Thirty full-length sample trees from the B.C. Interior were selected for a study to determine whether external log characteristics can predict internal log quality. The sample trees were also used to create 3-dimensional log images for sawmill simulation purposes. "LogSaw", a simulation tool with internal log defect detection capabilities, was used to explore the extent to which internal and external log quality information can improve log breakdown optimization. A model of a hypothetical sawmill producing lumber for the standard North American dimension market was created to study how lumber value recovery depends on different sawing optimization scenarios.
Three sawing optimization scenarios using different levels of knowledge of internal log defects were compared to currently used sawing optimization technique:
Ideal sawing optimization - all defects within log interior are known.
Sawing optimization using only the knowledge of surface knots.
Sawing optimization using log rotation instructions based on zones of least external knot density.
Simulation results have shown that it is worthwhile to “look into the log”. When compared with the current optimization technique, the sawing optimization, including the full knowledge of log interior, has increased the value recovery by 6.2%. When only the surface knots were projected into the log interior and included in the optimization, the value recovery had increased by 4.3%. Even this 4.3% increase is still a big improvement because this sawing optimization could be implemented using currently available scanning technologies and optimization software enhanced to include log surface knots. The scenario of using log rotation instructions based on predicted zones of least internal knot density did not show value recovery improvement.
Including surface knots in the log breakdown optimization has considerably increased sawmill revenue; the hypothetical sawmill considered in this study, processing 400,000 m3 of log per year, has increased its revenue by $2.2 million.
This study is a preliminary investigation of market demand for Western Canadian aspen in three major market places, the United States, Japan and Western Europe. As a preliminary investigation, there was no attempt to statistically characterize specifier populations. Rather, through consultations with industry, combined with the author's personal experiences, potential specifiers were identified and selectively interviewed. This process included aspen lumber/boards at various grades, edge-glued panels, veneer, plywood, and laminated veneer lumber. Both structural and non-structural applications were considered.
Particleboard (PB) is an important panelboard material used in value-added wood products. Its advantage is its low cost but its disadvantage is that its surface quality degrades when machined. Extensive research has been conducted in PB machining, the key aspects of which are highlighted in this report. Research to improve machineability has focused on the PB material, cutting tool and process parameters. Work on the PB material has mainly focused on reducing tool wear and, more recently, on PB micro-scale behaviour during cutting. This work has led to the reduction of impurities in PB. Work on the cutting tool has focused on tool geometry and tool material improvement. This has led to the development of specialized bevel sawtooth profiles that reduce edge chipping. Tungsten carbide and polycrystalline diamond have been extensively tested and are the most widely recommended tool materials for PB. Work on the cutting parameters has focused on developing operating guidelines as well as on optimizing the milling angle relative to the workpiece. A cone-face milling tool has been designed to reduce edge chipping in the edge banding process. Research and testing has also led to general guidelines for parameters such as feed per tooth. The effect of PB material, tool and cutting parameters is commonly measured by the change in cutting force and surface quality. A standard measurement method for melamine edge chipping and an approximate method of calculating cutting force have been developed. Although many developments in PB machining have been made, several key industrial machining process areas still require research. These include machinery set-up, process optimization and troubleshooting. There is an urgent need to account for the variability and micro properties of PB in the machining process. If successful, this should increase the reliability of research results and increase the industrial applicability of the work.
In wood products, such as parquetry, cabinetry and furniture, some of the performance criterions are related to moisture transfer between their different construction layers. Non homogenous moisture transfer usually results in the product’s deformation . Engineered Wood Parquet Flooring (EWPF) is an important case, which presents non homogenous moisture transfer due to its utilisation in service. Many types of varnish are available on the market. Physical properties of those varnishes such as hardness and abrasion resistance are readily available from the manufacturers. No data on water vapour diffusion is available, so this study is focused on this specific topic. Water vapour coefficient was determined for 6 commercial and industrial varnishes. These values will be used in further modelling work on EWPF.
This study aims at assessing the changes happening within the residential construction industry with respect to walls. There are three major goals of this study. The first is to assess the attributes demanded by builders in single family wall products and systems. The second is to assess product usage and substitution in single-family walls. The third aim is to assess the move to component building in residential walls.
A mail out survey was sent to single-family homebuilders in the US, one randomly drawn list of builders plus a list of the top 100 builders in the country. The survey covered builders concerns, attributes demanded in walls, and products and systems used for walls.
