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Guide to developing a science-based biomass quality control program

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub52656
Author
Marinescu, Marian
Date
October 2018
Material Type
Guide
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
PDF
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Author
Marinescu, Marian
Contributor
Nova Scotia Innovation Hub
Date
October 2018
Material Type
Guide
Research report
Physical Description
26 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Biomass
Quality control
Sampling
FOP Technical Report
FPI TR
Series Number
Technical Report ; TR 2018 n.42
Language
English
Abstract
To support the implementation of biomass procurement practices, a formal, rigorous, consistent, science-based biomass quality control (QC) program is needed. This program should be designed to determine customer needs, the sources of product variation, and ways of eliminating or minimizing product variation as soon as it occurs. The program should also include a well-designed QC plan and sampling protocol, statistical process control methodologies and tools, formal QC teams, and regular training. This report describes various statistical QC tools and demonstrates those using examples of biomass moisture content data. These tools can be developed in-house or be purchased, but their integration with existing databases (e.g., LIMS) is recommended. FPInnovations experts can assist in developing customized QC programs for companies and for specific biomass products, and can train QC teams to develop and use the tools presented here.
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Maladies des arbres: un aperçu microscopique focalisé sure les méchanismes de défense

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub53152
Author
Rioux, Danny
Date
Mars 2018
Material Type
Presentation
Field
Partnerships

  1 video

Author
Rioux, Danny
Contributor
NRCAN
Date
Mars 2018
Material Type
Presentation
Physical Description
Video ; 1:26:05
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Partnerships
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
PIF
Series Number
PIF ; 2017-18
Language
French
Abstract
A presentation by Danny Rioux for PIF (Partenariat Innovation Forêt)
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Les climats de nos parcs nationaux à la fin du 21ième siècle. Les écosystèmes pourront-ils suivre

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub53166
Author
Parisien, Marc-André
Date
Février 2018
Material Type
Presentation
Field
Partnerships

  1 video

Author
Parisien, Marc-André
Contributor
NRCAN
Date
Février 2018
Material Type
Presentation
Physical Description
Video ; 1:03:25
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Partnerships
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
PIF
Series Number
PIF ; 2017-18
Language
French
Abstract
A presentation by Marc-André Parisenfor PIF (Partenariat Innovation Forêt)
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Climate Change and Resource Roads, Are you at risk?

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub53168
Author
Partington, Mark
Date
December 2018
Material Type
Presentation
Field
Partnerships

  1 video

Author
Partington, Mark
Date
December 2018
Material Type
Presentation
Physical Description
Video ; 0:58:53
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Partnerships
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
PIF
Series Number
PIF ; 2018
Language
English
Abstract
A presentation by Mark Partington for PIF (Partenariat Innovation Forêt)
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Concilier les usages autochtones et industriels du territoire forestier

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub53264
Author
Asselin, Hugo
Date
février 2018
Material Type
Presentation
Field
Partnerships

  1 video

Author
Asselin, Hugo
Date
février 2018
Material Type
Presentation
Physical Description
Video ; 1:02:35
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Partnerships
Research Area
Forestry
Series
PIF ; 2017-18
Language
French
Abstract
A presentation by Hugo Asselin for PIF (Partenariat Innovation Forêt)
Video Tracks
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Temperature and moisture insensitive prediction of biomass calorific value from NIR spectra using external parameter orthogonalization

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub52660
Author
Hans, Guillaume
Allison, Bruce J.
Date
September 2018
Material Type
Research report
Field
Bioproducts
PDF
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Author
Hans, Guillaume
Allison, Bruce J.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
September 2018
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
27 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Bioproducts
Research Area
Biomass Conversion
Subject
Biomass
Optimization
Spectroscopy
Temperature
Moisture content
Series Number
Transformative Technology ; TT 2018
Language
English
Abstract
In the pulp and paper and biofuel industries, real-time online characterization of biomass gross calorific value (GCV) is of critical importance to determine its quality and price and for process optimization. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a relatively low-cost technology that could potentially be used for such an application. However, the NIR spectra are also influenced by biomass temperature (T°) and moisture content (MC). In this paper, external parameter orthogonalization (EPO) is employed to remove simultaneously the influence of T° and MC on the spectra before predicting GCV. EPO is of particular interest when one desires to transfer information from one modeling experiment to another, such as when developing a calibration model for a new property from the same material, or when it would be more efficient to divide the experimental effort. EPO was found to be an effective method for desensitizing a PLS calibration model to the influence of T° and MC, enabling robust and accurate prediction biomass GCV. Partial least squares (PLS) regression models developed with EPO always provided equal or better performance than models developed without EPO. The paper shows that experimental efforts and costs can be reduced by approximately one half while maintaining prediction accuracy and model robustness.
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Revisiting heat delamination characteristics of adhesives in cross-laminated timber

