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Analysis of full-scale fire-resistance tests of structural composite lumber beams

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub3316
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Date
October 2014
Edition
39980
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service
Date
October 2014
Edition
39980
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
14 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Fire
Resistance
Testing
Structural composites
Beams
Series Number
E 4914
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
The key objective of this study is to analyze full-scale fire-resistance tests conducted on structural composite lumber (SCL), namely laminated veneer lumber (LVL), parallel strand lumber (PSL) and laminated strand lumber (LSL). A sub-objective is to evaluate the encapsulation performance of Type X gypsum board directly applied to SCL beams and its contribution to fire-resistance of wood elements. The test data is being used to further support the applicability of the newly developed Canadian calculation method for mass timber elements, recently implemented as Annex B of CSA O86-14.
Structural Composites - Properties
Beams - Fire resistance
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Assessing the flammability of mass timber components, a review

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub53026
Author
Mehaffey, J.R. (Jim)
Dagenais, Christian
Date
February 2014
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Mehaffey, J.R. (Jim)
Dagenais, Christian
Date
February 2014
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
27 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Building code
Fire
Performance
Design
Timber
Language
English
Abstract
The report concludes with the recommendation that it would be useful to run an extensive set of cone calorimeter tests on SCL, glue-laminated timber and CLT products. The fundamental data could be most useful for validating models for predicting flame spread ratings of massive timber products and useful as input to comprehensive computer fire models that predict the course of fire in buildings. It is also argued that the cone calorimeter would be a useful tool in assessing fire performance during product development and for quality control purposes.
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Assessment of combustibility parameters of structural composite lumber

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub3149
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Date
March 2014
Edition
39807
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
PDF
Ajoutez cet article à votre liste de sélections pour demander le PDF - Add this item to your selection list to request the PDF
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment
Date
March 2014
Edition
39807
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
16 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Structural composites
Lumber
Fire
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
The present work aims at evaluating the combustibility characteristics (i.e. reaction to fire) of structural composite lumber (SCL) when tested in compliance with the cone calorimeter standard ISO 5660 [7, 8, 9]. More precisely, this study evaluates the heat release rate, total heat release, mass loss, effective heat of combustion, smoke obscuration as well as the presence of toxic gases when SCL products are tested in conformance with ISO 5660. Moreover, this study is solely focused on SCL elements that are thick enough to act as semi-infinite solids (thermally thick solids), as opposed to typical thin combustible finish products. Tests data are also compared to those obtained for visually-graded solid wood specimens of the SPF species group.
Combustibility
Composite Lumber
Laminated products - Fire resistance
Structural Composites - Properties
PDF
Ajoutez cet article à votre liste de sélections pour demander le PDF - Add this item to your selection list to request the PDF
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Building envelope thermal bridging guide : analysis, applications & insights

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub44179
Author
FPInnovations
Date
June 2014
Material Type
guide
manual
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
FPInnovations
Contributor
BC Hydro
Canadian Wood Council
Fortis BC
Morrison Hershfield Ltd.
Homeowner Protection Office (HPO), a branch of BC Housing
Date
June 2014
Material Type
guide
manual
Physical Description
870 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
British Columbia
Building construction
Design
Energy
Thermal properties
Language
English
Abstract
This guide explores how the building industry in British Columbia can meet the challenges of reducing energy use in buildings, in part by effectively accounting for the impact of thermal bridging. Most practitioners will find PART1 and Appendices A and B to be most useful. PART 1 outlines how to effectively account for thermal bridging. Appendices A and B provide a catalog of common building envelope assemblies and interface details, and their associated thermal performance data. Researchers and regulators will be interested in PART 2 and PART 3, and Appendices C to E. They contain the cost-benefit analysis, and discussion on significance and further insights, of using this guide to mitigate thermal bridging in buildings.
[Available to the public: http://www.bchydro.com/powersmart/business/programs/new-construction.html?WT.mc_id=rd_construction]
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Caractérisation de la dégradation des revêtements acryliques par vieillissement

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub3214
Author
Vlad, Mirela
Date
March 2014
Edition
39875
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Vlad, Mirela
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2014
Edition
39875
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
34 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Coating
Aging
Series Number
Technologies transformatives
Project no.301008001
E-4899
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
COATINGS
AGING TESTS
Abstract
L’objectif principal de ce projet était de caractériser la dégradation des revêtements acryliques pour le bois. Les objectifs spécifiques ont été comme suit: 1. Étudier la photodégradation/durabilité de différents types de revêtements acryliques par différents types de vieillissement; 2. Déterminer l’impact de l’épaisseur du film acrylique sur l’amélioration de la protection du bois extérieur.
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Characterizing thickness and roughness of green and dry veneers with new laser-based measurements

