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Acoustic performance of wood-frame buildings

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42306
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Date
March 2005
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2005
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
44 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Acoustic
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 3
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Commercial and multi-family residential construction represents a growth area for the Canadian wood products industry. To capitalize on this opportunity, a thorough understanding of the necessary products and system attributes will be essential. Adequate levels of noise/sound control in multi-family buildings are mandatory requirements of building codes in Canada, the United States, Europe, and most developed Asian countries. In many jurisdictions, these requirements are as strictly enforced as those for structural sufficiency and fire safety. Much effort has been spent on evaluation of sound transmission class (STC) and impact sound insulation class (IIC) of floor and wall assemblies and on studies of flanking transmission in multi-family dwellings in Canada. However, continuing occupant complaints of poor acoustic performance in wood-frame buildings that appear to have been built according to wall and floor construction practices recommended in building codes suggest the existence of gaps in current noise control techniques. Forintek initiated this project to investigate the relative importance of noise transmission in wood-frame residential buildings in comparison with other building serviceability issues, and to conduct a pilot study to examine construction designs of wood-frame buildings that exhibit unsatisfactory and satisfactory noise control and to identify existing gaps in current noise control techniques. A literature review and survey of 123 occupants of wood-framed multi- and single-family residential buildings was conducted to determine the relative importance of noise transmission in comparison with other building serviceability attributes. Case studies were conducted on construction details and designs of six new wood-frame condominiums and one single family-house that were built according to code requirements and recommendations for controlling noise transmission. We found that the general public had high expectations regarding adequate acoustic privacy. Even single- family house builders considered low sound transmission important. The multi-family building occupants ranked “sound insulation” the most “important” serviceability attribute, while single-family occupants were most concerned with “water penetration and condensation”. The lowest level of “satisfaction” was given by all respondents to “noise transmission” for their current residences, including single-family occupants, who had ranked it as not being so “important”. The case studies revealed that, current construction practices were much more effective in controlling airborne sound transmission than impact noise. The footfall noise transmission from stairs through the walls is still an unresolved issue that is not considered in the current Canadian Building Code. The low frequency footfall noise transmission between vertically-stacked units was the common complaint in some of these buildings. With no requirement for impact sound insulation in the current National Building Code of Canada, and with our existing knowledge gap concerning low frequency footfall noise transmission problems and solutions to control them, builders, acoustics consultants and design engineers have simply tended to blame wood building materials for noise-related complaints. We concluded that if we are to satisfy the occupants of both single-and multi-family wood-frame buildings and to provide confidence for builders and design engineers in wood-frame construction with satisfactory acoustic performance, a much greater effort is needed to improve sound insulation including development of better sound insulated wood-frame systems and building materials as well as retrofitting techniques. Acoustic performance will be a critical factor for the wood products industry in gaining a greater share of the multi-family construction market and in competing with other building materials.
Acoustic emissions
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Dust collection systems

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38991
Contributor
Forintek Canada Corp.
Date
November 2006
Material Type
Pamphlet
Field
Sustainable Construction
Contributor
Forintek Canada Corp.
Date
November 2006
Material Type
Pamphlet
Physical Description
4 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Air pollution
Series Number
Technology Profile ; TP-06-01W
E-4172
Language
English
Abstract
Dust
Air pollution - Control
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Effect of air pollution on wood production and quality

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37177
Author
Keith, C.T.
Date
March 1987
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Keith, C.T.
Date
March 1987
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 v.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood quality
Wood
Vegetation
Quality control
Qualitative analysis
Pollution
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
CFS No. 36;04-55-12-102
W-446
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
Wood quality
Air pollution - Damage to vegetation
Air pollution - Effects
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Effect of air pollution on wood production and quality

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38141
Author
Keith, C.T.
Date
March 1987
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Keith, C.T.
Date
March 1987
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
60 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood quality
Wood
Quality control
Qualitative analysis
Pollution
Air pollution
Air
Acid
Series Number
CFS project no.36
Project no.5512102
E-502
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
Wood, effect of acid deposition on
Wood quality
Air pollution - Effects
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Hardwood Initiative - Part 5: Development of new processes and technologies in the hardwood industry (Project 16) ; Testing the impacts of tree and stand attributes on the variability of acoustic velocity in standing trees (ST300) and logs (HM200)

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5733
Author
Ung, C.-H.
Duchesne, I.
Guo, X.J.
Swift, E.
Date
January 2011
Edition
39324
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Ung, C.-H.
Duchesne, I.
Guo, X.J.
Swift, E.
Date
January 2011
Edition
39324
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
6 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Velocity
Hardwoods
Acoustic
Series Number
Transformative Technologies Program ; Project No. TT5.15
201002825
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Hardwood Initiative Project is based on two paradigms. First, the end-use potential and value of a wood product basket can be determined by the properties of its wood and should be quantified as much as possible before trees are harvested. Second, as the correlations between site conditions and wood fibre attributes can be changed by silvicultural treatments, it would be possible to optimize the wood production in terms of quantity and quality through a better understanding of silvicultural impacts on changes in wood fibre properties. This document presents the preliminary results of a research component of the project related to acoustic velocity. It focuses on testing the impacts of tree and stand attributes on the variability of non-destructive velocity (ST300 non-destructive measurement in standing tree) and of destructive velocity (HM200 destructive measurement in log). The acoustic measurements were conducted in 30 plots of sugar maple mixed with yellow birch in New Brunswick. Among the trees measured, 64 trees have been subjected to both non-destructive and destructive velocity measurement. Regression analysis by mixed model showed no significant impact of stand attributes (stand basal area and stand height) on the variation of both velocities. In addition, the defects represented by stem deformation, hole, split, wound, and stump swelling, had no significant impact on both velocities. By cons, the test showed a significant correlation between both velocities and dbh and light crown area of the tree. Non-destructive velocity was better explained by dbh and light crown than the destructive velocity. These results open the potential to produce an equation to predict the non-destructive acoustic velocity of the tree using simple tree attributes (e.g., dbh and light crown) as predictors, and to prescribe the thinning intensity for a desired level of velocity and then a desired level of wood density or stiffness. Full title: Hardwood Initiative - Part 5: Development of new processes and technologies in the hardwood industry (Project 16) : Testing the impacts of tree and stand attributes on the variability of acoustic velocity in standing trees (ST300) and logs (HM200)
Hardwoods
Acoustic velocity
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Plan a research program for acoustic performance of wood-frame buildings

