Skip header and navigation

94 records – page 1 of 10.

Advanced technologies to improve penetration of wood treatments : biological incising with Dichomitus squalens in spruce and pine lumber

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42460
Author
Dale, Angela
Morris, Paul I.
Date
March 2011
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Dale, Angela
Morris, Paul I.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2011
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
18 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Preservation
Pinus
Picea
Series Number
Value to Wood No. FPI#117W
W-2823
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Canadian wood species such as spruce and pine are difficult to treat with wood preservatives or other wood enhancing formulations due to a thin sapwood band and refractory heartwood. One method of improving penetration is by biological incising. Biological incising with Dichomitus squalens was originally developed in Austria in the 1990s to increase the permeability of European spruce prior to treatment with wood preservatives. Recently the patents on this technology lapsed. It was considered unlikely that industrial use of a European white-rot fungus would be acceptable in Canada. FPInnovations therefore conducted a screening test of a range of Canadian isolates of various white-rot fungi to identify an isolate that would be suitable for biological incising of Canadian spruce and pine. Under pure culture conditions, one isolate of Dichomitus squalens isolated from white spruce was found to greatly increase the permeability of the wood, particularly in spruce. The objective of the current study was to determine if these results could be achieved on commercial sized wood under non-sterile conditions more similar to an industrial setting. Lumber samples, 3.8 cm by 8.9 cm by 400 cm in length were incubated in plastic totes with fungal inoculum. Two isolates of fungi were tested as well as two different decontamination methods (steam and Benomyl solution) and two time frames (4 and 6 weeks). Through treatment of spruce samples (19 mm penetration) with 1.7% ACQ was achieved after six weeks incubation with D. squalens 78A (a spruce isolate). In matched samples treated with MCA, a minimum of 10 mm penetration was achieved in 90% of the samples. Strength loss in some individual samples was higher than adjustment factors for conventional incising (over 25%) suggesting that incubation time may need to be shortened. Preservative penetration was more variable in pine but permeability was increased; 60% of the samples reached a minimum penetration of 5 mm. Incubation time and conditions may need to be adjusted to achieve more consistent results. The results of this study show that biological incising can greatly improve the permeability of spruce and pine and can be achieved on 38 by 89 dimension lumber under conditions that could be utilized in an industrial setting. Future work should focus on determining incubation conditions that allow penetration requirements in Canadian standards to be met with acceptable strength loss.
Picea - Preservation
Pinus - Preservation
Preservation - Incising
Documents
Less detail

Advanced technologies to improve wood penetration : alternative incising technologies

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42457
Author
Morris, Paul I.
Date
March 2011
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Morris, Paul I.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2011
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
10 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Preservatives penetration
Preservatives
Preservation
Penetration
Series Number
Value to Wood No. FPI 117W
W-2820
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The biggest obstacle to the enhancement of wood properties through any form of chemical treatment is the impermeability of the heartwood of virtually all Canadian Wood species and their relatively narrow sapwood. Incisors using toothed rollers are commonplace in Canadian treating plants but they are not used for many products due to the detrimental effect on surface appearance. Alternative incising technologies anticipated to have less effects on surface appearance have been investigated over the past 30 years. This report revisits four of these technologies, lasers, needles, water jets and biological incising and evaluates their potential for further investigation based on recent advances in technology. Even using the latest technology, laser incising would be too slow and too expensive for a Canadian treating plant. Needle incising would be too slow but the equipment cost should not be an issue. Water jet treatment would also be too slow and the equipment cost is unknown. Biological incising is a very different approach involving batch processing. The major factor would be the cost of inventory which depends on the duration of incubation yet to be determined.
Preservatives - Penetration
Preservation - Incising
Documents
Less detail

Amélioration de la durabilité des fenêtres en bois par l'utilisation de résines naturelles

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5738
Author
Blanchard, Vincent
Gignac, Manon
Dranebois, C.
Date
March 2011
Edition
39369
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Blanchard, Vincent
Gignac, Manon
Dranebois, C.
Date
March 2011
Edition
39369
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
38 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Windows
Utilization
Resin
Series Number
Valeur au bois no FPI-111E
201003063-Tâche 5
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Windows - Degradation
Resin - Utilization
Documents
Less detail

