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Round robin testing of structural wood adhesives

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37936
Author
Casilla, Romulo C.
Lum, Conroy
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Casilla, Romulo C.
Lum, Conroy
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
69 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Glue
Series Number
Value to Wood No. FCC034W
Project No. 5829
W-2622
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
A round robin study using the CSA O112.9 standard was conducted with six participating test laboratories, three in Canada and three in the U.S., with the support of the CSA Wood Adhesive Sub-Committee. The tests included block shear (dry, vacuum-pressure, and boil-dry-freeze), delamination, and condition B1 creep. Test specimens were prepared using Douglas-fir as substrate and four adhesives (phenol-resorcinol formaldehyde, melamine-urea formaldehyde with 80% melamine, melamine-urea formaldehyde with 40% melamine, and catalyzed polyvinyl acetate). Precision and bias statements (repeatability and reproducibility limits) were developed for the block shear test (strength and wood failure) and delamination test for O112.9. The statistical procedures of ASTM E 691 were found to be inadequate for the block shear test, so appropriate statistical procedures were identified and applied. However, a refinement of the E691 method was used to analyze the delamination test. The creep data was not analyzed because it showed huge variability across the laboratories. The rest of the data will be analyzed in the future. In the block shear test, the repeatability estimates obtained from the round robin test tend to overestimate those of O112.9, that is, the outcomes from using the O112.9 test procedures would actually vary less than those indicated by the limits derived from the study.
Glue - Tests
Documents
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Market trends in top 20 U.S. metropolitan areas - homebuilders' profile

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37938
Author
Robichaud, F.
Lavoie, P.
Gaston, Chris
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Robichaud, F.
Lavoie, P.
Gaston, Chris
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
153 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Market Analysis
Subject
United States (USA)
Materials
Markets
Building construction
Series Number
General Revenue Project No. 6257
W-2627
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
This project looks at consumption patterns for structural wood products within the Top 20 residential homebuilding markets in North America. A first objective was to document the use of wood, steel, and concrete materials in structural floors, walls and decking applications. In all these applications, the most important attributes required by homebuilders were outlined and ranked. The project further allows characterizing the performance of wood, steel, and concrete on these demanded attributes. Results show that wood products continue to be under pressure from the growth of concrete slab floors. While the basis for growth in the use of concrete slabs was traditionally found in the U.S. South, this survey points out that western and northern cities may be also susceptible to the growth of concrete slab floors. According to homebuilders, concrete significantly outperforms wood on durability, strength/structural integrity, and acoustic performance. Two of these attributes (durability and strength/structural integrity) are among the Top 3 important attributes in floor applications. The use of concrete in structural walls, either poured or concrete blocks, is well over 65% in Tampa, Orlando, and Miami. Concrete use in walls also reached a market share ranging between 20% and 30% in New-York, Minneapolis, Washington, and Philadelphia, indicating a possible spread of concrete use in walls in some markets which traditionally relied on wood. The market share for wood in walls remains very strong especially in Dallas, Austin, and Houston. Concrete significantly outperforms wood on durability, strength/structural integrity, and acoustic performance. Two of these attributes (durability and strength/structural integrity) are among the Top 3 most important attributes in walls. For wood to remain a competitive alternative in walls and floors, these attributes should be guiding the development of future wood based products and building systems. Wood based sheathing (OSB, Plywood and Fiberboard) retains over 85% of the market in 17 of the 20 metro areas. However, foam and kraftboard sheathing (alone or in combination) have a market share of 10% or more in 6 areas: Detroit, Houston, Austin, Dallas, Phoenix, and Chicago. In Chicago, the market share of foam and kraftboard together even reaches 24%. When comparing the performance of wood based sheathing with foam based sheathing, plywood and OSB are significantly thought superior to foam for strength, structural integrity, resistance to jobsite damage, environmental friendliness, and code acceptance. Foam is said to perform better than OSB or Plywood for both acoustics and energy performance. As a result, acoustics and energy performance in sheathing applications prove to be valuable paths for product development. Composite decking has captured at least 20% market share in 12 of 20 of the metro areas. The highest market shares are found in Denver (71%), Washington (50%), Seattle (45%), and Philadelphia (40%). Clearly, composite decking now offers the greatest competition to wood in decks. This is shown by the satisfaction measures of decking materials which are greater for tropical hardwood and composite/plastic lumber than for wood, treated or not. Composite materials seemingly suit better the most demanded attributes, including durability, appearance, and longevity.
