Neither the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) , nor any provincial code, such as the British Columbia Building Code (BCBC) , currently provide “acceptable solutions” to permit the construction of tall wood buildings, that is buildings of 7 stories and above. British Columbia, however, was the first province in Canada to allow mid-rise (5/6 storey) wood construction and other provinces have since followed. As more mid-rise wood buildings are erected, their benefits are becoming apparent to the industry, and therefore they are gaining popularity and becoming more desirable.
Forest product research has now begun to shift towards more substantial buildings, particularly in terms of height. High-rise buildings, typically taller than 6 storeys, are currently required to achieve 2 h fire resistance ratings (FRR) for floors and other structural elements, and need to be of non-combustible construction, as per the “acceptable solutions” of Division B of the NBCC . In order for a tall wood building to be approved, it must follow an “alternative solution” approach, which requires demonstrating that the design provides an equivalent or greater level of safety as compared to an accepted solution using non-combustible construction. One method to achieve this level of safety is by ‘encapsulating’ the assembly to provide additional protection before wood elements become involved in the fire, as intended by the Code objectives and functional statements (i.e., prolong the time before the wood elements potentially start to char and their structural capacity is affected). It is also necessary to demonstrate that the assembly, in particular the interior finishes, conform to any necessary flame spread requirements.
The Technical Guide for the Design and Construction of Tall Wood Buildings in Canada  recommends designing a tall wood building so that it is code-conforming in all respects, except that it employs mass timber construction. The guide presents various encapsulation methods, from full encapsulation of all wood elements to partial protection of select elements. National Research Council Canada (NRC), FPInnovations, and the Canadian Wood Council (CWC) began specifically investigating encapsulation techniques during their Mid-Rise Wood Buildings Consortium research project, and demonstrated that direct applied gypsum board, cement board and gypsum-concrete can delay the effects of fire on a wood substrate .
There is extensive data on the use of gypsum board as a means of encapsulation for wood-frame assemblies and cold-formed steel assemblies. However, tall wood buildings are more likely to employ mass timber elements due to higher load conditions, requirements for longer fire resistance ratings, as well as other factors. There is little knowledge currently available related to using gypsum board directly applied to mass timber, or in other configurations, for fire protection. Testing performed to date has been limited to direct applied Type X gypsum board using standard screw spacing, and showed promising results [5, 6, 7]. This represents an opportunity for other configurations that might provide enhanced protection of wood elements to be investigated.
Being able to provide equivalent fire performance of assemblies between non-combustible and combustible construction will thus improve the competiveness of tall timber buildings by providing additional options for designers.
Pour différentes raisons, les moisissures représentent un défi constant lors de la production de bois résineux et feuillus : santé, environnement, qualité et stratégies de production. Elles sont aussi une préoccupation constante pour les consommateurs et à l’origine de réclamations qui peuvent être très coûteuses pour les producteurs. Un sondage en 2014 dans l’Est du Canada révélait qu’en moyenne les coûts annuels liés à la détérioration biologique étaient de 60 000 $ par usine. Dans le cas d’une usine intégrée, spécialisée en transformation primaire et secondaire de feuillus et résineux, ces coûts avaient atteint près de 475 000 $ pour cette même année. Ces coûts sont liés à un ensemble de facteurs : modification du procédé, perte de productivité, réclamations, pertes de ventes (Gignac, 2015).
Plusieurs facteurs peuvent contribuer au développement de moisissures dont la teneur en humidité du bois, les conditions climatiques et la durabilité naturelle propre à l’essence de bois. Avec les années, FPInnovations a acquis beaucoup de connaissances, accumulé beaucoup d’information, de données et de savoir-faire à travers ses projets de recherche et son soutien technique à l’industrie. En combinaison avec d’autres données disponibles dans la communauté scientifique, nous proposons de résumer l’information pertinente pour l’industrie et de la présenter sous forme de document de vulgarisation. Ce document se veut un outil simple et pratique pour le personnel de l’industrie de la transformation du bois afin de les soutenir dans la prise de décision concernant les stratégies d’entreposage, de séchage à l’air, séchage au séchoir, gestion du bois sec et transport jusqu’à sa destination finale, le consommateur. Ce document de référence regroupe les connaissances générales en lien avec les problématiques de moisissures.
Transformative Technologies - Development of "Green" Wood Adhesives for Wood Composite Products
Chitosan is an amino polysaccharide obtained from the deacetylation of chitin, which is naturally occurring in the shells of a large number of marine crustaceans. Chitosan is soluble in weakly acidic aqueous solutions and possesses adhesive properties. Chitosan has received much attention for medical and industrial applications; however, only limited studies have been conducted on the application of chitosan as a wood adhesive, because its bonding properties on wood are poor. To improve the adhesive quality of chitosan resin, an innovative study on chitosan adhesives has been conducted to use selected fungal species to modify chitosan and improve its bonding properties, to synthesize non-formaldehyde resins with the fungus-modified chitosan, and to enhance urea-formaldehyde (UF) and phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin performance with the fungus-modified chitosan.
