Neither the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) , nor any provincial code, such as the British Columbia Building Code (BCBC) , currently provide “acceptable solutions” to permit the construction of tall wood buildings, that is buildings of 7 stories and above. British Columbia, however, was the first province in Canada to allow mid-rise (5/6 storey) wood construction and other provinces have since followed. As more mid-rise wood buildings are erected, their benefits are becoming apparent to the industry, and therefore they are gaining popularity and becoming more desirable.
Forest product research has now begun to shift towards more substantial buildings, particularly in terms of height. High-rise buildings, typically taller than 6 storeys, are currently required to achieve 2 h fire resistance ratings (FRR) for floors and other structural elements, and need to be of non-combustible construction, as per the “acceptable solutions” of Division B of the NBCC . In order for a tall wood building to be approved, it must follow an “alternative solution” approach, which requires demonstrating that the design provides an equivalent or greater level of safety as compared to an accepted solution using non-combustible construction. One method to achieve this level of safety is by ‘encapsulating’ the assembly to provide additional protection before wood elements become involved in the fire, as intended by the Code objectives and functional statements (i.e., prolong the time before the wood elements potentially start to char and their structural capacity is affected). It is also necessary to demonstrate that the assembly, in particular the interior finishes, conform to any necessary flame spread requirements.
The Technical Guide for the Design and Construction of Tall Wood Buildings in Canada  recommends designing a tall wood building so that it is code-conforming in all respects, except that it employs mass timber construction. The guide presents various encapsulation methods, from full encapsulation of all wood elements to partial protection of select elements. National Research Council Canada (NRC), FPInnovations, and the Canadian Wood Council (CWC) began specifically investigating encapsulation techniques during their Mid-Rise Wood Buildings Consortium research project, and demonstrated that direct applied gypsum board, cement board and gypsum-concrete can delay the effects of fire on a wood substrate .
There is extensive data on the use of gypsum board as a means of encapsulation for wood-frame assemblies and cold-formed steel assemblies. However, tall wood buildings are more likely to employ mass timber elements due to higher load conditions, requirements for longer fire resistance ratings, as well as other factors. There is little knowledge currently available related to using gypsum board directly applied to mass timber, or in other configurations, for fire protection. Testing performed to date has been limited to direct applied Type X gypsum board using standard screw spacing, and showed promising results [5, 6, 7]. This represents an opportunity for other configurations that might provide enhanced protection of wood elements to be investigated.
Being able to provide equivalent fire performance of assemblies between non-combustible and combustible construction will thus improve the competiveness of tall timber buildings by providing additional options for designers.
The focus of this guide is on the planning, construction, and maintenance practices for resource roads that cross wetlands. Poor bearing capacity soils and an abundance of water are characteristic of wetlands. This guide focuses on two primary issues: 1. Ensuring that resource roads that cross wetlands function at the required design and performance levels to allow forest access and hauling operations in a cost-effective manner; 2. Reducing the impacts of resource roads on the flow characteristics of wetlands. This guide involves FPInnovations and Ducks Unlimited Canada.
Forest fuels engineering is one of the primary wildfire mitigation strategies advocated by FireSmart™ Canada and applied by partnering wildfire management agencies and industry operators. Fuel treatments have been extensively applied in and around communities in the wildland-urban interface, through a broad range of fuel modification techniques. A primary objective of fuel treatments is to modify fire behaviour to a ‘less difficult, disruptive, and destructive’ state (Reinhardt et al. 2008) which can allow for safer, more effective fire suppression operations (Moghaddas and Craggs 2007).
Black spruce is one of the most prevalent fuel types surrounding communities in central and northern Alberta, as well as other parts of boreal Canada. The densely stocked black spruce forest stands in the Red Earth Creek FireSmart research area exhibit typical crown fuel properties of black spruce: high crown bulk density and low crown base height, which contribute to crown fire initiation (Van Wagner 1977). These fuel characteristics, combined with low fuel moisture contents and strong winds, create ideal conditions for high-intensity, rapidly-spreading catastrophic wildfire (Flat Top Complex Wildfire Review Committee 2012).