Building construction - Materials used
Markets - Estimating
Documents
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Market trends in top 20 U.S. metropolitan areas - homeowners' material preferences in decking, floor and wall applications

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37939
Author
Lavoie, P.
Robichaud, F.
Gaston, Chris
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Lavoie, P.
Robichaud, F.
Gaston, Chris
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
182 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Market Analysis
Subject
United States (USA)
Materials
Markets
Building construction
Series Number
General Revenue Report Project No. 6257
W-2628
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Past market studies (Lavoie, 2008; Fell et al., 2006; Robichaud, 2003; Eastin et al., 2001) have shown that wood is increasingly threatened by replacement materials such as concrete, wood plastic composites and steel. It is within this context that this project sought to estimate market shares and explain material preferences of homeowners in decking, floor and wall applications. Issues of environmental performance of materials as well as influence of communication media were also addressed. Fifty (50) respondents from the top 20 metropolitan construction areas were surveyed yielding a total of one thousand respondents. The originality of this project largely lies in the fact that results can be analyzed at small-scale as opposed to the four region approach most construction data employs. A significant proportion of North American homes (40%) have decks. Most of them are built using treated lumber (55%). Wood plastic composites, the key threat to wood products, have yet to capture 10% of the market. Yet, based on homeowners’ preferences for next deck surfacing products, wood plastic composites are in position to increase their market shares to 38%. Some cities, such as Washington, Philadelphia, Las Vegas and Denver, have anticipated market shares equal or above the 50% mark. Consequently, wood plastic products are in a position to gain ground (over treated lumber and other non-treated wood alternatives) in decks. Strength/structural integrity and durability/low maintenance are two attributes on which they perform well. Incidentally, these two attributes are also those that homeowners look for the most in decking products. Wood floors (over basements or crawl spaces) represent the majority of floors (51%) currently built in the US. Current concrete (mainly slabs) market share stands at 37%. Attributes most sought by homeowners are strength/structural integrity, durability/low maintenance as well as lower energy bills. Despite the fact that perceptions of durability and strength remain challenges for wood floors, it appears they will acquire 10% market shares in future floors built in the US. Key assets of wood products include lower energy bills, ability to make repairs, warmth in winter and comfortable to walk/sit on. It is possible that affordability issues will stimulate the expansion of wood products in floors. This may be an indication that there are region/climate specific opportunities for wood products. Yet, it is likely that concrete floors will maintain or increase their shares in most markets of the South region (where they are mostly built) based on homebuilders’ influence on material selection. Market shares for wood products in wall applications suggested that homeowners were generally uninterested by wall material selection. This manifested itself in potential added shares for alternative techniques such as insulated concrete forms and structural insulated panels. One of the key outcomes of this project consists in the data collected on perceptions of environmental merit of building materials. In short: Ø Wood’s environmental assets (green, renewable, recyclable, etc.) continue to be shadowed by concerns of regeneration/scarcity of the material. Ø Steel is seen as being equally recyclable as wood. It is seen as a durable material. Ø Concrete is viewed as the best material to ensure low energy costs. This is an attribute homeowners currently rate very highly. Ø The impact of materials on greenhouse gas emissions is not a salient/tangible concept in the minds of homeowners. It is likely to gain in importance as green building standards and knowledge of environmental impact of product on a lifecycle basis develops. Ø Energy efficiency/costs issues (more than any other environmental issue) are important for homeowners. Following structural issues (durability and strength), homeowners are giving significant consideration to energy efficiency. It is the most important complaint homeowners have about their current house. Unfortunately, wood is supplanted by concrete on the energy issue in floor applications. Respondents were asked to identify the information sources that influence them the most in their material selection decisions. The top five communication media identified are (in order) physical examples, neighbours/friends/relatives, home center staff, TV shows/DIY network and internet/websites. The results suggest complementary promotion and communication strategies should be evaluated by the wood products industry.
