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Alternatives to slack wax

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub2802
Author
Wan, Hui
Date
March 2012
Edition
39428
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wan, Hui
Date
March 2012
Edition
39428
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
27 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Waxes
Strands
OSB
Oriented strandboard
Orientation
Series Number
General Revenue Report Project No. 201004857
E-4780
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
In this project, a comprehensive experiment studied the impact of wax type, wax content, wax heating temperature and wax molecular weight on OSB panel performance. It shows that to allow tall oil, hydrogenated soybean wax, linseed oil, and low density polyethylene (LDPE) to be used for OSB, further work is needed. We need to add wax in the OSB process; otherwise panel dimensional stability will be ruined. There is an optimal wax content of around 1% in OSB production. The wax content in OSB panel did not need to be higher than 1%. With the waxes tested, wax heating temperature should be higher than 90°C. At a fixed wax heating temperature, optimal wax molecular weight is 520 Daltons for OSB application. Applying high molecular weight wax (600 Daltons) on panel surface may help to improve panel bending strength. The experiment shows that partial substitution of slack wax with LDPE at the OSB panel surface layer may be feasible. Experimental results also show that using contact angle and surface tension tests may help us to screen waxes for OSB panel application. Based on the experimental data, one should handle different waxes in different ways. By engineering wax application parameters one can develop a cost effective way to produce composite panels to meet dimensional stability requirement. Further testing on the feasibility of using contact angle and surface tension to differentiate wax should be conducted. Emulsifying low density polyethylene should be further investigated. Further research is also needed to verify how wax operational parameters affect panel strength.
WAX
Oriented Strand Board (OSB)
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Amélioration de la performance des outils de coupe via la nanodéposition par plasma

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub2790
Author
Laganière, B.
Date
March 2012
Edition
39414
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Laganière, B.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2012
Edition
39414
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
15 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Tools
Plasma
Series Number
Valeur au bois no FPI-11-10
Projet no 201005269
E-4760
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
CUTTING TOOLS
PLASMA
Nanotechnology
Abstract
Ce rapport présente les résultats obtenus du projet « Amélioration de la performance des outils de coupe par traitement par nanodéposition plasma » qui a débuté le 1er avril 2011 et s’est terminé le 31 mars 2012. L’objectif du projet était de traiter des outils afin d’en améliorer la performance en usine. Cette étude a permis de faire des avancées dans la connaissance et dans l’expérimentation du traitement des outils de coupe par dépôts de couches minces par pulvérisation cathodique. Des collaborations entreprises avec l’Université de Montréal et Arts et Métiers ParisTech de Cluny en France ont permis d’avancer nos connaissances; de même, des traitements effectués chez ces partenaires ont pu être expérimentés en conditions industrielles dans des usines au Québec. Cette étude a permis aussi de corroborer les résultats obtenus dans des tests effectués l’année dernière et qui avaient permis d’atteindre une amélioration de la durée de vie d’environ 35 % pour des outils de canter dans une étude préliminaire. Par la suite, des gains de 43 % ont été obtenus pour une étude plus étendue pour les couteaux de canter. Un autre test effectué avec des scies circulaires dans du bois feuillu avait permis d’obtenir une longévité de 50 %. Ces tests ont permis de corroborer les résultats du test préliminaire et démontrent l’efficacité des traitements de surface des outils par pulvérisation cathodique pour l’industrie de la transformation primaire. Une expertise a pu être montée dans l’opération du réacteur et les paramètres ont été obtenus afin de faire du dépôt avec du CrN. Un service direct de traitement d’outils de coupe est maintenant disponible chez FPInnovations pour effectuer des dépôts de CrN et qui peuvent aider l’entreprise canadienne à mieux d’être plus compétitive.
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Améliorer la stabilité dimensionnelle et la résistance aux moisissures par des stratégies d'imprégnation de surface

