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Collaborative development of novel hollow core composite panels for value-added secondary applications

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub2598
Author
Deng, James
Date
March 2009
Edition
39192
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Deng, James
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2009
Edition
39192
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
47 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Series Number
Value to Wood No. FCC 07 ; 6002
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
A research project was carried out in collaboration with researchers from both University of British Columbia and University of Toronto to develop and test a range of hollow core composite sandwich panels based on lignocellulosic materials that can extend the current applications of wood composite products such as high density particleboard and fibreboard (hardboard and MDF). With proper engineering design and unique light weight structural features, wood fibre resources will be more effectively used and the performance of each component can be maximized in these types of novel composite panels. The outcome of this project is the development of Canadian-made light weight panels containing various low density cores, including honeycomb, low density wood wool composites and cup-shaped thin fibreboard, and high density surface panels, including plywood, hardboard and high density fibreboard (HDF) for the applications in ready to assemble (RTA) modular furniture, home and commercial cabinetry and door panels. The work completed at Forintek included:
Development of low density wood wool panels (LCD) as the core material for the sandwich panels.
Development of cup-shaped high density fibreboard (CHDF) as the core material
Evaluation of edgewise and flat compression strength and creep behaviour of honeycomb sandwich panels fabricated by UBC.
Development of book shelf panels using four different core materials.
Performance evaluation of the book shelves developed. The results of the experimental work suggest that:
Low density composite core materials can be made by the technology developed at Forintek laboratory using low density poplar wood wool and high viscosity phenol and formaldehyde resin with steam injection hot pressing technology. However, the strength of the panels was relatively low comparing to conventional low density particleboard, OSB or fibreboard.
The experimental work carried out on the cup-shaped high density fibreboard (CHDF) show the potential for developing various light weight core materials using current MDF process technology. The internal bond strength (IB) and water absorption (WA) of the cup-shaped panels were strongly correlated with panel density. IB increased and WA reduced when increasing the panel density. The flexibility of the technology could optimize the properties and performance of CHDF through manipulating the fibre refining process, profile design, resin system and hot pressing strategy. It shows that CHDF is a good alternative material to Kraft paper honeycombs for the manufacture of sandwich panels for higher strength and performance applications.
Test results from sandwich panels made of cup-shaped fibreboard core and HDF surface show that the nominal density of the cup-shaped core was one of the most important process parameters to adjust for the improvement of the sandwich panel properties. The flat compressive modulus, flat tensile strength and short-beam strength increased when increasing the nominal density of the core panels. Furthermore, the overall density of the sandwich panels were only fractionally increased by increasing the nominal density of the core panels due to the cup-shaped shape of the core panels. It suggests that higher nominal core density should be used when higher mechanical strength of the panels is required.
To a lesser extent, fibre type in the core panels also affects the sandwich panel properties. Longer wood fibres are recommended for use in the manufacture of the core panels.
The results of the experiment also show that increasing the thickness of the surface HDF panels increased the bending strength of the sandwich panels substantially. However, the overall density also increased.
Comparing shear properties of the four different sandwich panels developed by Forintek, we can identify that the ultimate shear strengths were different for different core materials. The sandwich panel made from polycarbonate core had the highest shear strength (0.744 MPa) followed by the panel made with CHDF (0.497 MPa). The sandwich panel made from low density wood wool core had much lower shear strength (0.012 MPa) which is lower than the paper honeycomb sandwich panels previously made by UBC with the same surface and core thickness (0.024 MPa).
The sandwich panels made with high density cup-shaped fibreboard had significantly higher core shear modulus (92.0 MPa) than any other sandwich panel studied in this project.
Hollow core
Composite panels
Documents
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Characterization of fires in residential buildings

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub2614
Author
Mehaffey, J.R. (Jim)
Date
March 2009
Edition
39208
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Mehaffey, J.R. (Jim)
Date
March 2009
Edition
39208
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
4 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Fire
Building construction
Residential construction
Series Number
General Revenue
4918
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Fires, Building - Tests
Documents
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Bénéfices de l'optimisation du tronçonnage des bois feuillus