Apparition des lignes de colle avec les produits de finition à base d'eau

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub2758
Author
Landry, Vincent
Drouin, M.
Date
March 2011
Edition
39373
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Landry, Vincent
Drouin, M.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2011
Edition
39373
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
18 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Glue
Series Number
Valeur au bois no FPI-207
E-4713
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Bien que les produits de finition à base d’eau constituent une avenue prometteuse pour les manufacturiers de meubles et d’armoires de cuisine, ces produits semblent provoquer l’apparition non désirable des joints de colle reliant les composants de bois. Ce projet de recherche avait pour objectif d’analyser ce phénomène. L’apparence des lignes de colle de panneaux lamellés-collés a été analysée suite à l’application de produits de finition à base d’eau dans le but d’identifier les combinaisons de colle/produit de finition causant l’apparition de cette problématique. Six colles fréquemment utilisées en industrie et quatre systèmes de finition, dont trois à base d’eau et un à base de solvant, ont été testés sur des panneaux de bois massif lamellés-collés et sur des panneaux particules. L’apparence des lignes de colle a été analysée visuellement et aussi à l’aide d’un profilomètre afin de mesurer de façon précise la topographie de surface des échantillons vis-à-vis les joints de colle. Ces manipulations n’ont toutefois pas permis de recréer la problématique des joints de colle trop apparents rencontrée par certains industriels. Suite à la fabrication des panneaux et à l’application des produits de finition, les lignes de colle n’étaient pas plus visibles qu'ordinairement en industrie avec l’utilisation des produits de finition à base de solvant. Les échantillons ont été conditionnés à un cycle d’humidité dans le but de constater l’effet de l’humidité sur la finition des panneaux. Ce traitement a engendré une augmentation de l’apparence des lignes de colle sur plusieurs échantillons, mais ce, autant sur les échantillons traités avec les systèmes à base d’eau que sur ceux traités avec le système à base de solvant.
Glue line
Coatings
Documents
Less detail

Assemblage des éléments en CLT

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42937
Author
Mohammad, M.
Munoz, W.
Date
January 2011
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Mohammad, M.
Munoz, W.
Date
January 2011
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
78 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Timber
Laminate product
Building construction
Design
Language
French
Abstract
Le faible poids des produits en bois lamellé-croisé (CLT) combiné à leur degré élevé de préfabrication, ajoutés à la nécessité de fournir des produits de substitution à base de bois à l’acier et au béton, ont sensiblement contribué au développement des produits et des systèmes de CLT, tout particulièrement en ce qui a trait aux bâtiments de moyenne hauteur (5 à 9 étages). Tandis que ce produit est bien établi en Europe, la mise en place des produits et des systèmes de CLT en est à ses débuts au Canada et aux États-Unis. L’efficacité structurale du système de plancher agissant comme diaphragme et celle des murs en matière de résistance aux charges latérales dépend de l’efficacité des systèmes de fixation et des détails de connexion employés pour relier différents panneaux et assemblages. De longues vis autotaraudeuses sont généralement recommandées par les fabricants de CLT et sont utilisées pour relier les panneaux entre eux dans la construction de planchers ainsi que pour les assemblages plancher/mur. Cependant, il existe d’autres éléments et systèmes de fixation traditionnels et innovateurs qui peuvent être employés dans les assemblages de CLT. Ce chapitre met l’accent sur quelques systèmes de connexion qui reflètent les pratiques actuelles, certains étant conventionnels, d’autres étant brevetés. En raison de l’introduction récente du CLT sur le marché de la construction, on s’attend à ce que de nouveaux types de connexion soient développés au fil du temps. Une variété de questions liées à la conception des connexions spécifiques aux assemblages de CLT y sont présentées. L’approche de conception européenne est présentée et l’applicabilité des dispositions de conception de la norme CSA O86-09 pour les fixations traditionnelles du CLT telles que les boulons, les goujons, les clous et les vis à bois sont passées en revue et des lignes directrices sont également fournies. L’information fournie dans ce chapitre est dédiée aux concepteurs canadiens, un groupe ayant exprimé un vif intérêt pour la spécification des produits de CLT dans les applications non résidentielles et multi-étagées. Cependant, d’autres études seront nécessaires pour aider les concepteurs dans le développement de normes de conception et de procédures conformes aux normes canadiennes de conception des matériaux et au code national du bâtiment du Canada (CNBC). L’information technique sera également employée pour faciliter l’acceptation des produits de CLT en Amérique du Nord
Documents
Less detail

