We have developed an assay to distinguish sapstaining fungi from biocontrol or other fungi present in wood. This assay is based on monoclonal antibody technology. To develop the assay we chose Ophiostoma piceae as the sapstaining fungus and Gliocladium roseum as the biocontrol fungus. We obtained two monoclonal antibodies (Mab) from G. roseum that could be used to discriminate between staining and biocontrol fungi in competition studies. Mab 6A5 could specifically monitor G. roseum and closely related species while Mab 3F12 detected a variety of biocontrol fungi. We had numerous problems in developing a specific monoclonal antibody for O. piceae. We finally succeeded when the cell wall protein from o. piceae was used as an immunogen. One Mab was specific for cell wall protein but could not recognize the whole fungus. This Mab will be used in studies on the cell wall of O. piceae. We developed another Mab that was specific for O. piceae spores and this may be useful in product formulation activities. Three Mabs had high titre and were specific for O. piceae and O. ulmi but did not cross-react with the biocontrol fungi.
Western hemlock is a species that is highly susceptible to compression wood (CW) formation, an abnormal wood tissue that forms on the under side of leaning tree stems and branches. When lumber cut from logs containing CW is dried, the CW shrinks approximately 10 times normal in the parallel to grain direction, resulting in degrade, at times severe, due to warp in the form of crook and bow. In this project a technique using an ultrasonic materials evaluation system (UME) was tested for its ability to detect CW. Since stress wave velocity, in addition to being dependent on elastic properties and material density, is also a function of growth ring orientation, a slope of grain indicator was evaluated for its ability to measure growth ring orientation, to be used in conjuction with the UME.
A series of dispersion-resin plywood formulations were prepared in the laboratory and their bond performance assessed on incised spruce veneer at 10% m.c. Excellent bond quality results were achieved in these laboratory experiments as indicated by high average % wood failure values of over 90%. To further develop the plywood dispersion resin, a pilot plant trial at a gluing company was conducted and again excellent bond quality results were achieved. A large quantity of the plywood dispersion resin was prepared and a successful mill trial at Cantree Plywood was carried out. This trial demonstrated that more dimensionally stable panels can be prepared from high m.c. veneer. The waferboard dispersion technology developed in this study helped facilitate a mill trial using high moisture content face wafers.
The purpose of this small study was to examine the effect of various test methods upon the bending moduli of elasticity and to determine the bending strength of selected Douglas-fir and spruce laminated veneer lumber specimens.
This report describes an analytical framework developed to assess the relative advantages and disadvantages of different building materials from an environmental perspective. The ultimate objective is to develop and make available a systems model which will allow building designers to assess the environmental impacts of using different kinds of building materials in structural applications.
When completely operational the model will deal with critical impacts on the physical environment, measured in natural units (e.g. gigajoules of embodied energy or kilograms of atmospheric emissions) in a holistic, cradle-to-grave framework. The model will be applicable to light commercial/institutional structures as well as single family and low-rise residential construction.
The purpose here is to report on our work to date, with emphasis on the framework and its application, and to facilitate an exchange of information with others who are taking parallel courses and grappling with similar problems. The report also includes some interim results for wood and steel building materials which demonstrate how the model can be used.
We start with a discussion of the concept of sustainable development because that concept is central to our approach. Subsequent sections of this report then detail the analytical framework and provide examples of the results we're obtaining.
Literature searches were made with respect to the metabolites produced by species under consideration as biological control agents and other species of the same genera. Literature analytical methods were selected and developed to profile the organic solvent extracts of the selected fungi grown in standard media and to screen for specific metabolites by thin layer chromatography - mass spectrometry. From these screenings attempts were made to characterize specific components. Important classes of metabolites that might be expected to be produced by the candidateorganisms were identified from consideration of species believed to be related genetically through morphology and isozyme analysis. These include trichothecene-, cyclopentenylisocyanide-, and gliotoxin-type secondary metabolites and the peptaibol polypeptides. Screening of the candidate species demonstrated that these produce many metabolites, the profiles of which depend on the substrate on which they are grown. Few metabolites are readily identifiable on the basis of mass spectral data or retention indices alone. The Trichoderma strains were shown to produce dehydroacetic acid, a known antifungal agent, in defined media. T. viride EL3 was also shown to produce this metabolite on jack pine sapwood. All the Gliocladium strains of interest were shown to produce the Aib marker indicating the production of peptaibol antibiotics (mycotoxins). This is the first report of this type of metabolite for Gliocladium solani. For Gliocladium viride EL8 the production of 3,6-dibenzylpiperazine-2,5-dione was demonstrated. This indicates that this strain may have the potential to biosynthesize gliotoxin or related metabolites depending on culture conditions. The similarity between some of the metabolites reported to be produced by the genera under consideration as biocontrol agents and those reported to be produced by staining fungi may have implications with respect to the mechanisms of biocontrol.