Mass timber is a generic name for a broad range of thick and heavy wood products such as cross-laminated timber (CLT), dowel-laminated timber (DLT), nail-laminated timber (NLT), and gluelaminated timber (GLT), among others. So far, vibration-controlled design methods have been developed mostly for CLT floors.
Alberta Agriculture and Forestry (AAF) asked FPInnovations to conduct a field trial of two heavy helicopters that had recently been installed with on-board injection and mixing systems. The study focussed on determining the accuracy and reproducibility of these systems to produce effectively mixed water-enhancers for aerial delivery during wildfire suppression operations.
These field trials were conducted north of Slave Lake, Alta. in June 2020. This report discusses the background, methodology, and outcomes of this equipment validation test.
The ongoing evolution of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPASs) with recent advances in micro-sensors and imaging software has the potential to enhance the delivery of infrared imaging services for wildfire operations. Understanding the capabilities and limitations of these aircraft will aid wildfire managers in selecting appropriate RPAS platforms as another "tool in the toolbox" for hotspot detection missions on wildfires.
The current regeneration challenges posed by salvage logging following large-scale disturbances in western Canada, such as wildfire and mountain pine beetle, warrant the need for cost-effective reforestation strategies. Mechanized ground-based direct seeding was assessed in a variety of conditions to explore viability, determine which factors influence success, and determine the expected establishment rate when seeding with B.C. tree species. This report includes guidelines and recommendations for implementing direct seeding in B.C., based on observations from operational trials established in 2013-2017 across the province.
This study tested ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) ropes for log load securement. Destructive testing of used rope samples done in a previous project found that the strength of these ropes decreased with use. To address this problem, the diameter of the synthetic rope was increased. In addition, a different type of rope with a UHMWPE inner core covered with a polyester protective jacket was tested. The outer jacket protected the inner core from dirt and abrasion which may help mitigate the loss in strength that occurs with use. Wrappers were put into service and tested for breakage after three and six months of use.
Cette étude a évalué des câbles en polyéthylène de poids moléculaire ultra élevé (PEPMUE) pour sécuriser des chargements de billes. Des tests destructifs d'échantillons de câbles usagés effectués dans un projet précédent avaient révélé que la résistance de ces câbles diminuait avec l'utilisation. Pour résoudre ce problème, le diamètre du câble synthétique a été augmenté. De plus, un autre type de câble avec une âme intérieure en PEPMUE recouverte d'une gaine de protection en polyester a été testé. La gaine extérieure protégeait le câble intérieur de la saleté et de l'abrasion, ce qui peut aider à atténuer la perte de résistance qui se produit avec l'utilisation. Les câbles ont été mis en service et testés pour la résistance à la rupture après trois et six mois d'utilisation.
The City of Quesnel has applied an innovative selective harvesting technique in a mature Douglas-fir forest stand with the objectives of maintaining biodiversity and reducing fuel-load buildup and consequent wildfire threat. FPInnovations researchers monitored and documented the harvesting operations and measured machine productivity to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the operation.
To support the assessment of fuel-load reduction, FPInnovations' Wildfire Operations group conducted fuel-sampling activities to produce a pre-harvest forest fuel inventory. The inventory data were converted to formats to be applied in two fuel-management tools: a photo guide of the pre-treatment fuel environment and a dataset that can be input to FuelCalBC
Harvest operations on soft soils can be particularly challenging in order to respect site and soil disturbance guidelines as well as operational requirements. To address the challenges of operating on soft soils, FPInnovations has worked on solutions designed to reduce disturbance on weak soils while minimizing implementation and investment costs by using machines already being used in the operation.
Hummingbird Network, a British Columbia company, presented its crowdsourcing wildfire detection concept (the Hummingbird Network Smoke Detection Service) during the 2016 Wildland Fire Canada conference. In January 2017, as a follow-up to the conference, Hummingbird Network provided a live demonstration to AAF, BC Wildfire Service, and FPInnovations in Edmonton, Alberta. After a successful demonstration, and at the request of the wildfire agencies, FPInnovations committed to working with Hummingbird Network to provide an evaluation of its wildfire detection system.