Mulch fuel treatments use various types of equipment to masticate forest vegetation resulting in a reduction in crown bulk density and the conversion of canopy and ladder fuels to a more compacted and less available fuel source in the surface layer (Battaglia et al. 2010). Mulch thinning and strip mulch treatments create a more open surface fuel environment with both negative and positive impacts. Due to increased exposure to sun and wind flow, the chipped debris and other surface fuels in the open areas of the treatments dry more quickly than fine fuels in enclosed stands (Schiks and Wotton 2015). From a control perspective, the open thinned areas of the treatments allow more effective penetration of water/suppressant through canopy fuels to surface fuels (Hsieh in progress). Additionally, fine fuels at the surface of openings respond more quickly to water and suppressant application. Open areas of the treatments that have been wetted by sprinkler systems or aerial water delivery should reduce the potential for ignition and sustained burning, providing a potential barrier to fire spread.
Experimental crown fires have been conducted to challenge fuels treatments in other forest fuel types (Schroeder 2010, Mooney 2013) to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments in moderating fire behaviour. Mechanical (shearblading) fuel treatments in black spruce fuels (Butler et al. 2013) have been shown to reduce fire intensity. However, documentation of crown fire challenging mulch fuel treatments in black spruce fuels is limited. Fire and fuels managers would like to evaluate the effectiveness of mulch fuel treatments in reducing fire intensity and rate of spread and, ultimately, their ability to mitigate wildfire risk to communities surrounding these hazardous fuels.
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry (AAF) Wildfire Management Branch fuels managers designed the Red Earth Creek FireSmart research area with the objective of conducting research that will lead to a better understanding of mulch fuel treatments and how these changes in the black spruce fuel environment affect fire behaviour. On May 14, 2015, Slave Lake Forest Area personnel conducted an experimental fire at this site; FPInnovations and research partners collected data to document changes in fire behaviour.
Nowadays, the fire behavior of CLT panels made from solid-sawn lumber exposed to fire is well known and documented by a number of research organizations and universities. However, due to the desire to optimize how material is used in CLT, and ultimately lower manufacturing costs, CLT with thin laminations ranging from 19 to 25 mm in thickness has started to be produced in North America, which somewhat limits the applicability of some design provisions which were derived and validated from CLT made with 35-mm laminations. There is currently limited research on CLT manufactured with thin laminations, namely with respect to their fire behavior and specifically the effective charring rate.
Several charring models have been developed over the years to predict the char front of CLT elements exposed to a standard fire curve (e.g. CAN/ULC S101 and ASTM E119). Some models aimed at predicting the char front at any given time, while others were developed based on experimental time-to-failure, using an average charring rate. While these models result in similar char depths at the time-to-failure, the results from this fire test series demonstrate the non-linear impact on the charring rate from using thin laminations in the manufacturing of CLT elements. Using a “one-rate-fits-all” effective charring rate may work when trying to replicate “time-to-failure”, but such approach provides inconsistent and overly conservative predictions of char depths, thus structural fire-resistance, when there is a need to evaluate the depth of char at any time less than the time-to-failure.
In order to address the lack of consistency in the charring models of CLT with thin laminations, FPInnovations conducted a series of fire tests to further evaluate and document the impact on the charring rate from using thin laminations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the charring behavior of CLT manufactured in accordance with ANSI/APA PRG-320  with thin laminations of various thicknesses (less than 35 mm).
From the data generated in this test series, it can be observed that when the first lamination is charred through to the glue line, the general trend is that the charring rate in subsequent laminations experiences a significant increase whether it is a CLT floor or wall element. The sharp changes in the temperature profiles recorded at the glue lines suggest that such behavior is most likely attributed to the adhesive heat performance, where heat delamination (fall-off) is observed when the glue lines reaches temperatures ranging between 115 to 250ºC.