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42066
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2001
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
9 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood frame
Wood
Performance
Acoustic
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 13
E-3581
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Acoustic performance is one of the important issues that need to be addressed to help wood compete with other materials in the housing market, especially the multi-family housing market. The 1995 National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) increased the minimum sound transmission class (STC) ratings requirement from 45 to 50 between residential suites, and from 50 to 55 between suites and vertical shafts, against the 1990 NBCC. In a recent survey of prefabricated houses, sound performance was reported to be a key concern for increased acceptance of wood-frame buildings components in foreign markets, particularly Europe and Japan, where the code requirements for sound insulation are more stringent than in Canada. In view of this growing awareness of acoustic performance issues in Canada and elsewhere, and the corresponding evolution of building codes, the wood industry needs to demonstrate that wood-frame buildings can match or outperform buildings using other materials with respect to all major criteria, including acoustic performance. This report identifies gaps in the sound-transmission research for wood-frame buildings. These gaps are either issues not completely addressed or understood, or they have been ignored by non-wood researchers or the current National Building Code of Canada. The issues identified include: 1) a lack of design information on Field Sound Transmission Class (FSTC) and Impact Insulation Class (FIIC) ratings for wood-frame construction; 2) conflicts between some construction solutions for sound insulation and other performance attributes; 3) a lack of design and construction guidelines for low frequency thumping noises induced by footsteps in wood-frame construction; 4) limited information on the design of wood-frame construction insulated against exterior noises. Forintek lacks the expertise to deal with noise insulation issues in wood-frame construction. Four potential research projects are proposed to address these issues. It is recommended that Forintek should play an active role in sound insulation research in order to deal with occupant complaints about poor sound performance in wood-frame buildings. Co-ordination with acoustics experts at the Institute for Research in Construction (IRC) and other institutes, the wood and building industries, and code regulators is necessary to the success of any research to be undertaken to fill these gaps, reinforce the performance attributes of Canadian wood-frame systems and increase their market acceptance.
Wood-frame buildings
Acoustic performance
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Review of current knowledge and trends in building microbiology and indoor-air quality

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41276
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Date
January 2003
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Date
January 2003
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
10 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Safety
Research
Pollution control
Pollution
Growth
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
W-1923
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The air quality in human dwellings, educational and work places has become a high profile issue over the last decade especially in regarding to mould. Mould spores are present everywhere. Moulds grow on a wide variety of organic substrates including wood and are easy to find in all buildings especially those that have moisture available for microbial growth. The wood industry is facing a potential problem as stain fungi (which may often be mistaken for mould) and moulds can be found growing abundantly on green timber and lumber and the public could perceive wood used in building envelopes as a major substrate and source of mould. To ensure that wood is treated fairly among other building materials Forintek has initiated several projects regarding mould and one of them is to review the existing body of literature on moulds and to develop an organized database of information in a searchable form that could be continuously updated. Thus, to update Forintek’s knowledge in this area, to maintain awareness of the latest developments and trends and to establish new contacts Adnan attended the 9th Indoor Air Conference in July 2002 which is considered to be among the most prestigious in the field. As expected, the conference and associated interactions yielded a substantial amount of information directly or indirectly related to current and future projects at Forintek in regard to moulds, substrates for their growth and potential health effects. Overall there was a general understanding that microbial ecology and health-related issues in association with a moisture-damaged site are complex phenomena and require further and thorough research. Modern building technology that uses a plethora of building materials in more or less successful building designs and in association with failures in moisture control provide specific, and in some cases, new ecological niches for microbes. Wood was not singled out or exempted as a source or important substrate for mould growth. The water damage and available moisture is the major factor in supporting microbial growth. Apart from mould there are other equally or more important elements associated with reported ill health and these may include bacteria, tobacco pollution, diesel particles, material and microbial volatile organic compounds, mites and other allergens of animal origin. This report summarizes major findings and developments in indoor air quality issues with special emphasis on mould, health issues and water-damaged human habitats. Parts of it are judged as potentially useful to Forintek members.
Microbiology - Research - Safety
Air pollution - Control
Moulds - Control
Fungi - Growth
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Study to determine levels of organic solvent vapours in home air

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38182
Author
Doyle, Edward E.
Shields, J.A.
Date
March 1983
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Doyle, Edward E.
Shields, J.A.
Date
March 1983
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
135 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Testing
Quality control
Qualitative analysis
Pollution
Air pollution
Air
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
Air Quality - Testing
Air Pollution - Indoor
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Systèmes d'extraction des poussières

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38990
Contributor
Forintek Canada Corp.
Date
November 2006
Material Type
Pamphlet
Field
Sustainable Construction
Contributor
Forintek Canada Corp.
Date
November 2006
Material Type
Pamphlet
Physical Description
4 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Air pollution
Series Number
E-4171
Language
French
Abstract
Dust
Air pollution - Control
Documents
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9 records – page 1 of 1.