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Development of an improved method for analysis of panels with low formaldehyde emission

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39223
Author
Dechamplain, F.
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Dechamplain, F.
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
28 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Pollution
Panels
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 20
5763
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
In April 2008, the State of California adopted an airborne toxic control measure (ATCM) to reduce formaldehyde emissions from composite wood products, proposed by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), part of the California Environmental Protection Agency. Phase 1 started in January 2009, and at the end of the implementation, in July 2012, formaldehyde emission limits will range between 0.05 and 0.13 ppm, depending on the type of products, based on the ASTM E 1333 Large Chamber Method. These new limits are in the order of the limits of detection of the current analytical methods presently used, and rendered the chromotropic acid reaction, on which the ASTM E 1333 is based, with a limit of detection of 0.01 ppm less precise. An alternative method to determine formaldehyde concentration in air has been developed to be used as part of the ASTM E1333 Large Chamber Method. 60 L of air are sampled through an impinger containing an acetylacetone-ammonia solution. The solution is then heated, and analyzed by fluorimetry using a Turner Quantech filter fluorometer equipped with a NB430 excitation filter and a SC500 emission filter. The test method is inexpensive, easy to use, compatible with the Large Chamber, Perforator and Desiccator Methods, and is very sensitive. The minimum detection limit (MDL) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) of this analytical method are 0.0004 and 0.0013 ppm, respectively.
Air pollution
Formaldehyde
Panels
Documents
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Development of an improved method for analysis of panels with low formaldehyde emission (Part B)

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39297
Author
Dechamplain, F.
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Dechamplain, F.
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
13 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Pollution
Panels
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 20
201000329
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
In April 2008, the State of California adopted an airborne toxic control measure (ATCM) to reduce formaldehyde emissions from composite wood products, proposed by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), part of the California Environmental Protection Agency. Phase 1 started in January 2009, and at the end of the implementation, in July 2012, formaldehyde emission limits will range between 0.05 and 0.13 ppm, depending on the type of products, based on the ASTM E 1333 Large Chamber Method. These new limits are in the order of the limits of detection of the current analytical methods presently used, and rendered the chromotropic acid reaction, on which the ASTM E 1333 is based, with a limit of detection of 0.01 ppm less precise. The use of Near Infrared technology was investigated in 2009/2010. This analytical technique was not initially considered to be sensitive enough to measure formaldehyde emissions at very low levels. Recent developments in the broadband sources of near infrared radiation available and the type of detectors used have contributed in recent years to improve spectral stability and sensitivity. Some instruments have recently been tested in Europe and equipment suppliers claim that these systems can be used for online monitoring of formaldehyde emissions. This analytical technique is not recognized at this time by Canadian and US regulatory authorities and more testing was required to demonstrate the system’s reliability. Commercial products with very low free formaldehyde have been tested in 2009 with NIR sensors and results have been correlated with the ASTM E 1333 Large Chamber test results. At least one Canadian panel manufacturer has already expressed interest in running a mill trial. Results will be presented to regulatory authorities.
Air pollution
Formaldehyde
Panels
Documents
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Dust collection systems

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38991
Contributor
Forintek Canada Corp.
Date
November 2006
Material Type
Pamphlet
Field
Sustainable Construction
Contributor
Forintek Canada Corp.
Date
November 2006
Material Type
Pamphlet
Physical Description
4 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Air pollution
Series Number
Technology Profile ; TP-06-01W
E-4172
Language
English
Abstract
Dust
Air pollution - Control
Documents
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Effectiveness of barriers to minimize VOC emissions, including formaldehyde