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub2797
Author
Vlad, Mirela
Drouin, M.
Landry, Vincent
Date
March 2012
Edition
39421
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Vlad, Mirela
Drouin, M.
Landry, Vincent
Date
March 2012
Edition
39421
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
55 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood
Outdoors
Impregnation
Application
Series Number
Programme des technologies transformatrices
Projet TT.1.2.01
Project no.201005107
E-4769
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Dans ce projet, nous avons ciblé l’amélioration de la durabilité du bois à usage extérieur (lambris et fenêtres) par l’imprégnation avec des produits qui pénètrent dans la paroi cellulaire du bois puis polymérisent afin de provoquer une densification de la surface du bois. Bien que l’imprégnation du bois soit répandue pour des applications spécialisées, ce procédé reste encore peu répandu dans l’industrie du bois. Le coût important des produits d’imprégnation mais surtout les coûts de procédé élevés freinent son utilisation industrielle. Afin de répondre à cette problématique, un procédé rapide d’imprégnation de l’épinette et du pin sous vide et dans une cabine de pulvérisation (spray booth) ont été pris en considération. Plusieurs traitements à base de suspensions acryliques et résines acrylates ont été formulés et testés sur le pin blanc et l’épinette blanche. Les avantages des nanoparticules absorbants des rayons UV et ayant des propriétés antibactériennes ont été pris en considération contre la photodégradation du bois et le développement des moisissures. Deux systèmes à base de résines acrylates ont été utilisés afin d’améliorer la stabilité dimensionnelle du bois par la protection contre la pénétration d’eau. Un effet synergique potentiel du système résine-nanoparticules a été recherché. La densification de la surface et le taux d’imprégnation du pin ont été plus élevés que dans le cas de l’épinette. Toutefois, les produits d’imprégnation ont pénétré plus profondément dans le bois d’épinette. Les résultats obtenus ont démontré que l’efficacité de l’imprégnation avec des produits chimiques dépend du type de produit ainsi que de l’espèce du bois. Les différences de croissance fongique dans les essais de résistance aux moisissures ont été plus facilement visibles pour les séries du pin traitées en comparaison avec les séries d’épinette. Des traitements à base d’acrylate (sans et avec des nanoparticules de ZnO et TiO2) ont montré une certaine efficacité. Une stabilité dimensionnelle élevée et l’absorption d’eau améliorée du bois traité a été obtenue pour des traitements à base du système acrylate. Ces résultats ont joué un rôle important dans l’amélioration de la résistance aux UV des échantillons traités avec du revêtement. Un système à base d’acrylate a montré les plus faibles DL* après le vieillissement accéléré. Une stabilisation du changement de la couleur a été obtenue pour le traitement 0,5 % nano-CuO dans une suspension acrylique et le traitement contenant 1 % de nanoparticules de ZnO dans le système acrylate.
IMPREGNATION
DURABILITY
Outdoor applications
WOOD
Abstract
Dans ce projet, nous avons ciblé l’amélioration de la durabilité du bois à usage extérieur (lambris et fenêtres) par l’imprégnation avec des produits qui pénètrent dans la paroi cellulaire du bois puis polymérisent afin de provoquer une densification de la surface du bois. Bien que l’imprégnation du bois soit répandue pour des applications spécialisées, ce procédé reste encore peu répandu dans l’industrie du bois. Le coût important des produits d’imprégnation mais surtout les coûts de procédé élevés freinent son utilisation industrielle. Afin de répondre à cette problématique, un procédé rapide d’imprégnation de l’épinette et du pin sous vide et dans une cabine de pulvérisation (spray booth) ont été pris en considération. Plusieurs traitements à base de suspensions acryliques et résines acrylates ont été formulés et testés sur le pin blanc et l’épinette blanche. Les avantages des nanoparticules absorbants des rayons UV et ayant des propriétés antibactériennes ont été pris en considération contre la photodégradation du bois et le développement des moisissures. Deux systèmes à base de résines acrylates ont été utilisés afin d’améliorer la stabilité dimensionnelle du bois par la protection contre la pénétration d’eau. Un effet synergique potentiel du système résine-nanoparticules a été recherché. La densification de la surface et le taux d’imprégnation du pin ont été plus élevés que dans le cas de l’épinette. Toutefois, les produits d’imprégnation ont pénétré plus profondément dans le bois d’épinette. Les résultats obtenus ont démontré que l’efficacité de l’imprégnation avec des produits chimiques dépend du type de produit ainsi que de l’espèce du bois. Les différences de croissance fongique dans les essais de résistance aux moisissures ont été plus facilement visibles pour les séries du pin traitées en comparaison avec les séries d’épinette. Des traitements à base d’acrylate (sans et avec des nanoparticules de ZnO et TiO2) ont montré une certaine efficacité. Une stabilité dimensionnelle élevée et l’absorption d’eau améliorée du bois traité a été obtenue pour des traitements à base du système acrylate. Ces résultats ont joué un rôle important dans l’amélioration de la résistance aux UV des échantillons traités avec du revêtement. Un système à base d’acrylate a montré les plus faibles DL* après le vieillissement accéléré. Une stabilisation du changement de la couleur a été obtenue pour le traitement 0,5 % nano-CuO dans une suspension acrylique et le traitement contenant 1 % de nanoparticules de ZnO dans le système acrylate.
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Builders' needs in the 20 U.S. homebuilding markets of the Case Shiller Index