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub52663
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Ranger, Lindsay
Date
August 2018
Material Type
Presentation
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Ranger, Lindsay
Date
August 2018
Material Type
Presentation
Physical Description
19 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Timber
Resistance
Laminate product
Series Number
WCTE ; 2018
Language
English
Abstract
Presentation at the 2018 World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2018) held August 20 - 23, 2018 in Seoul, Republic of Korea.
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Advanced wood-based solutions for mid-rise and high-rise construction: analytical models for balloon-type CLT shear walls

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub52680
Author
Chen, Zhiyong
Cuerrier-Auclair, Samuel
Popovski, Marjan
Date
July 2018
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Chen, Zhiyong
Cuerrier-Auclair, Samuel
Popovski, Marjan
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
July 2018
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
83 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Cross Laminated Timber
Performance
Building construction
Building materials
Energy
Language
English
Abstract
Lack of research and design information for the seismic performance of balloon-type CLT shear walls prevents CLT from being used as an acceptable solution to resist seismic loads in balloon-type mass-timber buildings. To quantify the performance of balloon-type CLT structures subjected to lateral loads and create the research background for future code implementation of balloon-type CLT systems in CSA O86 and NBCC, FPInnovations initiated a project to determine the behaviour of balloon-type CLT construction. A series of tests on balloon-type CLT walls and connections used in these walls were conducted. Analytical models were developed based on engineering principles and basic mechanics to predict the deflection and resistance of the balloon-type CLT shear walls. This report covers the work related to development of the analytical models and the tests on balloon-type CLT walls that the models were verified against.
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Winch-assist forwarder: best practice manual

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub52697
Author
Donald, Ken
Boswell, Brian
Amishev, Dzhamal
Hunt, Jim
Date
December 2018
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Donald, Ken
Boswell, Brian
Amishev, Dzhamal
Hunt, Jim
Date
December 2018
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
69 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
Steep slopes
Forwarders
Productivity
Winches
Series Number
Special publication SP-535
Language
English
ISBN
9780864885838
ISSN
19250509
Abstract
Forestry machines are constantly evolving thanks to technological advancements. As these changes happen, our best practices must change accordingly to ensure optimal safe production and efficiency. For many years, we have used various equipment to bring wood to the road, such as cable yarders, hoe chuckers, and even forwarders on semi-steep ground without the assistance of cable winches. However, there is an increasing need for forwarders to follow harvesters on steeper ground with short pitches. Logging on steeper ground with shorter slopes using winch-assist harvester/forwarder tandems has been taking place in several European countries, Australia, and South America for more than a decade. This manual contains techniques and procedures that will take you through every stage of the forwarding process, including planning, loading, travelling, handling the boom, and unloading.
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Conditions et impacts financiers a utiliser des ouvrages amovibles pour les traverses de cours d'eau au Québec

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub52701
Author
Volpé, Sylvain
Date
Décembre 2018
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Volpé, Sylvain
Date
Décembre 2018
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
31 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
Finance
Water
Stream
Culverts
Costs
FPI TR
Series Number
Technical Report ; TR 2019 n.2
Language
French
Abstract
Les visites réalisées dans le cadre de cette étude ont permis d’établir une structure afin de quantifier le coût d’installation des ouvrages traditionnels (ponceaux) et amovibles (ouvrages dont les appuis sont situés en dehors de la limite supérieure de la berge) en lien avec le RADF. Dans ce contexte, il a été possible de proposer une feuille de calcul permettant d’estimer le coût des ouvrages traditionnels et amovibles. Toutefois, le nombre limité d’observations ne permet pas de tirer de conclusions définitives sur les coûts de ces ouvrages dans plusieurs conditions d’installation.
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Streambed simulation: fish management, water control, and culvert installation for closed-bottom stream crossings