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39025
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 2007
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Contributor
Canada. Natural Resources Canada
Date
March 2007
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
39 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Pollution control
Pollution
Materials
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Value to Wood No. FCC 72
5351
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Since the energy crisis in the early 1970s, there has been a decided trend towards tightly constructed buildings that conserve energy and reduce costs. The downside of these well-intended efforts has been the lowering of interior air exchange rates, to the extent that many chemical contaminants are now being trapped indoors where people spend most of their lives. These contaminants may include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as formaldehyde, that have been suggested by some to be among the factors responsible for this air quality deterioration. Wood composite panels, which contain formaldehyde such as particleboard and medium density fiberboard (MDF)are often targeted for strict emission regulations or prohibited altogether, despite the fact that this industry has reduced formaldehyde emissions of raw panels by more than 80% over the past twenty years, thereby actually minimizing indoor air contaminants. Moreover, most consumer products made with composite panels are not used in a raw form, but instead have some type of surface finish over the substrate, that generally acts as a barrier to off-gassing, and subsequently reduces emissions. In this 2003 research, ten commonly used finishes were evaluated for their effectiveness as emissions barriers for formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC). It appeared that the powder coating is among the most effective barriers for both formaldehyde and VOCs, with more than 90% emission reduction when applied to MDF. A similar efficiency was observed with phenolic, vinyl, melamine paper, aluminium oxide overlay, Syn Décor laminates, thermofoil 12mil, and 2 mils Natural vinyl applied on particleboard panels. Some finishing material showed excellent efficiency towards formaldehyde reduction with, however, a lower VOC emission reduction such as birch finishing etc. Results also suggested an evaluation of powder coatings on particleboard, and, if practical the clear coating and vinyl laminate on MDF to more fully evaluate the impact of the substrate, if any, on emission characteristics of these surface treatments. The evaluation of the other finishing materials which showed an excellent efficiency on a particular type of product such as particleboard also need to be evaluated on the other product such as MDF in order to complete the evaluation of the effectiveness of any given barrier. The paper finish, water based topcoat, and the multiple (3) topcoat wet process appeared to be the less efficient barriers towards either formaldehyde and/or VOCs with, 41% and 28% formaldehyde emission reduction respectively and an increase of VOC emissions by 79% and 57% respectively, suggesting that these barriers may have high solvent contents. A limitation of this trial study was that the formaldehyde and VOC contribution of the surface coating or laminate were not tested by themselves without a substrate. The very limited number of tests conducted for any individual barriers suggests that these preliminary results should be viewed with caution and that more sampling (confirmatory as well as additional coatings/laminates) is necessary to ensure completeness as well as confidence in the data. The inter-laboratory comparison study, showed some discrepancies on both formaldehyde and TVOC results. The techniques used such as one sample face against two faces, the analytical techniques, the air exchange rates could be responsible for some part of these discrepancies and the very limited number of tests did not help improve the reliability of the results. A very good correlation between ASTM D 5116 and ASTM D 6007 has been established by comparing formaldehyde emission results from the two methods. An R² of 0.94 has been obtained and could be improved by upgrading the database. The decay tests conducted for a long period of time, some samples were tested for more than 200 days, indicated a net decrease of formaldehyde and VOCs emission over time especially for samples with high initial emission rates. For some low initial formaldehyde emitting samples there was no discernable decrease of emissions over time. Decay emission patterns models varied from sample to sample and some were exponential especially for high initial emitting products and some other were polynomial as reported in the literature. The decaying study showed that VOC emissions decayed favourably other time and some sample products showed almost zero emission after few months. This observation is very encouraging because it indicates that most products before being purchased by the client had emitted more than 60 to 70% of their initial emissions levels, particularly those with high initial emission rates. For those with very emission rates such as those finished with powder coatings, melamine, etc, the decaying is not relevant because their emission levels were already at the detection levels.
Air pollution - Control
Composite materials
Finishes
Documents
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Effectiveness of barriers to minimize VOC emissions, including formaldehyde