It was also found that the 1st lamination seems to char at a fairly uniform rate, whether it is a floor or a wall element and regardless of its thickness. The traditional one-dimensional charring rate of 0.65 mm/min may be used for the 1st lamination of CLT elements. However, the subsequent laminations char at a much faster rate, ranging from 0.59 to 1.07 mm/min, depending on the lamination thickness and its location within the CLT configuration. The results from this fire test series demonstrate that if no changes are made to the adhesives currently used, the impact from using thin laminations in CLT elements is not fully captured by charring models using a “one-rate-fits-all” approach. Charring models need to be adapted to explicitly account for lamination thickness. When compared to the test data, the current 2014 Canadian CLT Handbook provides reasonable, while slightly greater, charring rates based on the thickness of laminations for the 2nd and subsequent laminations.
As such, some recommendations are provided herein for future improvement of existing CLT charring models and consideration at the CSA O86 Technical Committee. It is demonstrated that the proposed changes predict char depths that closely track at any given time the actual char depths as observed during a standard fire exposure test. 301010618
This report is divided into six (6) subsections related to different building performance attributes. It presents a review of current design provisions as well as an investigation and identification of gaps in current knowledge with respect to performance criteria for wood-based building systems.
Lastly, suggestions related to performance criteria are given with respect to, among others, structural, sound, vibration, fire, building enclosure, energy efficiency, durability and environmental performance. The development of such criteria is fundamental for reducing the burden on early adopters and AHJs in demonstrating regulatory acceptance of innovative building systems.
FPInnovations launched a multi-year research project to measure mid- to high-rise wood buildings’ natural frequencies and damping ratios to expand the database and validate or adapt the existing equations to estimate the natural frequencies. Two high-rise wood buildings equipped with an anemometer and accelerometers are also being constantly monitored to study how the wind excites the building.
FPInnovations partnered with Canfor Vanderhoof and Doug Brophy Contracting Ltd. to install a high-density lodgepole pine direct seeding trial in the spring and fall of 2014. Two blocks were seeded at rates of 20 000 and 40 000 seeds/ha using the Bracke s35.a seeder mounted on a disc trencher. At the end of the 2015 growing season, total stocking was 6 630 and 5 170 st/ha respectively, of which 46% and 57% came from direct seeding. Further natural ingress and delayed germination are expected to increase stocking to target levels.
FPInnovations conducted a ground-based ash and biosolids spreading trial in Quebec. One treatment used a horizontal spinner as a spreading method and the other treatment used a line-dumping method. The trial showed that deflector plates helped to increase spreading uniformity. The trial results were also used to create a costing model that calculates productivity and the costs of spreading ash or biosolids using the two application methods.
BC Coastal mills will need to diversify the drying technologies currently used and consider new approaches in order to improve productivity, reduce drying costs, regain competiveness and continue to play a significant role in the increasingly stringent quality market for forest products. New demands for drying are related to energy efficiency, low environmental impact and of course, quality of the final product.
The specific objectives of the project were: (1) to improve the conventional drying of 4.5” x 4.5” Douglas-fir lumber, (2) to evaluate the superheated steam/vacuum (SS/V) drying of 4.5” x 4.5” Douglas-fir lumber, (3) to develop a green sorting strategy for hem-fir lumber and (4) to determine the time required to reach 56°C in the core of 5¼ x 5¼ lumber using the requirements of CFIA PI-07 Heat Treatment schedule Option D - Generic Phytosanitary Heat Treatment Schedule, Heat Treatment with Moisture Reduction.
The results showed that the drying time in conventional drying of 4.5” x 4.5” Douglas-fir lumber can be reduced by up to 25% without compromising the quality of the lumber. This can be achieved by increasing the temperature in the final drying stages and using lower relative humidity at the beginning of the drying process. In addition, final moisture content (MC) variation was reduced from 6.2% to 3.9%.