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub2631
Author
Corneau, Yvon C.
Date
March 2009
Edition
39225
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Corneau, Yvon C.
Date
March 2009
Edition
39225
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
14 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Digitalization
Subject
Saw mills
Hardwoods
Series Number
Contrat d'intérêt commun no 6285
6285
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Le tronçonnage demeure pour la majorité des scieurs de bois feuillus un domaine problématique possédant un potentiel d’amélioration significatif, tant au niveau du volume sciable que du rendement valeur de la ressource disponible. La récupération de la valeur optimale d’une tige est directement liée à l’efficacité du préposé au tronçonnage. De mauvaises décisions de sa part résultent en une perte de valeur. Les principales raisons entraînant de mauvaises décisions sont la complexité et l’imprécision des lignes directrices, le grand nombre de classe de qualité, les exigences de productivité, le manque de formation et d’outils d’aide à la prise de décision. De plus, le nombre possible de combinaisons de longueur de billes et de découpes pour une même tige est assez important. L’évaluation d’une partie seulement des solutions potentielles requiert déjà un effort mental important. Un système de tronçonnage complètement optimisé demeurera probablement une solution inaccessible pour la majorité des industriels à moyen terme. Cependant, la technologie des lecteurs et des caméras progressant très rapidement, il existe une possibilité de développer un système hybride qui pourrait générer des bénéfices importants. La ressource disponible est bien souvent de piètre qualité et il est envisageable de maximiser le volume de fibre sciable en optimisant le tronçonnage selon la courbure et la géométrie des tiges. Ce projet vise à chiffrer les bénéfices potentiels de cette approche de tronçonnage et d’en valider la faisabilité économique.
Sawmilling - Bucking
Hardwoods
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Improved prediction of seismic resistance of part 9 houses : final report

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37943
Author
Rainer, J.H.
Ni, Chun
Date
May 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Rainer, J.H.
Ni, Chun
Contributor
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC)
Date
May 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
96 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Design
Building construction
Series Number
W-2636
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This report of the research project "Improved prediction of seismic resistance of Part 9 Houses" under the CMHC External Research Program consists of a review and assessment of analysis methods; numerical evaluation of current seismic design requirements in Canada; and new formulations for seismic design of conventional wood-frame construction in Canada. The relative performance of three mechanics-based methods is ascertained by comparing the test data of lateral capacities of partially restrained wall specimens having window openings with the predicted results from three calculation methods: Method 1 by Ni and Karacabeyli (2000, 2002) is the simplest to use and gave the most conservative results; Method 2 by Källsner et al., (2001, 2002) is less conservative but more complicated to apply to practical problems, and Method 3 by Källsner and Gurhammar (2005, 2006) gives non-conservative results. The suitability of other methods of analysis, (e.g. SAWS, Drain2D-X) was also examined. Method 1 was chosen as the principal analysis tool for this investigation. The adequacy of the seismic provisions of the CWC 2004 Design Guide and of the proposals for Part 9 of the 2010 NBCC are assessed by the seismic design methods specified in Part 4 of the 2005 NBCC and utilizing the analysis Method 1. Two building types were used: a square building of 15.0 x 15.0 m plan and a rectangular one of 4.8 x 15.0 m, each of 1, 2 and 3 storeys height. The analysis indicates that neither the current CWC Guide nor the proposals for the 2010 NBCC Part 9 meet the seismic requirements of Part 4 of the 2005 NBCC for the higher seismic zones. The discrepancies are particularly pronounced for the shorter side of the rectangular buildings. It must be noted that the buildings studied in this investigation represented worst case scenarios. In reality, wood-frame houses would generally contain more walls than the minimum wall lengths required by the CWC Guide and the proposed NBCC 2010, and thus would possess larger lateral resistance. Following the numerical results of a parametric study of different wall constructions, two new approaches for the seismic provisions of conventional wood-frame construction in Canada are presented, an area-based method, and a method based on percentages of braced wall lengths. Both methods conform substantially to the seismic requirements of Part 4 of the 2005 NBCC. For heavy construction the provisions for 1 and 2 storey buildings give reasonable agreement with those for 2 and 3 storeys of light construction. Additional parameter studies should be carried out for irregular buildings, for heavy wall cladding such as stucco and masonry, and for minimum size of braced wall panels.
Building construction - Design
Building construction - Light-frame
Earthquakes, Effect on building construction
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Expanding the sawing performance envelope - phase II