Building construction - Materials used
Markets - Estimating
Documents
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A strategic approach to value creation via market driven innovation in building and living with wood

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37941
Author
Crespell, Pablo
Date
April 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Crespell, Pablo
Date
April 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
119 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Market Analysis
Subject
Wood
Technological innovation
Plastics
Materials
Markets
Series Number
Transformative Technologies - Federal Initiative Final Report 2008/09
W-2634
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
‘Creating value via innovation’ Value creation is at the core of FPInnovations’ mission. This is an ongoing project focused in better assessing the value proposition of our organization’s undertakings while also scanning the marketplace for innovations. Over the past year, the Forintek Division adopted a methodology developed by SRI International to assess value creation from innovations. This project mainly reports the results of applying that methodology, known as NABC (Needs, Approach, Benefits, and Competition) to the Transformative Technology Projects identified as suitable for such approach. A follow up project contracted to CINTRAFOR on perceptual mapping for decking materials is also reported here, at a preliminary level. Among all the products included in a survey targeting U.S. decking and railing builders wood plastic composites are rated with the longest serviceable life, easiest to maintain, minimal surface checking and the most environmentally friendly. Longevity and ease of maintenance are rated as the best features of plastic lumber. The first part of this project (2007/2008) studied innovation according to three components or domains: manufacturer, user, and R&D organizations. In the latter domain, some initiatives were proposed to be carried out at FPInnovations to foster innovation and their status is also reported here. Similarly, we update the research being done on the living with wood component. Among the Transformative Technology projects, cross laminated timber is the project with the most potential for a successful product development and commercialization. We show it to be feasible to manufacture in Canada, with significant environmental and technical virtues, a large North American market and a competitive cost structure for low rise apartments and non residential buildings, such as schools. The analysis for wood plastic composites was done in detail under project 5905B. A detailed feasibility analysis for a commercial plant in West and East Canada found low margins for decking whilst attractive margins for railing. WPCs could become more profitable once the housing crisis and the high inventories are past. Regardless of price and theoretical margins, the decking and railing business is highly dependent on having the right distribution channels and sales force. Engineered wood products such as the proposed VSL shows interesting opportunities and should be further pursued. Its value proposition comes from its superior mechanical properties and lower cost. Its suitability for smaller logs is also a desirable trait. A lower level of market erosion for treated lumber in Canada by WPC and global environmental trends signal for the need of developing innovative agents for treating lumber. Carbon-based preservatives may be the answer, although several crucial questions will have to be answered. If copper were to be banned, then new opportunities will arise. More research needs to be done but the opportunities are significant, with a potential market share of 180-300 MMBF in the residential market. Increased acceptance of finger jointed studs and the need to comply with fire resistance code has created a significant demand for high performing adhesives, such as PUR and PVA. Chemical modification has brought substantial improvement in softening and bonding properties of PUR and PVA finger-joints, while nanotechnology is expected to raise the adhesives’ autoignition temperature. The latter approach will be tested next year. The maximum market penetration is estimated at 900 MMBF fingerjointed studs. A project looked at impregnation and surface modification using nanotechnology. This has the potential to allow the use of lesser known species by improving surface properties in a cost effective way. This process has an IP advantage for FPInnovations. The potential market penetration is estimated at $100-300 million. The economics of a commercial plant will be worked out next year. Finally, a research breakthrough led by PAPRICAN on cellulose nanocrystals was analyzed in terms of its value proposition. Findings suggest a potential market value of $300 million, with the immediate application being water-based paints and coatings. This analysis continues with the evaluation of a pilot plant to be built in Eastern Canada. FPInnovations has secured an IP advantage on the technology.