This report reviews life cycle assessment (LCA) based regulatory approaches that have been adopted in several countries to evaluate and improve environmental impacts of cosntruction products and buildings. Recommendations are provided for incorporating LCA into Canadian regulations (including the National Building Code of Canada), and for enhancing building LCA guidelines to address principles of consistency, simplicity, and representative data which can improve the effectiveness of LCA to achieve regulatory objectives. This work supports the project need of guidance for performance-based design to accelerate the introduction of wood-based systems. The findings of this review can be used to help accelerate the adoption of life cycle-based regulations for buildings and infrastructure in Canada.
In the construction of buildings, the timber-concrete (TCC) system can be a cost-competitive solution for floors with longer spans, since the mechanical properties of the two materials are used efficiently. Furthermore, the additional mass from the concrete improves the acoustic performance compared to a timber floor system alone. Nevertheless, TCC floors are not commonly used in buildings in Canada, due to the absence of technical guidelines for such types of structural systems in this country.
This guide provides detailed information on solid woody biofuels that are available in Ontario and the combustion systems that can burn these biofuels. The four types of solid woody biofuels considered in this guide are cordwood (firewood), wood chips, wood briquettes, and wood pellets. The three types of combustion
systems are stoves, furnaces, and boilers. The major considerations for sourcing and using each type of biofuel and
combustion system for institutional / commercial and residential applications are outlined in this guide.
Ce guide donne de l'information détaillée sur les biocombustibles solides qui sont disponibles en Ontario et sur les systèmes de combustion qui peuvent brûler ces biocombustibles. Les quatre types de biocombustibles solides dont il est question dans ce guide sont le bois de chauffage, les copeaux de bois, les briquettes de bois et les granules de bois. Les trois types de systèmes de combustion sont les poêles, les générateurs d'air chaud et les chadières. Ce guide présente les principales considérations en ce qui concerne l'approvisionnement et l'utilisation de chaque type de biocombustible et système de combustion pour les applications instituttionnelles/commerciales et résidentielles.
The Labrador Forest Management District (FMD) 19A with an annual allowable cut (AAC) of spruce from commercial harvest blocks of 165 000 m3/year is enough to meet the demand of a 40 M fbm/year sawmill (assuming sawmill efficiency factor of 4 m3/MFBM). The estimated average wood supply costs to access all the AAC wood from district 19A for Goose Bay is $58/m3 and Sheshatshiu at $63/m3 (9% price premium paid for wood deliveries to Sheshatshiu caused by the added transport distance of about 40 km per trip to complete the cycle time on average for truck loads). The scenario of a 40 M fmb/year sawmill would require at least 20 full time employees to run the wood supply chain and another 14 part time employees to build and maintain the road network.
Braced timber frames (BTFs) are one of the most efficient structural systems to resist lateral loads induced by earthquakes or high winds. Although BTFs are implemented as a system in the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC), no design guidelines currently exist in CSA O86. That not only leaves these efficient systems out of reach of designers, but also puts them in danger of being eliminated from NBCC. The main objective of this project is to generate the technical information needed for development of design guidelines for BTFs as a lateral load resisting system in CSA O86. The seismic performance of 30 BTFs with riveted connections was studied last year by conducting nonlinear dynamic analysis; and also 15 glulam brace specimens using bolted connections were tested under cyclic loading.
In the second year of the project, a relationship between the connection and system ductility of BTFs was derived based on engineering principles. The proposed relationship was verified against the nonlinear pushover analysis results of single- and multi-storey BTFs with various building heights. The influence of the connection ductility, the stiffness ratio, and the number of tiers and storeys on the system ductility of BTFs was investigated using the verified relationship. The minimum connection ductility for different categories (moderately ductile and limited ductility) of BTFs was estimated.
The biggest challenges facing the forest sector currently are dealing with labour availability, maintaining a competitive fibre supply, and having flexibility in the supply chain to react quickly to market demands. Driven by the need to respond to these challenges, FPInnovations launched the Forestry 4.0 program.
Les plus grands défis actuels du secteur forestier concernent la disponibilité de la main-d’oeuvre, le maintien d’un approvisionnement en fibre concurrentiel et une flexibilité de la chaîne d’approvisionnement lui permettant de répondre rapidement aux demandes du marché. Pour relever ces défis, FPInnovations a lancé le programme Foresterie 4.0.