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub2776
Author
Robichaud, F.
Date
March 2012
Edition
39394
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Robichaud, F.
Date
March 2012
Edition
39394
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Market Analysis
Subject
United States (USA)
Materials
Building construction
Series Number
Future Focus No. TT1.1.09
E-4734
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
This project relied upon a survey of 562 homebuilders in the 20 U.S. metro areas of the Case Shiller Index;
Objectives were to uncover homebuilders’ needs in insulation materials, wall sheathing, studs, floor joists, roof systems, and prefabricated walls. Other objectives were to monitor the substitution of wood products at the metro level;
In insulation products, most important builders’ needs are improving R value and improving water tightness of the envelope;
In wall sheathing, the most important need is to improve the water tightness of the envelope;
For studs, the most important needs are to increase straightness and to decrease both lumber sorting and rejection on site;
For floor joists, the most important needs are to improve the product to reduce floor squeaks and to improve the product to ease the installation of ducts, plumbing and wires;
In roof systems, the most important need is to improve products to make attic space available;
In prefabricated walls, the most important needs are to reduce the time delay between order and delivery, and to ease the process of making plans changes when using prefab walls;
24% of respondents feel that the use of concrete as a primary structural floor material will increase greatly or somewhat. 56% think that the product to be used is poured concrete over steel deck, 44% think it will be precast/prestress panels;
20% of respondents feel that the use of concrete as a primary structural wall material will increase greatly or somewhat. Poured (formwork) is the most often foreseen technology (50%) followed by blocks (masonry) at 27% and precast or prestressed panels at 23%;
Statistically, the expected future use of concrete has not changed overall between 2008 and 2011;
In wall systems, untreated wood products have gained much market share between 2008 (69%) and 2011 (88%). This was especially done at the expense of pressure treated wood products and concrete blocks;
In floor systems, untreated wood products have gained significant market share between 2008 (65%) and 2011 (80%). This gain was done at the expense of pressure treated products especially;
The use of OSB as a floor sheathing material has almost remained unchanged between 2008 (46% market share) and 2011 (47%). The market share for plywood in floor sheathing has shrunk from 29 to 26% over that period, while treated products (OSB or Plywood) have increased their share from 17% to 21%;
In wall sheathing, OSB has lost a few points in market share, from 57% to 55% between 2008 and 2011. Plywood, too, had a lost, from 18% to 16%. Products who have experienced small percentages of increase, albeit coming from a lower base in the market, are preservative/mold treated OSB, Radiant Barrier OSB, and Foam sheathing; and,
In decking materials, the rapid rise of market share for composite decking appeared to come to a halt. Between 2008 and 2011, the market share for this product category has been stable at some 29%. Meanwhile, the market share for both treated and untreated wood products has increased.
Building construction - Materials used - United States
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Canadian value added sector survey