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5780
Author
Wang, Brad J.
Zhang, H.
Groves, C. Kevin
Zhou, G.
Wu, L.
Date
May 2014
Edition
39834
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Brad J.
Zhang, H.
Groves, C. Kevin
Zhou, G.
Wu, L.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
May 2014
Edition
39834
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
21 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Measurement
Thickness
Veneer
Series Number
W-3098
Language
English
Abstract
A new laser-based system was successfully developed in the pilot plant for veneer thickness and roughness measurements. This system was tested for both green and dry spruce veneer. The comparisons were made between the green veneer measurement and dry veneer measurement, and between the laser-based system measurement and actual digital measurement. A linear mixed effect model was used to estimate the within-sheet and between-sheet variations of veneer thickness and roughness and their causes. A good correlation was found between the laser-measured thickness and caliper-measured thickness. The laser-measured average roughness could also capture the trend of veneer surface roughness determined by the visual classification. Thus, the new laser-based system can be a useful tool for measuring both veneer thickness and roughness. For veneer thickness, the within-sheet variation seemed to be larger than the between-sheet variation, and the laser-based measure had a larger variation than the digital-based measure for both green and dry veneer sheets. With the green veneer, higher veneer moisture content and density would lead to a larger difference between the two measurements. The laser-based method tended to classify more "thick" sheets than the digital-based method, but this tendency was not obvious with the dry veneer. Such tendency also became negligible by factoring in either veneer moisture content or density. Thus, in the real applications, the accuracy of the new laser system can be improved for measuring green veneer thickness with a calibration of moisture content and/or density. For veneer roughness, the within-sheet variation was again larger than the between-sheet variation, and the dry veneer had a larger variation than the green veneer. Further, the tight side variation was generally larger than the loose side variation. The above information is deemed useful for establishing an overall veneer quality criterion for industrial applications. Further work is scheduled to adopt the new laser-based system for real-time measurement of green veneer thickness and roughness.
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CLT fire resistance tests in support of tall wood building demonstration projects

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub3425
Author
Osborne, Lindsay
Date
November 2014
Edition
40099
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Osborne, Lindsay
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
November 2014
Edition
40099
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
13 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Fire
Resistance
Laminate product
Structural composites
Series Number
Transformative Technologies - Fire Performance
E-4949
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
These tests were performed to support the approval and construction of a tall wood building in Quebec City (13-storey). While a calculation methodology is provided in Chapter 8 (Fire) of the CLT Handbook [3], the Association des Chefs en Sécurité Incendie du Québec (ACSIQ), the Régie du bâtiment du Québec (RBQ) and other stakeholders requested these tests be performed so that they could witness the actual fire performance of the specified assemblies. As such, the main objective was to demonstrate at least a 2 h FRR of the CLT assemblies, which is the minimum required rating as prescribed by the National Building Code of Canada [4] for structural elements and fire separation walls of exit stair ways and elevators shafts in tall buildings (greater than 6 storeys). Numerous representatives from Quebec and Ontario were present for either one or both days of testing, including RBQ, the Cities of Montreal, Ottawa, and Quebec City as well as fire services personnel from Montreal, Ottawa and Gatineau. FPInnovations, Nordic, the Canadian Wood Council (CWC), and CHM fire consultants were also in attendance.
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Coloration chimique du bois

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub3332
Author
Landry, Vincent
Date
March 2014
Edition
39997
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Landry, Vincent
Date
March 2014
Edition
39997
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Finishes
Series Number
301008062
E-4919
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
WOOD
CHEMICAL TREATMENT
COLOR
Abstract
L’objectif principal de ce projet était de diversifier la gamme d’apparence des surfaces de bois pouvant être obtenus, et ce, en utilisant différents composés chimiques, peu toxiques.
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Comportement au feu des éléments de charpente en bois lamellé-croisé