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38953
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Contributor
Canada. Natural Resources Canada
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Pollution control
Pollution
Materials
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Value to Wood No. FCC 32
4506
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Since the energy crisis in the early 1970s, there has been a decided trend towards tightly constructed buildings that conserve energy and reduce costs. The downside of these well-intended efforts has been the lowering of interior air exchange rates, to the extent that many chemical contaminants are now being trapped indoors where people spend most of their lives. These contaminants may include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as formaldehyde, that have been suggested by some to be among the factors responsible for this air quality deterioration. Wood composite panels, which contain formaldehyde such as particleboard and medium density fiberboard (MDF) are often targeted for strict emission regulations or prohibited altogether, despite the fact that this industry has reduced formaldehyde emissions of raw panels by more than 80% over the past twenty years, thereby actually minimizing indoor air contaminants. Moreover, most consumer products made with composite panels are not used in a raw form, but instead have some type of surface finish over the substrate, that generally acts as a barrier to off-gassing, and subsequently reduces emissions. In this year’s research, ten commonly used finishes were evaluated for their effectiveness as emissions barriers for formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC). It appeared that the powder coating is among the most effective barriers for both formaldehyde and VOCs, with more than 90% emission reduction when applied to MDF. A similar efficiency was observed with phenolic, vinyl, melamine paper, aluminium oxide overlay, Syn Décor laminates, thermofoil 12mil, and 2 mils Natural vinyl applied on particleboard panels. Some finishing material such as birch veneer showed excellent efficiency towards formaldehyde reduction with, however, a lower VOC emission reduction. Results also suggested further evaluation of other combinations of substrate and finish need to be considered (powder coatings on particleboard, clear coating or vinyl laminate on MDF) to more fully evaluate the impact of the substrate, if any, on emission characteristics of these surface treatments. The evaluation of the other finishing materials which showed an excellent efficiency on a particular type of product such as particleboard also need to be evaluated on the other product, in this case MDF in order to complete the evaluation of the effectiveness of any given barrier. The paper finish, water based topcoat, and the multiple (3) topcoat wet process appeared to be the less efficient barriers to either formaldehyde and/or VOCs with, 41% and 28% formaldehyde emission reduction respectively and an increase of VOC emissions by 79% and 57% respectively, suggesting that these barriers may have high solvent contents. A limitation of this first study was that the formaldehyde and VOC contribution of the surface coating or laminate were not tested by themselves without a substrate. The very limited number of tests conducted for any individual barriers suggests that these preliminary results should be viewed with caution and that more sampling is necessary to ensure completeness as well as confidence in the data. The next phase of this study will include an inter-laboratory comparison study, further evaluation of the finishes and the effect of sample aging as it relates to emissions. A very good correlation between ASTM D 5116 and ASTM D 6007 has been established by comparing formaldehyde emission results from the two methods. An R² of 0.94 has been obtained and could be improved by expanding the database.
Air pollution - Control
Composite materials
Finishes
Documents
Less detail

Effectiveness of barriers to minimize VOC emissions, including formaldehyde

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37914
Author
Barry, A.
Date
April 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Date
April 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
4 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Toxicity
Pollution control
Pollution
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
RDS 08-06
W-2581
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
In this study, various finishing materials used by primary and secondary particleboard and medium-density fibreboard (MDF) manufacturers were subjected to emissions testing in order to determine the most efficient barriers to eliminate (or at least reduce) formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from MDF and particleboard products.
Air pollution - Control
Formaldehyde - Toxicity
Documents
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Effect of air pollution on wood production and quality

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38141
Author
Keith, C.T.
Date
March 1987
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Keith, C.T.
Date
March 1987
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
60 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood quality
Wood
Quality control
Qualitative analysis
Pollution
Air pollution
Air
Acid
Series Number
CFS project no.36
Project no.5512102
E-502
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
Wood, effect of acid deposition on
Wood quality
Air pollution - Effects
Documents
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Effect of air pollution on wood production and quality

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37177
Author
Keith, C.T.
Date
March 1987
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Keith, C.T.
Date
March 1987
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 v.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood quality
Wood
Vegetation
Quality control
Qualitative analysis
Pollution
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
CFS No. 36;04-55-12-102
W-446
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
Wood quality
Air pollution - Damage to vegetation
Air pollution - Effects
Documents
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Impact of Kyoto protocol on composite panel industries