Assessing new product opportunities for the veneer-based product industry

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub2762
Author
Wang, Brad J.
Dai, Chunping
Poon, James
Xu, H.
Date
June 2011
Edition
39378
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Brad J.
Dai, Chunping
Poon, James
Xu, H.
Date
June 2011
Edition
39378
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
27 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Veneer
Utilization
Plywood
Markets
Series Number
W-2849
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Potential market gain for Canadian softwood plywood in residential construction could arise from the emerging Chinese market to build massive numbers of affordable apartments and the upcoming rebuilding effort in Japan following the earthquake and tsunami disaster. Compared to the main Chinese species (poplar), common BC species, such as Douglas-fir, spruce and hem-fir, have competitive advantages in the aspects of log diameter, wood properties and veneer quality and processing productivity. For non-residential construction, Canadian plywood concrete forms also offer competitive advantages over Chinese overlaid poplar counterparts due to their higher stiffness and strength. However, the production cost has to be kept to below US$ 500/m3 for a profit margin. Further, three-ply and four-ply Canadian softwood plywood panels are ideally suited for the base materials of multi-layer composite floor, which currently is gaining momentum in China and other countries. A sizeable increase in industrial and remodelling market is anticipated for the Canadian plywood industry. This will be mainly driven by a number of specialty plywood products, such as container floor and pallet, light truck, utility vehicle, trailer and camper manufacturing. However, these products are not commonly manufactured by larger commodity manufacturers in Canada. China is currently the largest global supplier of container floors, most of which are made from imported plywood, bamboo and poplar veneer. To meet their stringent requirements and gain a market share, Canadian plywood industry should take appropriate actions in adjusting veneer thickness, veneer grade, veneer treatment, and panel lay-up. Japan has developed customized products such as oversized plywood for wall applications, and termite/mould resistant plywood for above ground and ground-contact applications. China has developed numerous new value-added veneer products for niche markets. Such products include marine plywood, sound reducing plywood, non-slip plywood, metal faced plywood, curved plywood and medium density fiberboard (MDF) or particleboard (PB)-faced plywood. In order to stay competitive in the global market, Canadian plywood industry needs to:
remove the trade constraints between softwood plywood and hardwood plywood,
remove in-plant manufacturing barriers to deal with both softwood and hardwood processing,
diversify products for both appearance and structural based applications, and
develop new value-added products for niche markets. This study suggests the following opportunities for Canadian plywood producers to
incorporate naturally decay-resistant species such as cedar as surface veneer and/or perform veneer or glueline treatment to make marine and exterior plywood for improved durability,
characterize veneer properties from the changing resource for better utilization,
peel some thinner and higher quality veneer for making specialty plywood,
conduct stress grading in combination with visual grading to maximize value recovery from the available resource,
increase the flexibility of panel lay-up for domestic/overseas markets and various applications,
develop mixed species plywood by mixing available hardwood species such as birch, maple, alder, aspen veneer (as overlay materials) with softwood plywood to achieve better appearance and higher performance,
develop new structural composite lumber (SCL) products such as veneer strand lumber (VSL) from low quality logs, particularly beetle-killed, and random veneer or waste veneer,
develop new drying, pressing and adhesive technologies for processing high moisture veneer, particularly hem-fir and spruce, to improve productivity and bond quality and reduce panel delamination,
develop light weight and strong hybrid plywood panels for furniture applications, by adding MDF or PB on the face of plywood,
develop hybrid plywood for floor applications to reduce thickness swell and increase dimensional stability and stiffness,
develop hybrid cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels from lumber, plywood and laminated veneer lumber (LVL) for low- and mid-rise residential and non-residential applications, and
develop a series of new product standards for specialty plywood. A market research study for each product opportunity is recommended to develop a solid business case for each.
Composite products - Markets
Plywood - Markets
Plywood - Utilization
Veneers - Markets
Veneers - Utilization
Documents
Less detail

Avenues pour réduire l'exsudation de résine pour les produits du bois en usage extérieur