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub44078
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Date
July /2014
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Date
July /2014
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
60 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Timber
Laminate product
Building construction
Design
Fire
Language
English
Abstract
Le bois lamellé-croisé (CLT), un système de construction relativement récent pour lequel l’intérêt ne cesse de croître dans le secteur de la construction d’Amérique du Nord, contribue à la définition d’une nouvelle classe de produits massifs en bois. Le CLT est un composant structural à base de bois très prometteur, qui présente un potentiel élevé pour fournir des solutions de construction rentables pour les bâtiments résidentiels, commerciaux et institutionnels ainsi que pour les grandes installations industrielles. L’acceptation de la construction en CLT dans l’environnement réglementaire canadien requiert la conformité aux dispositions relatives à la protection incendie du Code national du bâtiment du Canada (CNBC), entre autres choses. Des essais au feu approfondis ont démontré la capacité du CLT à fournir un degré de résistance au feu pouvant atteindre près de 3 heures lorsque le matériau est mis à l’essai dans des conditions de plein chargement conformément à la norme CAN/ULC S101. De plus amples renseignements sont également fournis sur les propriétés de sécurité incendie connexes, y compris l’indice de propagation des flammes et les dispositifs coupe-feu. Les éléments de CLT sont utilisés dans les systèmes de construction d’une façon similaire aux dalles de béton et aux éléments muraux massifs ainsi qu’aux éléments utilisés dans la construction en gros bois d’œuvre en limitant les vides de construction créés grâce à l’utilisation des éléments massifs en bois, ce qui contribue à réduire le risque d’incendies dans ces vides de construction. En outre, la construction en CLT utilise généralement des panneaux de CLT pour les planchers et les murs porteurs, ce qui permet d’obtenir une compartimentation ayant une résistance inhérente au feu et contribue une fois de plus à réduire le risque de la propagation d’un incendie au-delà de son point d’origine (compartiment d’origine). Le présent document propose une méthodologie visant à déterminer la résistance au feu des éléments de CLT. En tant que modèle déterministe fondé sur les concept de calculs aux états limites, cette méthode permet de calculer la résistance des éléments de CLT soumis à une exposition au feu standard (soit la norme CAN/ULC S101) à l’aide des mécanismes techniques de base du bois pour les calculs de résistance au feu allant jusqu’à 3 heures, qui ne sont limités que par la disponibilité actuelle des données. La méthode utilise un ajustement linéaire échelonné de la vitesse de carbonisation, une épaisseur de la couche carbonisée de 7 mm dont la résistance et la rigidité sont supposées nulles, un coefficient de résistance égal à l’unité, un coefficient de durée d’application de la charge de courte durée, et des résistances spécifiées ajustées à leurs valeurs moyennes pour prédire les temps moyens de résistance au feu des éléments de murs et planchers de CLT qui suivent étroitement les temps réels de résistance au feu des éléments testés. Bien que certaines améliorations à cette méthode soient encore possibles, ces comparaisons suggèrent que la méthodologie prédit de façon prudente la résistance au feu des éléments de CLT.
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Design models for CLT shearwalls and assemblies based on connection properties

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub6035
Author
Popovski, Marjan
Gavric, I.
Date
April 2014
Edition
43014
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Popovski, Marjan
Gavric, I.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
April 2014
Edition
43014
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
115 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Building construction
Design
Laminate product
Panels
Timber
Series Number
Transformative Technologies
W-3093
Language
English
Abstract
The work presented in this report is a continuation of the FPInnovations' research project on determining the performance of the CLT as a structural system under lateral loads. As currently there are no standardized methods for determining the resistance of CLT shearwalls under lateral loads, the design approaches are left at discretion of the designers. The most common approach that is currently used in Europe and North America assumes that the resistance of CLT walls is a simple summary of the shear resistance of all connectors at the bottom of the wall. In this report some new analytical models for predicting of the design (factored) resistance of CLT walls under lateral loads were developed based on connection properties. These new models were than evaluated for their consistency along with the models that are currently used in North America and in Europe. In total five different design models (approaches) were used in the study, the two existing models and three newly developed ones. All models were used to predict the factored lateral load resistances of various CLT wall configurations tested in 2010 at FPInnovations. The analyzed walls had different aspect ratios and segmentation, different vertical load levels, different connection layouts and different fasteners in the connections (ring nails, spiral nails and screws). The design values obtained using the various analytical models were compared with the maximum forces and yielding forces obtained from the experimental tests. Ratios between the ultimate loads obtained from experimental tests and design values obtained by the five analytical design models were used as a measure for the consistency of the models. Newly developed models that account for sliding-uplift interaction in the brackets (models D3-D5) showed higher level of consistency compared to existing ones. The analytical model D4 that accounts for sliding-uplift interaction according to a circular domain, is probably the best candidate for future development of design procedures for determining resistance of CLT walls under lateral loads. In case of coupled CLT walls, contribution of vertical load to the wall lateral resistance was found to be two times lower than in case of single wall element with the same geometry and vertical load. Special attention in the coupled walls design should be given to step joints between the adjacent wall panels. Over-design of the step joint can result in completely different wall behavior in terms of mechanical properties (strength, ductility, deformation capacity, etc.) that those predicted. It should be noted that conclusions made in this report are made based on the comparison to the tested configurations only. Additional experimental data or results from numerical parametric analyses are needed to cover additional variations in wall parameters such as wall geometry and aspect ratio, layout of connectors (hold-downs, brackets), type and number of fasteners used in the connectors, and the amount of vertical load. The findings in this report, however, give a solid base for the development of seismic design procedure for CLT structures. Such procedure should also include capacity based design principles, which take into account statistical distributions of connections resistances.
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53 records – page 1 of 6.