cartapip 97™ (simulated field tests)

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41247
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Date
April 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Date
April 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
6 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Stain fungal
Stain
Series Number
W-1762
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This paper presents a laboratory test of the potential of using an albino strain of a common bluestain fungus to control bluestain in logs. In our initial studies, we tested an albino strain of Ophiostoma piliferum (CartapipTM). Cartapip and four challenge bluestain fungi were inoculated into test logs as a spore suspension. Two types of artificially produced bark wounds were inoculated on each log with the following: each fungus alone; Cartapip and each challenge fungus mixed together; Cartapip first, followed by each challenge fungus (2 and 10 days later); and the challenge fungi first, followed by Cartapip 5 days later. When inoculated alone, Cartapip was able to colonize fresh lodgepole pine, penetrate up to 2 cm deep into the sapwood, and not cause stain. The challenge fungi colonized large areas of sapwood and caused significant stain. However, when the fungi were applied after Cartapip, the stain was negligible in most cases. Based on these results, we believe that Cartapip has the potential to prevent stain under field conditions if it is applied immediately after felling.
Stains - Fungal - Control
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Development of a test protocol for measuring the water tightness of window installations

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41250
Author
Dumont, R.
Date
May 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Dumont, R.
Date
May 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
21 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Windows
Design
Series Number
W-1773
Location
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
Language
English
Abstract
In this project, a test protocol is developed for determining the amount of water penetration that can occur at window and door installations.
Windows - Design
Windows - Moisture content
Doors - Design
Moisture - Control
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Technology mission to North Carolina and Virginia secondary wood product manufacturers

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41251
Author
Marshall, G.K.
Date
April 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Marshall, G.K.
Date
April 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
48 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Value added
Series Number
W-1776
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Report on visits to secondary wood product manufacturing plants located in North Carolina and Virginia, located on the Eastern Seaboard of the United States.
Value added - North Carolina
Value added - Virginia
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Water-repellents to reduce borate leaching in transit and storage

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41252
Author
McFarling, S.M.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
July 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
McFarling, S.M.
Morris, Paul I.
Contributor
Timber Specialties Ltd.
Natural Resources Canada.
Date
July 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
10 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Preservatives boron
Preservatives
Preservation
Leaching
Series Number
W-1781
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Sodium borate is a leachable preservative and wood treated with it must be protected from continuous exposure to liquid water. This report evaluates the effectiveness of water repellents in minimising the loss of boron during inadvertent exposure to rainfall during transport and storage.
Preservation - Leaching
Preservatives - Boron
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Evaluation of vapour diffusion ports on drying of wood-frame walls under controlled conditions

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41253
Author
Hazleden, D.G.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
October 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Hazleden, D.G.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
October 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
29 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Walls
Design
Series Number
W-1800
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
A research program conducted at Forintek Canada Corp.’s western lab in Vancouver, Canada, the Envelope Drying Rates Analysis Experiment (EDRA) Group A, has evaluated the relative drying rates of typical wood-frame wall assemblies under controlled laboratory conditions, (Forintek Canada Corp & HouseWorks Building Science Inc., 2001). Five of the typical test wall panels (of Group A) have been re-tested (Group B) after being modified by the addition of vapour diffusion ports. The objective of the test was to determine if the vapour diffusion ports would add substantially to the drying rates of the test wall panels. Test conditions included Vancouver wintertime drying only. Test panels incorporated polyethylene vapor retarder and sealed poly air barrier construction. The research ranks test wall panels in terms of their relative drying capacities, and assesses the differences in drying performance of test wall panels with and without vapour diffusion ports. The Group B tests indicate that vapour diffusion ports have a substantial improvement effect on the drying rates of OSB sheathed panels and no substantial effect on the drying rates of plywood sheathed panels.
Walls - Design
Walls - Moisture determination
Walls - Moisture - Tests
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A soil bed test of the effect of CCA penetration on the performance of spruce and pine lumber

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41255
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
November 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
November 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
5 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Soil
Preservatives tests
Preservatives penetration
Preservatives chromated copper arsenate CCA
Preservatives
Preservation
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Picea
Penetration
Series Number
W-1811
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
An accelerated decay test was set up to compare the performance of CCA-treated western spruce and lodgepole pine lumber treated to various depths of preservative penetration. Short lengths of treated 2 x 4s and comparable untreated material were installed in a soil bed. After ten years of exposure, the CCA treatments were still sound, while the untreated material had failed due to decay. Deterioration of the central untreated zone on the buried end of some material was caused by failure of the field-cut preservative, not the CCA treatment.
Preservatives - Tests - Soil block
Picea - Preservation
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Preservation
Preservatives - Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)
Preservatives - Penetration - Tests
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Inspection of treated and untreated western red cedar shingles after twenty years in a field test

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41256
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
November 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
November 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
7 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Thuja plicata
Wood decay
Shingles preservation
Shingles durability
Shingles
Resistance
Preservation
Series Number
W-1812
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Western red cedar shingles, untreated and treated with three waterborne preservatives, have been exposed since 1980 at two locations in the lower mainland of British Columbia. An inspection performed after twenty years in test revealed some decay in untreated samples, while all treated samples with the exception of one CCA-C-treated and one ACA-treated shingle were free from decay. Moderate physical deterioration of the shingles had occurred in the form of erosion and splitting.
Thuja plicata - Shingles
Thuja plicata - Decay resistance
Shingles - Durability
Shingles - Preservation
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Inspection of treated and untreated western red cedar shakes after twenty years in a field test

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41257
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
November 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Ingram, Janet K.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
November 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
5 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Thuja plicata
Wood decay
Shingles preservation
Shingles durability
Shingles
Resistance
Preservation
Series Number
W-1813
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Experimental roof panels constructed using western red cedar shakes, untreated and treated with three waterborne preservatives, have been in test for twenty years at two locations in the lower mainland of British Columbia. Moderate erosion and splitting are present in both treated and untreated samples, but only minor decay has been detected on some of the untreated shakes.
Thuja plicata - Shingles
Thuja plicata - Decay resistance
Shingles - Durability
Shingles - Preservation
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Discolorations on wood products : causes and implications. A wood protection fact sheet

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41258
Date
December 2001
Material Type
Pamphlet
Field
Sustainable Construction
Date
December 2001
Material Type
Pamphlet
Physical Description
8 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Stain
Stain fungal
Series Number
Fact Sheet on Wood in Construction = Fiche technique sur le bois dans la construction
W-1818
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Why is construction lumber sometimes discoloured and what does this mean? Many things can colour or stain wood. For example, dirt and iron may leave indelible marks on wood. The heartwood portion of a tree is often darker than the sapwood and may appear to be discoloured. Weathering will usually change the colour of wood. In other cases, wood stains are due to the growth of microscopic organisms, the most common of which are harmless staining fungi. However, other fungi can potentially colonize wood products. Mould in building materials is a popular news topic due to possible health concerns. What are the implications of mould growing on wood? Because Forintek has often been asked to investigate such questions we have prepared this fact sheet to assist buyers and users of wood in understanding the nature of wood discolourations and deciding whether or not action is required.
Documents
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