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub2752
Author
Blanchard, Vincent
Date
March 2011
Edition
39366
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Blanchard, Vincent
Date
March 2011
Edition
39366
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
35 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood
Application
Series Number
Valeur au bois no FPI-104E
201003063-Tâche 2
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
L’exsudation de résine est un problème courant qui apparaît sous l’effet de la chaleur ou du soleil, généralement à partir d’une température critique se situant entre 70-80°C, laquelle est facilement atteinte pour des expositions extérieures plein soleil en orientation sud l’été. Ce phénomène est particulièrement important au niveau des nœuds du bois. Ils posent des problèmes lors de l’application des revêtements et accélèrent le vieillissement des bois résineux en utilisation extérieure en dégradant prématurément les couches protectrices en formant des fissures, des cloques, des craquelages et des pertes d’adhérence de la finition. Une réduction de l’exsudation de la résine permettrait d’améliorer sensiblement la durabilité des produits résineux pour des applications extérieures comme le lambris. En outre, cela rendrait le bois plus attractif par rapport aux alternatives comme le PVC ou l’aluminium. L’objectif de cette étude était de développer plusieurs stratégies pour réduire l’exsudation de résine de l’épinette blanche qui est souvent utilisée pour des applications de lambris extérieur au Québec. Plus précisément, le projet a eu pour objectifs : - la caractérisation physico-chimique de la résine; - la cartographie des nœuds susceptibles d’exsuder; - la détermination des stratégies de réduction de résine et leur sélection selon l’efficacité; - l’évaluation à long terme des meilleures stratégies. De manière générale, cette étude a permis de diviser les nœuds selon quatre catégories distinctes : nœuds encastrés lisses (45 %), nœuds encastrés rugueux (10 %), nœuds sains lisses (30 %) et nœuds sains rugueux (15 %). Une cartographie s’appuyant sur plusieurs édifices a permis de démontrer que les nœuds encastrés et sains lisses exsudaient beaucoup comparés aux deux autres catégories. La résine de l’épinette blanche est principalement constituée de terpènes avec des fonctions aromatiques, alcènes, aldéhydes et alcools. Il est aussi probable que des fonctions acides, cétones et esters soient présentes. La température de transition vitreuse de cette résine est d’environ 90°C. Parmi les stratégies testées, l’obstruction des pores à l’aide d’une résine radio-polymérisable et d’une résine époxy semblerait fournir une bonne durabilité à long terme (8 ans et plus), viendrait ensuite l’utilisation d’une couche de fond (primer) développée pour l’exsudation de résine et l’ionisation du bois (moins de 5 ans) et finalement l’utilisation de revêtements classiques dont les performances varient selon le type de résine, l’épaisseur et le type d’application.
Wood Products
Exterior applications
Exudation
Documents
Less detail

Best practices guide to minimize mold growth on wood products from manufacture to end use

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42463
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Gignac, Manon
Yang, D.-Q.
Date
March 2011
Material Type
guide
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Gignac, Manon
Yang, D.-Q.
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2011
Material Type
guide
Research report
Physical Description
32 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Prevention
Growth
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 38
W-2826
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This guide is intended to discuss mold-related issues and to assist the industry in the delivery of clean, mold-free products to the marketplace. Mold continues to be undesirable on wood products and can cause rejection of shipments by the customers and economic losses to the industry. This report provides an historic perspective on mold, defines mold and discusses why it became a major issue in the marketplace and how this relates to wood products. The main factors required for mold growth and expansion are discussed, as are methods of limiting mold growth. The best method of mold control is moisture control, which includes initial drying and keeping wood products dry. Specifically we give best practice guidelines for controlling mold on logs, lumber, plywood/veneers, other composite panel products, wood chips/residues, and for wood products in service (buildings). Lumber is one of the key products of the wood industry and several specific guidelines in regard to mold control for lumber are available and covered in depth. This includes air-drying, kiln-drying, phytosanitary heat treatment, and chemical prophylactic treatment of green lumber. Some circumstances where control of moisture is not feasible will require either chemical treatments or water barriers to prevent mold growth. There is also a special section on lumber packaging and wrapping, and water repellents. Finally, the report reviews existing guidelines for mold cleaning and remediation.
Mould growth
Moulds - Prevention
Documents
Less detail

Biology and management of bluestain : updates to the insect-fungi database and literature review on molecular and phylogenetic work