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub52778
Author
Gillies, Clayton
Date
December 2018
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Gillies, Clayton
Contributor
BC Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ministry of Environment
Date
December 2018
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
2 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Transportation & Infrastructure
Subject
Simulation
Stream
Fishes
Water
Culverts
Series Number
Streambed Simulation Culvert ; 2nd
Language
English
Abstract
FPInnovations prepared this guide to provide forest and resource workers with information on culvert installations, including fish salvage and dewatering considerations for streambed simulation in closed-bottom structures for fish streams. This pamphlet is the second in a series; other important considerations presented in this series for the successful implementation of a streambed simulation culvert include planning and design, streambed material/construction, and monitoring. FPInnovations worked in close co-operation with British Columbia’s Fish Passage Technical Working Group in the development of this guide.
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Streambed simulation: streambed construction, infill methods, and rewatering for closed-bottom stream crossings

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub52779
Author
Gillies, Clayton
Date
December 2018
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Gillies, Clayton
Contributor
BC Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ministry of Environment
Date
December 2018
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
2 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Transportation & Infrastructure
Subject
Simulation
Stream
Water
Resource
Forestry
Series Number
Streambed Simulation Culvert ; 3rd
Language
English
Abstract
FPInnovations prepared this guide to provide forest and resource workers with information on streambed construction, including material delivery and rewatering considerations for streambed simulation in closed-bottom structures for fish streams. This pamphlet is the third in a series; other important considerations presented in this series for the successful implementation of a streambed simulation culvert include planning and design, culvert installation, and monitoring. FPInnovations worked in close co-operation with British Columbia’s Fish Passage Technical Working Group in the development of this guide.
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Continuous drying of softwood dimension lumber (progress report)

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub52785
Author
Lazarescu, Ciprian
Oliveira, Luiz C.
Date
October 2018
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Lazarescu, Ciprian
Oliveira, Luiz C.
Date
October 2018
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
22 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Drying
Lumber
Softwoods
Testing
Simulation
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Continuous drying is still in its relatively early stages and mills are currently dealing with process adjustments to obtain desired throughput and quality of the final product. Field measurement carried out in 2015-16 illustrated a number of opportunities for process optimization involving each of the three main stages of current continuous kilns. Simulations of industrial continuous drying at laboratory level performed in 2016-17 were successful and allowed the evaluation of each of the drying stages to be fully characterized (lumber temperatures, drying schedule conditions of dry and wet bulb temperatures). Thus, different drying schedules provided an excellent opportunity to examine the impact of schedule conditions on drying defects, drying rates and kiln residence times. The main objectives of the project for 2017-18 were to simulate continuous drying in laboratory conditions for different products, products mix, species and green sort groups. In addition, a detailed evaluation of potential technologies was carried out to explore the concept of dynamically adjusting speed (push rates), based on drying rates and moisture content. Piecewise regression was used to identify the optimum push rate and suggest design modifications of continuous kilns. This method proved to be efficient in identifying potential reductions in drying time for different sorts of sprue/pine (SP) lumber without compromising the quality of the final product. Simulations also allowed identifying the push rate of 2 feet/h to satisfactorily dry green hem-fir 2-inch lumber. Initial tests showed that mid-sort sub-alpine (moisture content below approximately 70%) could not be mixed with wet sort SP in a continuous kiln operating at push rate of 4.2 feet/hr because only 73% of the sub-alpine sort dried below 21%. Decreases in push rate will reduce the percentage of sub-alpine fir wets but will also increase the amount of over-dried lumber. Changes in kiln configuration may reduce the drying time but increase the percentage of over-dried lumber. The results indicated that additional laboratory tests are required to develop drying schedules and temperature profiles in the main drying zone of continuous kilns, drying times and final moisture content distribution.
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Flotation of western hemlock

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub52863
Author
Friesen, Charles
Date
May 2018
Material Type
Presentation
Field
Fibre Supply
PDF
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Author
Friesen, Charles
Date
May 2018
Material Type
Presentation
Physical Description
12 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
Trees
Moisture content
Water
Transport
Series Number
Report
Language
English
Abstract
There was no change to the moisture content of any of the western hemlock log sample sets during the study period between 1 Dec 2014 and 5 mar 2015. It seems that this lack of change is related to stability in environmental humidity experienced by the logs. Whether or not time since cutting influences the ability of Hw logs to change moisture content could not be conclusively determined by the study.
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Skookumchuk hog fuel contamination

