Forest companies across Canada are interested in using laser scanners for scaling logs because it has potential for reducing scaling costs. Scanning logs over bark requires a method to obtain the under-bark diameter in order to calculate the solid wood volume. This report evaluates the methods of applying a bark factor to determine under-bark diameter. It also identifies new scanner scaling technologies for measuring bark thickness.
FERIC a étudié trois systèmes de récolte en coupe totale afin d'établir des productivités et des coûts spécifiques aux conditions de récolte en forêt mixte. Des systèmes mécanisés par arbres entiers et par bois tronçonnés ainsi qu'un système manuel ont fait l'objet d'observations en forêt mixte et les productivités obtenues ont été comparées aux productivités normalement rencontrées en forêt résineuse. Les trois systèmes ont donné des productivités moins élevées en forêt mixte qu'en forêt résineuse, à volume comparable par tige. Le coût total de récolte, incluant le coût de chargement, était plus élevé q'en forêt résineuse. Le système manuel est celui qui a subi la plus forte hausse de coût. L'abattage, l'ébranchage, le façonnage et le chargement ont été les activités touchées par la hausse de coût, pour un volume par tige et un nombre de tiges à l'hectare comparables. En réalité, le volume moyen par tige en forêt mixte est souvent supérieur à celui en forêt résineuse et le coût moyen de récolte devient alors comparable.
In 1997, FERIC studied a partial cutting operation in the Interior Cedar-Hemlock biogeoclimate zone, on a site west of Kitwanga, B.C. The operation used a Skylead C40 16000 skidder-mounted yarder and Mini-Maki II radio-controlled carriage in a standing skyline configuration and in single-and multi-span applications. The study provided information on productivity and costs for the harvesting system, impact on soil surface conditions, and damage to the residual stand. Productivity functions were derived to predict yarding productivity and costs over a range of operation conditions.
FERIC studied three harvesting systems in clearcut operations to define their specific productivities and costs under the harvesting conditions typical of mixedwood forest; the systems comprised mechanized full-tree and cut-to-length systems, as well as manual system. FERIC compared their productivities with those typically observed in softwood stands and found that all three systems had lower productivities in mixedwood forest than in softwood forest at comparable stem volumes. The total harvesting cost, including the cost of loading, was higher than in softwood forest, and the manual system showed the greatest cost increase. Felling, delimbing, processing, and loading costs all increased for comparable volumes per stem and numbers of stems per hectare; however, since the average volume per stem is often greater in mixedwood forest than in softwood forest, the actual overall harvesting costs become comparable.
In 1997, FERIC, Alberta Research Council (ARC), Ainsworth Lumber Inc., and Daishowa-Marubeni International Ltd. conducted a study to determine the productivities and costs of various methods of managing logging debris in aspen cutblocks. Conventional roadside processing, two in-block processing treatments (intermediate skid and at-the-stump processing), and roadside processing with subsequent dispersal of slash into the block were assessed.
This study addressed biomass availability, harvesting, transportation, and chipping costs for the production of bioenergy in the Teslin region of Yukon. It revealed that significant volumes of standing timber below 20 cm in diameter at breast height (DBH) exist that could be utilized for bioenergy. These volumes, however, would sustain only small electricity generation capacities; however, a more efficient solution would be to utilize the biomass in district heating applications. The study also estimated harvesting, transportation, and chipping costs of low- and high-mechanized systems. These costs will have to be further validated and incorporated into an investment calculator to assess the feasibility of future bioenergy projects in Teslin.
Attracting, retaining and training labor is a challenge for forest operations in North America. FPInnovations attended the Pacific Logging Congress (PLC) in November 2015 where one of the technical sessions focused on attracting and retaining people to the industry, in particular to contractor operations. The majority of the strategies presented in this Info-Note were suggested by logging contractors presenting at the PLC. A few others gleaned from other sources were added as well.
Attirer, retenir et former la main-d’œuvre représentent des défis pour les opérations forestières d’Amérique du Nord. FPInnovations a assisté au Pacific Logging Congress (PLC) en novembre 2015, dont l’une des sessions portait sur les meilleures pratiques pour attirer et retenir les employés dans l’industrie, en particulier pour les entrepreneurs. La majorité des stratégies présentées ici ont été adoptées par les entrepreneurs forestiers qui faisaient une présentation au PLC. Nous en avons ajouté quelques autres obtenues d’ailleurs.
There is uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of using caulk boots vs. non-caulk hiking boots in silviculture work in the interior of British Columbia. WorkSafeBC regulation 8.23, states “caulked or other equally effective footwear must be worn by workers who are required to walk on logs, poles, pilings or other round timbers”, but does not specifically require caulk boots to be worn on steep slopes. Caulk boots are used almost exclusively by silviculture workers in coastal B.C. but are not commonly used in interior B.C. even though there are many situations where they may provide superior traction. Instead, workers in interior B.C. have a preference for non-caulk hiking boots. Workers will often select their boots based on personal preference rather than on information about the boot’s traction performance. Additional information regarding the differences in the traction of caulk boots and non-caulk hiking boots on various forest ground surfaces would help most workers make better-informed choices. Understanding the differences in traction is one of the most important factors when selecting a work boot in any situation and is especially true in the hazardous ground conditions of forest workers. For this reason, FPInnovations constructed a testing apparatus designed to measure and compare the static coefficient of friction of caulk boots and non-caulk hiking boots on four common types of ground cover surfaces in B.C. forests.