Results indicated that energy codes were the top concern of builders. Interestingly, very few builders were concerned with engineered wood or prefabricated systems availability, but lumber availability was considered a constraint by some firms, especially the large ones.
With respect to walls attributes it is clear that the most important attribute of a wall is straightness and square. However, the next three most important attributes are related to on-site issues; speed of assembly, easy to handle, and low on-site waste. This was especially true for large builders. Cost factored in as moderately important with installed cost finishing ahead of material cost.
With respect to walls systems it was found that over 40% of builders have tried prefabricated wood walls. This was strongest in the North. Large builders also were high users of prefabricated wood walls. Prefabricated exterior walls were more common than prefabricated interior walls. Many builders, especially those in the West, used site-built steel for interior walls. In fact, it would appear that of the prefabricated wood interior walls and site-built steel are substitutes.
Labour availability is an equal, if not greater, factor than product availability in the competition among building products and systems for residential construction today. Further, demographic forecasts show labour availability decreasing into the future. At the same time the consolidation of residential building firms is giving rise to more automation and off-site building. For these reasons, it is safe to assume that prefabricated building will only increase into the future. Therefore, it is imperative that the wood products industry defines how the competitive advantage their products have always had in the residential construction industry can be adapted and maintained in an era of prefabricated construction.
In summer 2001 we ran one field experiment to test the feasibility of Sylvanex (formerly Cartapip 97) as a biocontrol agent to protect logs from being stained by wild-type bluestain fungi. Freshly felled lodgepole pine logs were spray-treated with Sylvanex, dispersed in water, or with water alone (referred to as non-treated). Sampling of the piles of logs took place after 6 weeks and again after 13 weeks. The bluestained area on discs taken from the logs was measured in the laboratory. The data clearly indicate that Sylvanex can control bluestain in freshly felled lodgepole pine logs if applied immediately after felling to the total log exterior. After six weeks of summer storage, when logs are most vulnerable, Sylvanex-treated logs remained almost spotless compared to heavily stained non-treated logs. After 13 weeks of storage there was moderate stain development in Sylvanex-treated logs but the amount was significantly less than in non-treated logs. The product, and the concept of using albino isolates to control stain, therefore has potential for industrial use. Before Sylvanex is used industrially on a large scale it is recommended that additional studies should investigate whether adjuvants, such as spreaders and stickers, or using higher concentrations of biocontrol agent improve its performance and consistency. In addition the efficacy of the product should be tested on other wood species.
Development of bluestain in logs prevents the Canadian forest industry from producing maximum-value products from a considerable portion of the resource every year. The major purpose of this project was to determine the practical and economic feasibility of using an albino stain of a common bluestain fungus Ophiostoma piliferum (Cartapip 97, recently renamed Sylvanex) or equivalent albino fungi to control sapstain in lodgepole pine logs. We also tested the Forintek's eastern laboratory integrated control technology (fungus Gliocladium roseum with alkali). Different activities were planned but as results developed some had to be modified or dropped and others added to the planned work. The various aspects of this work are described in the set of reports that are included in the appendices.
Stains - Fungal - Control - Tests
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Stains - Fungal
A concept for an outdoor test facility in Vancouver for building enclosure materials and components has been under study by Forintek and others since Fall 2000. Phase One - a preliminary feasibility study - was previously completed. This report describes accomplishments to date of Phase Two, a transition phase involving identification of a project custodian, further concept development, development of a business plan, preparation for fundraising and identification of potential sites.
This report summarises those issues embodied in building codes and product standards with implications for marketing solid wood siding in Canada and selected other countries. The intention is that technical knowledge gaps can be identified and possibly filled before marketing white spruce siding. Literature searches were done and personal contacts with experts in these countries were made in order to place siding in the context of international codes and standards. However database searches identified only a few documents related to the performance requirements of solid wood cladding products. These issues are discussed under three main headings: material and construction, fire resistance and durability, and weather protection. Apart from fire there is very little reference to solid wood siding in either North American or international building codes. It appears that the long use of the product has effectively been grandfathered in traditional siding application and use. This is, however, not the case for non-solid wood siding where a number of material-specific standards exist which ensure that the products have comparable performance to traditional products or to address performance deficiencies that are specific to that material. Wood siding use in new markets will not be grandfathered in, and there will probably be a need to develop standards and data similar to those for non-wood products.