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37945
Author
White, J.
Taylor, J.
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
White, J.
Taylor, J.
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
49 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Circular saws
Saw circular
Saws
Saw mills
Efficiency
Series Number
General Revenue Report Project No. 5735
W-2642
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This report, the second in a two year project to question the existing “rules” for saw designs and real operational limits, investigates three aspects of circular saw performance. The first area of investigation was to determine how operation of new saws in a mill environment changes their cutting behaviour, the second was aimed at determining the operational “sweet-spot” for circular saws of various thicknesses operating at different feedspeeds and finally, the effect of side board stiffness on saw wedging was investigated. The results from the mill operation portion of the study showed that:
Operation of new saws in a mill did not improve their performance
Tooth geometry errors are a major cause of saw wedging
With the new saws, a strong correlation was found between saw wedging and radial clearance angle differences (error) as well as tangential clearance angle differences.
After operation in the mill, a strong correlation was found between saw wedging and side clearance differences as well as tangential clearance angle differences.
Close attention must be paid to the initial tangential angles ground into new/re-tipped saws to avoid low, negative or unequal tangential angles that cause excessive wedging, particularly as saws are repeatedly sharpened. The results from the operational “sweet-spot” portion of the study showed that:
Errors in tip geometry are the primary cause of saw wedging. Even as feedspeeds are reduced, wedging can remain high for saws with grinding errors;.
For feedspeeds up to 500 fpm, there was not a significant difference in the wedging between the 60, 70 and 80 plate saws.
For feedspeeds up to 500 fpm, there was only small differences in the top edge standard deviation between the four plate thicknesses
Total Sawing Allowance reduced as saw plate thickness (and kerf) reduced. This should allow for mills to achieve target size reductions, provided machine alignment and cant control are tightly controlled. The investigation into the effect of side board stiffness showed that:
Wedging increases slightly for sideboards that separated from the base cant due to their lower stiffness vs. those that remained attached
Sawmilling - Efficiency
Saws - Circular
Documents
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Load duration test protocols for engineered wood products

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37951
Author
Pirvu, Ciprian
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Pirvu, Ciprian
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
12 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Mechanical properties
Materials
Building construction
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 4
W-2653
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The objective of the project is to develop/improve practical, reliable and internationally recognized methods for assessing/pre-screening the long-term structural performance of engineered wood products used in residential and non-residential applications.
Building construction - Materials used - Strength
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Lateral load resisting systems for engineered wood construction

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37955
Author
Popovski, Marjan
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Popovski, Marjan
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
149 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Wind loads
Wind
Loads
Joints
Grading
Design
Building construction
Midply
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 27
W-2660
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The main sources of lateral loads on buildings are either strong winds or earthquakes. These lateral forces are resisted by the buildings’ Lateral Load Resisting Systems (LLRSs). Adequate design of these systems is of paramount importance for the structural behaviour in general. Basic procedures for design of buildings subjected to lateral loads are provided in national and international model building codes. Additional lateral load design provisions can be found in national and international material design standards. The seismic and wind design provisions for engineered wood structures in Canada need to be enhanced to be compatible with those available for other materials such as steel and concrete. Such design provisions are of vital importance for ensuring a competitive position of timber structures relative to reinforced concrete and steel structures. In this project a new design Section on Lateral Load Resisting Systems was drafted and prepared for future implementation in CSA O86, the Canadian Standard for Engineering Design in Wood. The new Section was prepared based on gathering existing research information on the behaviour of various structural systems used in engineered wood construction around the world as well as developing in-house research information by conducting experimental tests and analytical studies on structural systems subjected to lateral loads. This section for the first time tried to link the system behaviour to that of the connections in the system. Although the developed Section could not have been implemented in CSA O86 in its entirety during the latest code cycle that ended in 2008, the information it contains will form the foundation for future development of technical polls for implementation in the upcoming editions of CSA O86. Some parts of the developed Section were implemented in the 2009 edition of CSA O86 as five separate technical polls. The most important technical poll was the one on Special Seismic Design Considerations for Shearwalls and Diaphragms. This technical poll for the first time in North America includes partial capacity design procedures for wood buildings, and represents a significant step forward towards implementing full capacity-based seismic design procedures for wood structures. Implementation of these design procedures also eliminated most of the confusion and hurdles related to the design of wood-based diaphragms according to 2005 National Building Code of Canada. In other polls, the limit for use of unblocked shearwalls in CSA O86 was raised to 4.8 m, and based on the test results conducted during the project, the NLGA SPS3 fingerjoined studs were allowed to be used as substitutes for regular dimension lumber studs in shearwall applications in engineered buildings in Canada. With the US being the largest export market for the Canadian forest products industry, participation at code development committees in the field of structural and wood engineering in the US is of paramount importance. As a result of extensive activities during this project, for the first time one of the AF&PA Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic includes design values for unblocked shearwalls that were implemented based on FPInnovations’ research results. In addition, the project leader was involved in various aspects related to the NEESWood project in the US, in part of which a full scale six-storey wood-frame building will be tested at the E-Defense shake table in Miki, Japan in July 2009. Apart from being built from lumber and glued-laminated timber provided from Canada, the building will also feature the innovative Midply wood wall system that was also invented in Canada. The tests are expected to provide further technical evidence for increasing the height limits for platform frame construction in North America.
Building construction - Design
Earthquakes, Effect on building construction
Glued joints - Finger
Grading - Lumber
Wind loads
Documents
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Lateral load resisting systems for engineered wood construction