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub2791
Author
Julien, F.
Date
February 2012
Edition
39415
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Julien, F.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
February 2012
Edition
39415
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
23 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Value added
Surveys
Secondary manufacturing
Canada
Series Number
Value to Wood No. 201005269
Project No. FPI-11-19
E-4761
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
A Roadmap for the Canadian Value Added Wood Products Industry and the Prefabricated Building Systems Industry was completed in 2007 under the Value to Wood Program. Current information is needed to confirm actual industry’s needs for innovation. The project consisted in conducting a Value Added Sector Assessment Survey to update the previous Roadmap. Information and data were essentially collected through the use of an online interactive survey prepared by the FPInnovations’ economics and markets group. A total of 2,086 industry and research people were contacted to complete the questionnaire. Of that total, 256 respondents returned questionnaires which were kept for analysis. The study has reviewed the research issues and needs raised by industry respondents. These issues and needs were analyzed and sorted in different themes and then compared to the findings of the 2007 roadmap. The conclusions of the study are notably:
The driving forces of innovation identified in 2007 are still relevant and valid today o Global competition and consumers needs are the main driving forces leading businesses to seek greater manufacturing and cost efficiencies.
The priorities and research needs identified in the 2007 Roadmap are still pertinent today o There is a need to increase product development capacities through better design, better finishing, better quality, etc. o Provide relevant and up to date market intelligence information to support the value added sectors.
Value added - Canada
Secondary manufacturing
Market surveys
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Design guidelines for lateral load resisting systems in wood construction

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39404
Author
Popovski, Marjan
Date
March 2012
Material Type
guide
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Popovski, Marjan
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2012
Material Type
guide
Research report
Physical Description
115 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Strength load bearing
Mechanical properties
Specifications
Loads
Specification
Design
Building construction
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 03
W-2886
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
A new design Section on Lateral Load Resisting Systems (LLRSs) was introduced in the 2009 edition of Canadian Standard for engineering Design in Wood (CSA O86). The activities presented in this report (development of technical papers, development of technical polls and attending various code committees) have a goal to continue the work in this field by further improving the new Section on LLRSs by implementing additional design information for other wood-based structural systems and assemblies. During the last two years, several technical polls and papers were developed and presented to various code committees for future code implementation. These activities will help design engineers to use timber in structural systems in residential and non-residential buildings in Canada and the US.
Building construction - Design
Strength - Load bearing - Specifications
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Determination and prediction of the creep behavior and performance of light weight hollow core panel under long term static loading and high humidity conditions

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5749
Author
Deng, James
Côté, Francine
Semple, Katherine
Sam-Brew, S.
Date
May 2012
Edition
39434
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Deng, James
Côté, Francine
Semple, Katherine
Sam-Brew, S.
Date
May 2012
Edition
39434
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
31 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Panels
Humidity
Series Number
Value to Wood No. FPI-11-08
Project no.201005269
E-4786
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
This report summarizes the experimental works that was carried out for a one-year research project developed as the continuation of previous research projects on the subject of light weight hollow core sandwich panels. The experiment focused on the investigation of creep behavior of light weight hollow core panel under long term static loading and high humidity conditions and its correlation with short term properties. Five types of surface panels were used, namely, 3.2 mm thick high density fibreboard with birch veneer on both sides, two thicknesses of M2 grade particleboard (6.3 mm and 9.5 mm) and two thicknesses of medium density fibreboard (6.3 mm and 9.5 mm). All panels were fabricated to the same final sandwich thickness of 45 mm using cell size of 12.7 mm Kraft paper honeycomb. The results of the experiment show that the strongest facing material used to make the sandwich panels was the 3.2 mm hardboard with wood veneer lamination on both sides running along the long axis of the panel and test specimen, followed by the 6.3 mm MDF and the 9.5 mm MDF. The experiment demonstrated that exposing the panels to high humidity could cause strength loss of up to half of the original strength. However, the result of the experiment also suggested that it would be difficult to accurately predict the long term creep behavior of the sandwich panels using their corresponding short term flexural properties as the correlation between creep deformation and flexural properties was rather weak under the testing procedure and condition used.
CREEP
PANEL BOARDS
CORE
LOADING
HUMIDITY
Abstract
Not available
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Determining optimal time and temperature for bioincising with D. squalens on pine