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39104
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
73 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Regulations
Pollution
Canada
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 15
4005
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
One can summarize the work conducted under the Kyoto protocol by extracting some paragraphs from the Montreal climate conference press release. Under the Kyoto Protocol, which entered into force 16 February 2005, more than 30 industrialized countries are bound by specific and legally binding emission reduction targets. As a first step, these cover the period 2008-2012. The Kyoto Protocol is now fully operational. The adoption of the Marrakesh accords formally launches emissions trading and the other two mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol. Carbon has now a market value. Under the clean development mechanism, investing in projects that provide sustainable development and reduce emissions makes sound business sense. The Joint Implementation (JI) adopted by the parties is one of the mechanisms which allow developed countries to invest in other developed countries and thereby earn carbon allowances which they can use to meet their emission reduction commitments. In addition to this, the clean development mechanism allows industrialized countries to invest in sustainable development projects in developing countries and thereby earn carbon allowances. “With these decisions in place, we now have the infrastructure to move ahead with the implementation of the Kyoto protocol” said Richard Kinley, head of the United Nations Climate Change conference. It sets solid basis for future steps to bring emissions down he added. All Kyoto Protocol Parties, including Canada, are now moving ahead to meet their GHG emission reduction commitments. In the past few years, Canada has developed and set strategies to meet our commitments. However, Canada has since changed for a new conservative government and a new strategy has been published first in April and the proposed greenhouse gas regulations are expected to be published in the Canada Gazette later this year, and the regulations finalized in 2009 to come into force as planned on January 1, 2010 according to the minister. During this fiscal year two Canadian provinces took important steps in regards to climate change by adopting regulations to reduce their respective GHG emissions. The province of BC has published its own green house gas reduction targets through the Bill 44 in which the province has set reduction targets by 2020 for 33% and 80% by 2050 relative to 2007 emissions levels for both. In 2007 the Quebec government announced the first carbon tax in Canada to Oil companies to pay a new energy tax of 0.8 cents a litre for gasoline distributed in the province and 0.938 cents for diesel fuel. The province has also adopted California’s greenhouse gas standards for new light-duty vehicles.
Composites
Air pollution - Canada - Laws and regulations
Carbon
Documents
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Impact of Kyoto Protocol on composite panel industries

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38939
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Regulations
Pollution
Materials
Canada
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 15
4005
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
The work conducted under the Kyoto Protocol, can be summarized by extracting some paragraphs from the Montreal Climate Conference press release. Under the Kyoto Protocol, which entered into force February 16, 2005, more than 30 industrialized countries are bound by specific and legally binding emission reduction targets. These cover the period 2008-2012, as a first step. The Kyoto Protocol is now fully operational. The adoption of the Marrakesh accords formally launches emissions trading and the other two mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol. Carbon now has a market value. Under the clean development mechanism, investing in projects that provide sustainable development and reduce emissions makes sound business sense. The Joint Implementation (JI) adopted by the parties is one of the mechanisms which allows developed countries to invest in other developed countries and thereby earn carbon allowances, which they can use to meet their emission reduction commitments. In addition to this, the clean development mechanism allows industrialized countries to invest in sustainable development projects in developing countries and thereby earn carbon allowances. “With these decisions in place, we now have the infrastructure to move ahead with the implementation of the Kyoto protocol” said Richard Kinley, head of the United Nations Climate Change conference. “It sets solid basis for future steps to bring emissions down,” he added. All Kyoto Protocol Parties, including Canada, are now moving ahead to meet their GHG emission reduction commitments. In the past few years, Canada has developed and set strategies to meet our commitments. Canada has recently elected a new Conservative Federal government and the new position in regards to the Protocol and what strategies will be adopted by this government, is unknown at this time. However, because H.E. Ms Rona Ambrose has been confirmed by both the Canadian Government and the United Nations as the new President of the Conference of the Parties (COP), we will very soon know what will be the new Canadian position.
Composite materials
Air pollution - Canada - Laws and regulations
Documents
Less detail

23 records – page 1 of 3.