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37956
Author
Popovski, Marjan
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Popovski, Marjan
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
8 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Wind loads
Wind
Loads
Building construction
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 27
W-2661
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The goals of the project are to expand the use of wood and wood products in structural applications by enhancing seismic and wind design provisions for engineered wood-based structural systems. The project will develop new research information, as well as compile the existing research information necessary for development of new Lateral Load Design Provisions for engineered wood-based structural systems in the Canadian Standard for Engineering Design in Wood (CSA O86). When the appropriate code committees and industry associations implement these design provisions into the next edition of CSA O86, they will provide designers and specifiers more structural options for wood-based lateral load resisting systems, similar to those offered in other material codes.
Earthquakes, Effect on building construction
Wind loads
Documents
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Wind and seismic design provisions for small wood buildings - Part A : Seismic

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37957
Author
Ni, Chun
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Ni, Chun
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
80 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Design
Building construction
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 30
W-2662
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
In this research program, studies were carried out to assess the wind and seismic requirements for conventional wood-frame construction. This report contains information on seismic research. Information on wind research is provided in a separate report entitled ‘Wind and Seismic Design Provisions for Small Wood Buildings - Part B: Wind’. For the seismic research, it consists of four main study areas: shake table tests on small houses, targeted braced wall tests, evaluation of code bracing requirements for conventional wood-frame buildings, and recommendations for improvement. Results of shake table tests of two two-storey full-size wood frame buildings, funded under the Canada Wood/FII China Codes and Standards project, have been used to study the performance of small wood buildings with different braced wall lengths. The results showed that the two-story building specimen could withstand successive application of three different seismic ground motions in the order of 0.55 g Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA). Test results are in general agreement with the results observed in actual earthquakes in California, New Zealand and Japan, that wood-frame buildings without major structural deficiencies withstood seismic shaking in the order of 0.5 to 0.6 g PGA without collapse (Rainer & Karacabeyli, 2000). A series of supplementary full-size braced walls were tested to quantify the effect of floor / upper wall and corner wall on the lateral load capacities of braced walls. Test results showed that floor or / and upper wall could greatly increase the lateral load capacities of braced walls. For a 1.22 m braced wall with continuous top plate extended over braced wall panels, test results indicated that the lateral load capacity of the wall was approximately 50% of that of the walls that are fully restrained. Braced walls with 1.22 m corner walls had similar performance as walls that are fully restrained. The results indicate that the mechanics-based method implemented in CSA O86-1 is very conservative for determining the lateral load capacities of braced walls. The adequacy of the bracing requirements for conventional wood-frame construction in the 2004 CWC Guide and the proposed Part 9 of 2010 NBCC were assessed. Two buildings, 15 m × 15 m and 4.8 m × 15 m in floor dimension, were studied. The lengths and locations of the braced wall panels in the buildings were chosen to represent as much as possible the most unfavourable case for lateral load resistance. The results showed the imbalance between the required lengths of braced walls in short and long directions of the rectangular building. While the lateral load capacity in the long direction of the building is adequate for the two- and three-storey building and is in fact overly conservative for the one-storey buildings, the lateral load capacity in the short direction of the building is not sufficient to resist the base shear forces. In most of the studied cases, neither the 2004 CWC Guide nor the proposals for the Part 9 of 2010 NBCC meets the seismic requirements of the Part 4 of NBCC 2005 for the high seismic zones. A new method was proposed to address deficiencies of bracing requirements for conventional wood-frame construction in 2004 CWC Guide and Part 9 of 2010 NBCC proposals. Instead of specifying the minimum length of braced wall panels as a constant percentage of the length of a building parallel to the direction of loading considered, the new method specifies the minimum length of braced wall panels as a function of floor area of the building. Using the new method, it was concluded that the required length of braced wall panels should be a percentage of the building length perpendicular to the direction of loading considered. This will address the imbalance between the required lengths of braced walls in short and long directions of a rectangular building.
Building construction - Design
Earthquakes, Effect on building construction
Documents
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Wind and earthquake design provisions for small wood buildings

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37958
Author
Ni, Chun
Mohammad, M.
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Ni, Chun
Mohammad, M.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
7 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Design
Building construction
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 30
W-2663
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The objective of the project is to develop or refine practical pre-engineered solutions for small wood buildings subject to extreme wind or earthquake loads.
Building construction - Design
Earthquakes, Effect on building construction
Documents
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273 records – page 1 of 28.