Reductions of drying times from 26% to 41% were observed when drying 4.5” x 4.5” Douglas-fir under SS/V drying. Quality of the lumber at the end of drying was better when compared to the quality of the lumber at the end of conventional drying. In addition, specimens exhibited less final MC variation.
Based on drying rate measurements of green hem-fir lumber dried to 9.0% MC, a new database was developed which in turn was incorporated into OASiS 2.0 software to evaluate different pre-sorting scenarios. Pre-sorting simulations allow end users to estimate the impact of kiln productivity, final MC distribution and drying degrade. The results showed that different correlations between the time to reach 19.0% MC and initial weight or initial MC could be established. The best correlation with an R square of 0.77 was made between initial weight and MC. After performing several simulations with the new database an optimum cut-off point of 65% yielded the best results in terms of potential increase of productivity and quality of the final product.
Wood heating rate test results showed that CFIA Option D may be extended for 5¼ x 5¼ lumber as long as the dry-bulb = 71°C (= 160°F) for 36 hours at the end of the heat treatment. Total heat treatment time required, including the time required to reach 71°C (160°F), is 72 hours.
Northwestern Alberta has been a focal point for agricultural expansion for many years. More recently, accelerated lands sales have led to the clearing of large tracks of land and significant burning projects aimed at preparing the land for agricultural use. Given the requirement for land owners to have burning permits during “Fire Season” (March 1st – October 31st) and the risks involved in large scale burning during fire season, sites are often differed to time frames outside the established fire season. Although windrow burning outside of fire season often poses less fire escape risk, other issues can arise and result in public safety concerns e.g. smoke, which can increase the potential for health issues and traffic accidents. Given these concerns local forestry and municipal authorities have engaged in discussions aimed at identifying potential burning options.
This declaration is a Type III EPD (Environmental Product Declaration) for an Expansion® Casegoods workstation manufactured by Teknion, developed in accordance with ISO 14025. This EPD is based on a Cradle-to-Grave life cycle assessment of the product potential environmental impacts that was conducted in accordance with ISO 14044.
This EPD was not written to support comparative assertions. EPDs based on different PCRs or different calculation models may not be comparable. When attempting to compare EPDs or life cycle impacts of products from different companies, the user should be aware of the uncertainty in the final results due to and not limited to the practitioner’s assumptions, the source of the data used in the study and the software tool used to conduct the study.
This Type III environmental declaration is developed
according to ISO 21930 and 14025 for average cedar
decking products manufactured by the members
of the Western Red Cedar Lumber Association. This
environmental product declaration (EPD) reports
environmental impacts based on established life
cycle impact assessment (LCA) methods. The reported
environmental impacts are estimates, and their level
of accuracy may differ for a particular product line
and reported impact. LCAs do not generally address
site-specific environmental issues related to resource
extraction or toxic effects of products on human
health. Unreported environmental impacts include
(but are not limited to) factors attributable to human
health, land use change and habitat destruction.
Forest certification systems and government
regulations address some of these issues. The
products in this EPD conform to: timber harvesting
and silvicultural regulation of British Columbia (BC)
and forest certification schemes (Canadian Standards
Association, Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), and
Sustainable Forestry initiative (SFI)). EPDs do not
report product environmental performance against
This Type III environmental declaration is developed according to ISO 21930 and 14025 for average cedar lumber
manufactured by the members of the Western Red Cedar Lumber Association. This environmental product declaration
(EPD) reports environmental impacts based on established life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods. The reported
environmental impacts are estimates, and their level of accuracy may differ for a particular product line and reported
impact. LCAs do not generally address site-specific environmental issues of related to resource extraction or toxic
effects of products on human health of product systems. Unreported environmental impacts include (but are not
limited to) factors attributable to human health, land use change and habitat destruction. Forest certification systems
and government regulations address some of these issues. The products in this EPD conform to: regulations of BC
and forest certification schemes (Canadian Standard Association, Sustainable Forestry initiative (SFI), and Forest
Stewardship Council (FSC)). EPDs do not report product environmental performance against any benchmark.