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub6005
Author
Dale, Angela
Coelho, A.
Uzunovic, Adnan
Date
March 2011
Edition
42461
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Dale, Angela
Coelho, A.
Uzunovic, Adnan
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2011
Edition
42461
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
26 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Stain fungal
Stain
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 38
W-2824
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Ophiostomatoid fungi can pose serious risks to forest health, forest product value, and forest product exports. These fungi belong to at least two different orders, six teleomorph genera and ten anamorph genera, but share similar characteristics such as transmission by insect vectors and frequent association with tree hosts. Some produce bluestain in the wood causing losses in appearance grade markets, while others are more serious pathogens that can cause disease or kill their host trees and raise phytosanitary concerns in the global market place. In an effort to keep up with the rapidly advancing taxonomic changes and knowledge gains within these fungal groups, especially in regards to their associations with insect vectors, an INSECT-FUNGI database was created in 2005 to maintain literature on these fungi as well as to facilitate rapid data mining within the collected literature in order to explore feasible ways of detecting, monitoring and controlling these fungi. In addition, in 2008 an extensive literature review looked at the DNA-based tools used to identify and taxonomically place species within these groups. That work also reviewed the latest changes in the taxonomy of Ophiostomatoid fungi. In 2009, updates were made to the database as well as to the 2008 literature review. In addition, DNA-based identification decision making trees were created to give users tools to help identify mould and staining agents. The objectives of this report were to summarize the activities and updates in regards to the Insect-Fungi database, and to review the latest literature and news in regards to taxonomy, DNA-based identification, and other relevant information pertaining to Ophiostomatoid fungi. In addition we also included an update of a few non-ophiostomatoid fungi that cause bluestain, for example Diplodia and Lasiodiplodia. Numerous new associations between insects, hosts and ophiostomatoid fungi have been discovered in the last three years. Thirty one new species of Ophiostoma were described in 2010 and several more are in the process of being described. There are currently four genera within Ophiostomatales; however, seven more are expected to be officially accepted in the near future. In addition to the ITS region of the ribosomal DNA, more research groups are routinely utilizing the ß-tubulin gene for describing new species and species complexes. A group at UBC completed sequencing the genome of Grosmannia clavigera and described mechanisms by which this fungus can detoxify host defence compounds, as well as use host terpenoids as a carbon source giving important insights into the relationships between fungus, beetle and tree.
Stains - Fungal
Documents
Less detail

Block shear testing of CLT panels : an exploratory study

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub2759
Author
Casilla, Romulo C.
Pirvu, Ciprian
Wang, Brad J.
Lum, Conroy
Date
April 2011
Edition
39375
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Casilla, Romulo C.
Pirvu, Ciprian
Wang, Brad J.
Lum, Conroy
Date
April 2011
Edition
39375
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
35 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Timber
Laminate product
Design
Building construction
Series Number
Transformative Technologies #TT1.07
W-2846
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
A study was conducted with the primary objective of examining the efficacy of a standard block shear test method to assess the bond quality of cross-laminated timber (CLT) products. The secondary objective was to examine the effect of pressure and adhesive type on the block shear properties of CLT panels. The wood material used for the CLT samples was Select grade nominal 25 x 152-mm (1 x 6-inch) Hem-Fir. Three adhesive types were evaluated under two test conditions: dry and vacuum-pressure-dry (VPD), the latter as described in CSA standard O112.10. Shear strength and wood failure were evaluated for each test condition. Among the four properties evaluated (dry and VPD shear strength, and dry and VPD wood failure), only the VPD wood failure showed consistency in assessing the bond quality of the CLT panels in terms of the factors (pressure and adhesive type) evaluated. Adhesive type had a strong effect on VPD wood failure. The different performance levels of the three adhesives were useful in providing insights into how the VPD block shear wood failure test responds to significant changes in CLT manufacturing parameters. The pressure used in fabricating the CLT panels showed a strong effect on VPD wood failure as demonstrated for one of the adhesives. VPD wood failure decreased with decreasing pressure. Although dry shear wood failure was able to detect the effect of pressure, it failed to detect the effect of adhesive type on the bond quality of the CLT panels. These results provide support as to the effectiveness of the VPD block shear wood failure test in assessing the bond quality of CLT panels. The VPD conditioning treatment was able to identify poor bondline manufacturing conditions by observed changes in the mode of failure, which is also considered an indication of wood-adhesive bond durability. These results corroborate those obtained from the delamination test conducted in a previous study (Casilla et al. 2011). Along with the delamination test proposed in an earlier report, the VPD block shear wood failure can be used to assess the CLT bond quality. Although promising, more testing is needed to assess whether the VPD block shear wood failure can be used in lieu of the delamination test. The other properties studied (shear strength and dry wood failure), however, were not found to be useful in consistently assessing bond line manufacturing quality.
Building construction - Design
Cross-laminated timber
Documents
Less detail

94 records – page 1 of 10.