Markets - Estimating
Nanotechnology
Technological innnovations
Wood-plastic materials
Documents
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Market and economic analysis of the fibre-polymer composite industry

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37942
Author
Crespell, Pablo
Date
April 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Crespell, Pablo
Date
April 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
41 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wood
Plastics
Materials
Markets
Series Number
Transformative Technologies - Federal Initiative IidentifierSeries Final Report 2008/09
W-2635
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The past year was marked by further market penetration by wood plastic composites (WPCs), although at lower rates than those seen in the previous few years. WPCs now account for 24% of deck surface and 10% of porch surface areas installed in North America. The market also witnessed the introduction of new applications for WPCs such as fencing (3% of market) and siding (0.1% of market) which have made gradual inroads as technical issues have been overcome. It was also a year marked by technical innovations, lawsuits and structural changes. In global terms, the high prices of petroleum and resins was the main driver of profitability, along with a reduced demand in the R&R US market, which drives 85% of decking and railing consumption. An additional issue for Canadian manufacturers was the devaluation of the US dollar which hurt export markets. As a consequence of sawmill curtailments and closures there has been increased competition for sawdust which is used in the wood flour component of WPCs. A detailed feasibility analysis was conducted for a hypothetical WPC plant in Canada. The exercise considered two locations, one in the West and one in the East. The products to be produced were engineered decking and railing. The results suggested a tough market environment for decking with little or no advantages given the current conditions (high resin prices and low demand and excess inventory given the U.S. housing crisis). The East location showed a slight advantage over the West. Unlike decking, railing showed good margins. Distance to markets and distribution disadvantages make this business proposition a challenging one. However, sensitivity analysis suggests that an improvement in demand and prices could narrow the gap between costs and a break even point, especially considering the conservative approach to pricing that this study followed, with US$1.56/LF FOB mill. The North American market for WPCs is over $1 billion , and categories such as decking and railing (D&R) are expected to grow in value at 7+% annual rates for the next 5 years as it moves from traditional non-structural applications into new and/or more structural applications, captures higher market share from preservative treated (PT) lumber, and as high-end products increase their participation in the mix. Among structural applications, 2009 has seen the use of WPCs in bridge construction. D&R accounts for over 80% of the total value for WPCs, followed by windows and doors parts (12%). WPCs have successfully captured around 24% of the $4.3 billion 2007 North American market for D & R, mostly from treated lumber and plastic lumber. This growth is mostly driven by repair and remodeling (85%), followed by new housing. Nonetheless, the potential total market for WPCs remains mostly untapped. Alternatives for decking applications include naturally durable species (IPE, cedar, redwood), other PT lumber (including southern yellow pine (SYP), and conifers from South America and Scandinavia), vinyl, aluminum, and others. Current WPC applications include: decking, railing, windows and door parts, roofing, picnic tables and benches, fencing, landscape timber, patios, gazebos, pergolas, auto parts, playground equipment, etc. Other applications are under development, such as siding, fencing, bridge decking, foundation isolation elements, marine structures (chocks, wales, pier decking), laminate flooring, residential furniture (bathroom/kitchen cabinets & patio furniture), utility poles, railroad tiles, exterior & interior trim (window and door (W&D) components, molding and millwork). In 2007/2008 there were about 30 main WPC producers in the US and Canada, with the top 5 holding a 70% share of the market value and the top 20 concentrating 97% of the market value. The year 2008 saw several Canadian companies go under, the most notable being Brite Manufacturing. Intellectual property continues to be an issue in this industry where some companies fiercely defend their competitive advantages via litigation. There is a big need for education of potential specifiers of WPCs as they currently show a low level of awareness and or knowledge. During 2008, industry-wide efforts led by the North American Decking and Railing Association tried to address this issue via training for contractors, suppliers and specifiers. Agricultural fibers have been used for decades in the automotive industry, with Europe as leader. Rice hull has been and will continue to be used, given its good properties (low water intake, lack of digestible nutrients that support the growth of mold and mildew), availability, and distribution channels. The latter points will likely limit the use of crop fiber only to species already readily available (e.g. wheat straw). A notable case of a company who has successfully used agrifiber is AZEC Building Products, with a 20% flax/80% PVC composite. Bioplastics continue to show great potential, especially for the packaging and automotive industries. However appealing, the use of bioplastics cannot be assumed to be environmentally harmless, but has to be determined through case by case analysis. Some biopolymers are partially biodegradable, some are not. Other issues include difficulties with recycling such as cleaning and sorting. Recent developments in Brazil include the development of the first sugar cane-based polyethylene. The developer company –Braskem- claims this resin has the same properties as the petroleum-based counterpart. As for nanocomposites, despite promising findings, more research is needed until this technology can be commercially utilized to a greater extent. For instance, nanocellulose crystals may find a place in solid applications, especially given its favorable properties for surface resistance. Last year, some Chinese manufacturers used nanoscopic board coating to make them resistant to aggressive, corrosive and adhesive substances. Apparently the market failed to give a premium for these properties, as suggested by Onix-Luxrae’s cease of operations. Consequently, even though these exciting new developments may present opportunities for some Canadian companies, it may be advisable to concentrate on potential sustainable competitive advantages, suitable for IP protection and first mover advantage. Along those lines, softwoods have made an inroad in wood flour production and there is evidence suggesting the suitability of mountain pine beetle (MPB)-damaged wood for WPCs. Current research initiatives are looking at using fibre from MDF operations.
Decking - Markets
Nanotechnology
Wood-plastic materials
Documents
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Improved prediction of seismic resistance of part 9 houses : final report

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37943
Author
Rainer, J.H.
Ni, Chun
Date
May 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Rainer, J.H.