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub52864
Author
Friesen, Charles
Date
May 2018
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
PDF
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Author
Friesen, Charles
Date
May 2018
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
49 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
Hogged fuel
Procedures
Management
FPI TR
Series Number
Technical Report ;TR 2018 n.24
Language
English
ISSN
3010130380
Abstract
Contamination of hog fuel along the supply chain was observed at Skookumchuk. FPInnovations recommends that the number of times hog fuel is moved be minimized, that operators be trained in correct handling procedures, that a penalty/reward system be instituted to habituate proper handling procedures, that cross logs be used beneath log decks, that hog fuel storage surfaces be paved or frozen, and that hog fuel produced in the field be ground directly into chip vans.
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Innovative biomass recovery – feedstock characteristics of the biomass produced by the Gyro-Trac bioenergy baling system

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub7506
Author
Blackburn, Kevin
Keddy, Tim
Date
April 2018
Edition
49810
Material Type
InfoNote
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Blackburn, Kevin
Keddy, Tim
Date
April 2018
Edition
49810
Material Type
InfoNote
Physical Description
5 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
Forestry
Series Number
InfoNote ; 2018 n.5
Language
English
Abstract
This info note discusses the fibre characteristics of the feedstock created and baled by the Gyro-Trac Biomass Baling System, the degree of feedstock contamination, and potential uses for the material. The uniform and smaller than conventional chip size, combined with low contaminants and reduced moisture content over 1 year of storage make the Gyro-Trac a promising tool for the creation of high-quality products such as pellets and CHP systems.
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InfoNote2018N5.pdf

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Evaluation of prototype wood-based interior partition walls

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub7508
Author
Knudson, Robert M.
Schneider, Johannes
Thomas, Tony
Date
February 2018
Edition
49823
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Knudson, Robert M.
Schneider, Johannes
Thomas, Tony
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
February 2018
Edition
49823
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wood
Walls
Residential construction
Prototypes
Design
Series Number
Transformative Technology ; TT 2018
Language
English
Abstract
Interior partition walls for non-residential and high-rise residential construction are an US$8 billion market opportunity in Canada and the United States (Crespell and Poon, 2014). They represent 1.6 billion ft² (150 million m²) of wall area where wood currently has less than 10% market share. To approach this market a new system would be needed to compete against the incumbent system (wood/steel stud plus gypsum). The system would need to have an installed cost before finishing of approximately US$5 per ft² or lower. The system would also need to meet several code requirements for strength, sound transmission and fire resistance (flame spread and burn through). Crespell and Poon further concluded that to be truly transformative, the system would also need to address major trends impacting the building industry including reducing labor, reducing skilled labor, reducing onsite waste, reducing call-backs, and easily recyclable with low environmental impact. A likely market entry point for wood-based interior partition systems may be in taller and larger wood buildings. Work described in this report investigated the fabrication, installation, acoustic and combustion properties of prototype interior partition wall designs. Two types of non-structural prototype interior wall panels designated Type A and Type C were installed between two offices in the FPInnovations Vancouver laboratory. Wood sill plates for mounting the prototype panels were fastened to the concrete floor, sides and top of the opening between the two offices to produce a frame for mounting the test panels. Panels were fastened to the frame using dry wall screws. This same method of installation is envisioned in practice. The installation method makes it easy and fast to both install and remove the wall panels. Acoustic tests showed the difference in ASTC rating measured between a double wall composed of Type A and Type C prototype panels compared with a double wood stud wall with gypsum board faces was approximately 6 ASTC points. A 6 point difference would be clearly noticeable. Although the results of this study are largely qualitative, they suggest that the prototype interior partition panels would have an acoustic advantage compared to stud wall designs. In a related study summarized in this report, the combustion properties of three prototype interior panel constructions, including Types A and C evaluated in this report, indicated that any of the three types of partition constructions could be used in combustible construction in accordance with Division B of the National Building Code of Canada. A second related study, also summarized in this report, estimated an installed cost of US$4.07 per ft² including overhead and profit for unfinished panel partitions comparable to panel construction Type C (gypsum/OSB/wood fibre insulation) as evaluated in this study. Thus, there would appear to be potential installed and finished cost advantages for the wood-based panel partitions compared to steel or wood stud walls with gypsum faces. Other potential advantages of the prototype interior partition panels compared with the most common, currently-used systems (wood/steel stud plus gypsum) include ease and speed of installation, ease and speed of removal, design flexibility, prefabrication including pre-finishing, and easy installation of services. Based on the positive results of these exploratory studies, further development of wood-based interior partition systems including design, fabrication, installation and in-service performance would appear justified. Knowledge of the products and testing methods developed in these studies would be expected to speed further development.
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Infrared hotspot prototype construction, testing and evaluation