The bonding properties of wood composites made with these chitosan-based green wood adhesives were significantly improved, in terms of lap-shear strength. Unmodified chitosan solution was not compatible with ammonium lignosulfonate, liquid PF resin, soybean resin, powder PF resin, or soybean flour, but was compatible with UF resin, polyvinyl acetate (PVA) resin, and phenol. With the addition of chitosan in UF and PVA resins, both the dry and wet shear strengths of plywood panels were improved, compared with those of panels bonded with the control UF and PVA resins, i.e. without chitosan. A number of chitosan and chitosan-reinforced UF resins were prepared as a binder for particleboard panel manufacturing. Six (6) types of particleboard panels with different levels of resin loadings and press conditions were manufactured. The resulting boards were tested to evaluate the bond quality of the chitosan and chitosan-reinforced UF resins. The test results showed that particleboard panels with good visual quality could be produced with all formulations of chitosan-UF adhesives, even with resin systems made with 1% of chitosan resin only. All chitosan resins used alone or added to UF resins yielded panels with better internal bond (IB) strength than those made with the UF control resin. The panels made with 1% chitosan resin plus 66% UF resin in a 1:1 ratio yielded panels with the highest IB strength and the best overall mechanical properties.
This report is divided into six (6) subsections related to different building performance attributes. It presents a review of current design provisions as well as an investigation and identification of gaps in current knowledge with respect to performance criteria for wood-based building systems.
Lastly, suggestions related to performance criteria are given with respect to, among others, structural, sound, vibration, fire, building enclosure, energy efficiency, durability and environmental performance. The development of such criteria is fundamental for reducing the burden on early adopters and AHJs in demonstrating regulatory acceptance of innovative building systems.
La technologie de séchage par haute fréquence en continu développée par FPInnovations et Hydro-Québec a récemment été démontrée à l’échelle semi-industrielle (précommerciale) (Lavoie et al. 2015). Les essais de séchage ont porté principalement sur des applications de produits à valeur ajoutée. La technologie est viable techniquement et peut répondre à des besoins de séchage de précision pour des applications spécifiques. La technologie a également le potentiel de resécher des pièces demeurées humides (volontairement ou involontairement) lors de la production de bois d’œuvre.
FPInnovations launched a multi-year research project to measure mid- to high-rise wood buildings’ natural frequencies and damping ratios to expand the database and validate or adapt the existing equations to estimate the natural frequencies. Two high-rise wood buildings equipped with an anemometer and accelerometers are also being constantly monitored to study how the wind excites the building.
This declaration is a Type III EPD (Environmental Product Declaration) for an Expansion® Casegoods workstation manufactured by Teknion, developed in accordance with ISO 14025. This EPD is based on a Cradle-to-Grave life cycle assessment of the product potential environmental impacts that was conducted in accordance with ISO 14044.
This EPD was not written to support comparative assertions. EPDs based on different PCRs or different calculation models may not be comparable. When attempting to compare EPDs or life cycle impacts of products from different companies, the user should be aware of the uncertainty in the final results due to and not limited to the practitioner’s assumptions, the source of the data used in the study and the software tool used to conduct the study.
This Type III environmental declaration is developed
according to ISO 21930 and 14025 for average cedar
decking products manufactured by the members
of the Western Red Cedar Lumber Association. This
environmental product declaration (EPD) reports
environmental impacts based on established life
cycle impact assessment (LCA) methods. The reported
environmental impacts are estimates, and their level
of accuracy may differ for a particular product line
and reported impact. LCAs do not generally address
site-specific environmental issues related to resource
extraction or toxic effects of products on human
health. Unreported environmental impacts include
(but are not limited to) factors attributable to human
health, land use change and habitat destruction.
Forest certification systems and government
regulations address some of these issues. The
products in this EPD conform to: timber harvesting
and silvicultural regulation of British Columbia (BC)
and forest certification schemes (Canadian Standards
Association, Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), and
Sustainable Forestry initiative (SFI)). EPDs do not
report product environmental performance against
This Type III environmental declaration is developed according to ISO 21930 and 14025 for average cedar lumber
manufactured by the members of the Western Red Cedar Lumber Association. This environmental product declaration
(EPD) reports environmental impacts based on established life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods. The reported
environmental impacts are estimates, and their level of accuracy may differ for a particular product line and reported
impact. LCAs do not generally address site-specific environmental issues of related to resource extraction or toxic
effects of products on human health of product systems. Unreported environmental impacts include (but are not
limited to) factors attributable to human health, land use change and habitat destruction. Forest certification systems
and government regulations address some of these issues. The products in this EPD conform to: regulations of BC
and forest certification schemes (Canadian Standard Association, Sustainable Forestry initiative (SFI), and Forest
Stewardship Council (FSC)). EPDs do not report product environmental performance against any benchmark.
The objective of this study is to evaluate the fire behavior of CLT manufactured with different types of SCL or lumber boards, namely with laminated veneer lumber (LVL), laminated strand lumber (LSL) and Trembling Aspen. The fire test data is also compared to those of CLT manufactured in accordance with ANSI/APA PRG-320 using solid-sawn lumber grades.
More specifically, the study aims at evaluating the charring rates of this new generation of CLT panels as well as the impact of their manufacturing parameters.