Ni, Chun
Contributor
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC)
Date
May 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
96 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Design
Building construction
Series Number
W-2636
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This report of the research project "Improved prediction of seismic resistance of Part 9 Houses" under the CMHC External Research Program consists of a review and assessment of analysis methods; numerical evaluation of current seismic design requirements in Canada; and new formulations for seismic design of conventional wood-frame construction in Canada. The relative performance of three mechanics-based methods is ascertained by comparing the test data of lateral capacities of partially restrained wall specimens having window openings with the predicted results from three calculation methods: Method 1 by Ni and Karacabeyli (2000, 2002) is the simplest to use and gave the most conservative results; Method 2 by Källsner et al., (2001, 2002) is less conservative but more complicated to apply to practical problems, and Method 3 by Källsner and Gurhammar (2005, 2006) gives non-conservative results. The suitability of other methods of analysis, (e.g. SAWS, Drain2D-X) was also examined. Method 1 was chosen as the principal analysis tool for this investigation. The adequacy of the seismic provisions of the CWC 2004 Design Guide and of the proposals for Part 9 of the 2010 NBCC are assessed by the seismic design methods specified in Part 4 of the 2005 NBCC and utilizing the analysis Method 1. Two building types were used: a square building of 15.0 x 15.0 m plan and a rectangular one of 4.8 x 15.0 m, each of 1, 2 and 3 storeys height. The analysis indicates that neither the current CWC Guide nor the proposals for the 2010 NBCC Part 9 meet the seismic requirements of Part 4 of the 2005 NBCC for the higher seismic zones. The discrepancies are particularly pronounced for the shorter side of the rectangular buildings. It must be noted that the buildings studied in this investigation represented worst case scenarios. In reality, wood-frame houses would generally contain more walls than the minimum wall lengths required by the CWC Guide and the proposed NBCC 2010, and thus would possess larger lateral resistance. Following the numerical results of a parametric study of different wall constructions, two new approaches for the seismic provisions of conventional wood-frame construction in Canada are presented, an area-based method, and a method based on percentages of braced wall lengths. Both methods conform substantially to the seismic requirements of Part 4 of the 2005 NBCC. For heavy construction the provisions for 1 and 2 storey buildings give reasonable agreement with those for 2 and 3 storeys of light construction. Additional parameter studies should be carried out for irregular buildings, for heavy wall cladding such as stucco and masonry, and for minimum size of braced wall panels.
Building construction - Design
Building construction - Light-frame
Earthquakes, Effect on building construction
Documents
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Expanding the sawing performance envelope - phase II

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37945
Author
White, J.
Taylor, J.
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
White, J.
Taylor, J.
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
49 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Circular saws
Saw circular
Saws
Saw mills
Efficiency
Series Number
General Revenue Report Project No. 5735
W-2642
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This report, the second in a two year project to question the existing “rules” for saw designs and real operational limits, investigates three aspects of circular saw performance. The first area of investigation was to determine how operation of new saws in a mill environment changes their cutting behaviour, the second was aimed at determining the operational “sweet-spot” for circular saws of various thicknesses operating at different feedspeeds and finally, the effect of side board stiffness on saw wedging was investigated. The results from the mill operation portion of the study showed that:
Operation of new saws in a mill did not improve their performance
Tooth geometry errors are a major cause of saw wedging
With the new saws, a strong correlation was found between saw wedging and radial clearance angle differences (error) as well as tangential clearance angle differences.
After operation in the mill, a strong correlation was found between saw wedging and side clearance differences as well as tangential clearance angle differences.
Close attention must be paid to the initial tangential angles ground into new/re-tipped saws to avoid low, negative or unequal tangential angles that cause excessive wedging, particularly as saws are repeatedly sharpened. The results from the operational “sweet-spot” portion of the study showed that:
Errors in tip geometry are the primary cause of saw wedging. Even as feedspeeds are reduced, wedging can remain high for saws with grinding errors;.
For feedspeeds up to 500 fpm, there was not a significant difference in the wedging between the 60, 70 and 80 plate saws.