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub7509
Author
Campbell, Roy
Ault, Ray
Hsieh, Rex
Badcock, Jamie
Ackerman, Mark
Date
April 2018
Edition
49825
Material Type
InfoNote
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Campbell, Roy
Ault, Ray
Hsieh, Rex
Badcock, Jamie
Ackerman, Mark
Date
April 2018
Edition
49825
Material Type
InfoNote
Physical Description
2 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Wildfire Operations
Subject
Prototypes
Testing
Scanning
Wildfires
Forest fires
Fire
Series Number
InfoNote ; 2018 n. 9
Language
English
Abstract
Innovation in hotspot target equipment used for Infrared (IR) testing reduces risks and logistical challenges. This InfoNote describes the development of a new hotspot prototype for use at the IR grid in Hinton, Alberta.
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InfoNote2018N9.PDF

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Instrumentation for monitoring performance in a six-storey building in Vancouver built for high energy performance

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub7512
Author
Wang, Jieying
Thomas, Tony
Date
March 2018
Edition
49833
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Wang, Jieying
Thomas, Tony
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2018
Edition
49833
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
24 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Monitoring
Performance
Buildings
Energy
Moisture content
Air
Series Number
Transformative Technology ; TT 2018
Language
English
Abstract
This report documents the instrumentation installed for monitoring moisture, indoor air quality and differential movement performance in a six-storey building located in the City of Vancouver. The building has five storeys of wood-frame construction above a concrete podium, providing 85 rental units for residential and commercial use. It was designed and built to meet the Passive House standard and, once certified, will be the largest building in Canada that meets this rigorous energy standard. Although the design and construction focused on integrating a number of innovative measures to improve energy efficiency, much effort was also made to reduce construction costs. One example of the design measures is the use of a highly insulating exterior wall assembly that integrates rigid insulation between two rows of wall studs as interior air and vapour barriers. This monitoring study aims to generate data on long-term performance as part of FPInnovations’ effort to assist the building sector in developing durable and energy efficient wood-based buildings, which is expected to translate into reduced energy consumption and carbon emissions from the built environment. The monitoring focuses on measuring moisture performance of the building envelope (i.e., exterior walls, roof, and sill plates); indoor environmental quality including temperature, humidity, and CO2; and vertical differential movement between exterior walls and interior walls below roof/roof decks. In total, 79 instruments were installed during the construction. The next steps of this study will focus on collecting and analysing data from the sensors installed, and assessing performance related to the building envelope and vertical differential movement. FPInnovations will also collaborate with CanmetENERGY of Natural Resources Canada to monitor heat recovery ventilators and to assess whole-building energy efficiency and occupant comfort. This is expected to start after the mechanical systems are fully commissioned during occupancy. Results of these upcoming phases of work will be published in future reports.
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Results of Symphony Link™ and XBee™ XE tests under Forest Cover and in an Operational Setting

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub7514
Author
Roy, Vincent
Markou, Dimitri
Schinck, Michel
Date
May 2018
Edition
49856
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Roy, Vincent
Markou, Dimitri
Schinck, Michel
Date
May 2018
Edition
49856
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
17 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Transportation & Infrastructure
Subject
Transport
Testing
Computer
Efficiency
Forestry
Communications
FOP Technical Report
FPI TR
Series Number
Technical Report ; TR 2018 n.31
Language
English
Abstract
Low power, long range of a LinkLabs Symphony Link (TM) LoRa systems are seeing increased use in creating large scale networks. Following the first series of test conducted in 2016, FPInnovations performed additional tests of a LoRa system in both boreal and hardwood forest covers in both the summer and winter foliage conditions. The maximum average distance observed was 4 km with a peak of 7.16 km. We also conducted test of the Link system as well as Digi XBee® SX RF Modems in a n harvest operational setting.
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86 records – page 1 of 5.