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42479
Author
Dale, Angela
Morris, Paul I.
Date
March 2012
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Dale, Angela
Morris, Paul I.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2012
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
13 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Preservation
Series Number
Future Focus No. TT1.1.07
W-2887
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The Canadian wood preservation industry is at a competitive disadvantage in both domestic and international markets because our major species (e.g. spruce and pine) are difficult to impregnate as they are characterized by a thin sapwood band and refractory heartwood which limits chemical penetration. Achieving adequate penetration may be even more challenging for the next generation of carbon-based and micronized preservatives. Biological incising with Dichomitus squalens, developed in Austria in the 1990s, increased permeability in European spruce. More recently, studies done on commercial sized pine and spruce with a Canadian isolate of D. squalens under non-sterile conditions showed through-treatment (19 mm penetration) with 1.7% ACQ after six weeks in spruce samples; however, strength loss was slightly higher in some samples than what is found with conventional incising. Penetration was more variable in pine. A shorter incubation time would be desirable in an industrial setting. The current study was undertaken in order to determine if the processing time could be shortened by optimizing incubation temperature. Three temperatures were tested on small pine blocks using a soil block test method. Samples were exposed for between two and six weeks. ACQ-D treatment was used in this experiment as a surrogate for carbon-based preservatives because copper is easier to detect than colourless carbon-based preservatives. Optimal temperature for incubation appeared to cover a wide range around 30 °C and no growth inhibition was encountered at 35 °C suggesting that temperature variability in an industrial setting should not inhibit a biological incising operation. Uptake and penetration was variable. After 5 weeks seventy percent of pine samples reached a minimum of 5 mm penetration, and 50 % of the samples reached a minimum of 10 mm penetration. Optimal incubation time still appears to be over six weeks in pine to reach minimum 10mm penetration requirements in over 80% of samples.
Incising, Biological
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Détermination des facteurs de correction applicables pour les bouts en porte-à-faux lors d'essais en flexion avec chargement aux tiers points sur un banc d'essai inversé

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39412
Author
Grandmont, Jean-Francois
Date
May 2012
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Grandmont, Jean-Francois
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
May 2012
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
8 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Wood
Mechanical properties
Design
Bending
Series Number
Projet 201004681
E-4757
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
French
Abstract
Engineered Wood Products - Design
Bending strength
Abstract
Des facteurs de correction sont disponibles lors d’essais de flexion aux tiers points afin de prendre en compte le fait d’avoir une section de l’échantillon testé qui soit en porte-à-faux. Ces facteurs sont disponibles pour les pièces aux dimensions nominales courantes mais pas pour le 2’’x5’’. Le but était donc de pallier à ce manque.
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Effect of adhesive cure on quality of fingerjoined lumber : updated report

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39405
Author
Pirvu, Ciprian
Date
March 2012
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Pirvu, Ciprian
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2012
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
56 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Lumber
Composites
Adhesives
Series Number
Value to Wood No. FPI 121W
W-2888
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The relationship between proof load level of fingerjoined lumber and degree of cure of adhesive bonds was investigated. Tension tests were completed for two different degrees of cure for two different adhesives. The proof load level determined for the partially cured joints did not cause damage to the joints that survived the proof test. Preliminary guidelines for determining appropriate proof load levels for testing fingerjoined lumber with partially cured joints were proposed. The proposed guidelines will need to be validated through mill trials to demonstrate their efficacy and reliability to the manufacturer and third party inspection agency. Keywords: fingerjoined lumber; tension proof testing/loading; partially cured adhesive bonds.
Curing rate
Finger jointed lumber
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52 records – page 1 of 6.