For feedspeeds up to 500 fpm, there was only small differences in the top edge standard deviation between the four plate thicknesses
Total Sawing Allowance reduced as saw plate thickness (and kerf) reduced. This should allow for mills to achieve target size reductions, provided machine alignment and cant control are tightly controlled. The investigation into the effect of side board stiffness showed that:
Wedging increases slightly for sideboards that separated from the base cant due to their lower stiffness vs. those that remained attached
Sawmilling - Efficiency
Saws - Circular
Documents
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Load duration test protocols for engineered wood products

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37951
Author
Pirvu, Ciprian
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Pirvu, Ciprian
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
12 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Mechanical properties
Materials
Building construction
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 4
W-2653
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The objective of the project is to develop/improve practical, reliable and internationally recognized methods for assessing/pre-screening the long-term structural performance of engineered wood products used in residential and non-residential applications.
Building construction - Materials used - Strength
Documents
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Lateral load resisting systems for engineered wood construction

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37955
Author
Popovski, Marjan
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Popovski, Marjan
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
149 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Wind loads
Wind
Loads
Joints
Grading
Design
Building construction
Midply
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 27
W-2660
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The main sources of lateral loads on buildings are either strong winds or earthquakes. These lateral forces are resisted by the buildings’ Lateral Load Resisting Systems (LLRSs). Adequate design of these systems is of paramount importance for the structural behaviour in general. Basic procedures for design of buildings subjected to lateral loads are provided in national and international model building codes. Additional lateral load design provisions can be found in national and international material design standards. The seismic and wind design provisions for engineered wood structures in Canada need to be enhanced to be compatible with those available for other materials such as steel and concrete. Such design provisions are of vital importance for ensuring a competitive position of timber structures relative to reinforced concrete and steel structures. In this project a new design Section on Lateral Load Resisting Systems was drafted and prepared for future implementation in CSA O86, the Canadian Standard for Engineering Design in Wood. The new Section was prepared based on gathering existing research information on the behaviour of various structural systems used in engineered wood construction around the world as well as developing in-house research information by conducting experimental tests and analytical studies on structural systems subjected to lateral loads. This section for the first time tried to link the system behaviour to that of the connections in the system. Although the developed Section could not have been implemented in CSA O86 in its entirety during the latest code cycle that ended in 2008, the information it contains will form the foundation for future development of technical polls for implementation in the upcoming editions of CSA O86. Some parts of the developed Section were implemented in the 2009 edition of CSA O86 as five separate technical polls. The most important technical poll was the one on Special Seismic Design Considerations for Shearwalls and Diaphragms. This technical poll for the first time in North America includes partial capacity design procedures for wood buildings, and represents a significant step forward towards implementing full capacity-based seismic design procedures for wood structures. Implementation of these design procedures also eliminated most of the confusion and hurdles related to the design of wood-based diaphragms according to 2005 National Building Code of Canada. In other polls, the limit for use of unblocked shearwalls in CSA O86 was raised to 4.8 m, and based on the test results conducted during the project, the NLGA SPS3 fingerjoined studs were allowed to be used as substitutes for regular dimension lumber studs in shearwall applications in engineered buildings in Canada. With the US being the largest export market for the Canadian forest products industry, participation at code development committees in the field of structural and wood engineering in the US is of paramount importance. As a result of extensive activities during this project, for the first time one of the AF&PA Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic includes design values for unblocked shearwalls that were implemented based on FPInnovations’ research results. In addition, the project leader was involved in various aspects related to the NEESWood project in the US, in part of which a full scale six-storey wood-frame building will be tested at the E-Defense shake table in Miki, Japan in July 2009. Apart from being built from lumber and glued-laminated timber provided from Canada, the building will also feature the innovative Midply wood wall system that was also invented in Canada. The tests are expected to provide further technical evidence for increasing the height limits for platform frame construction in North America.
Building construction - Design
Earthquakes, Effect on building construction
Glued joints - Finger
Grading - Lumber
Wind loads
Documents
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Lateral load resisting systems for engineered wood construction

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37956
Author
Popovski, Marjan
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Popovski, Marjan
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
8 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Wind loads
Wind
Loads
Building construction
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 27
W-2661
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The goals of the project are to expand the use of wood and wood products in structural applications by enhancing seismic and wind design provisions for engineered wood-based structural systems. The project will develop new research information, as well as compile the existing research information necessary for development of new Lateral Load Design Provisions for engineered wood-based structural systems in the Canadian Standard for Engineering Design in Wood (CSA O86). When the appropriate code committees and industry associations implement these design provisions into the next edition of CSA O86, they will provide designers and specifiers more structural options for wood-based lateral load resisting systems, similar to those offered in other material codes.
Earthquakes, Effect on building construction
Wind loads
Documents
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297 records – page 1 of 30.