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Air tightness of one type of hardboard siding: first of 2 reports

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5904
Author
Onysko, D.M.
Jones, S.K.
Date
March 1988
Edition
41506
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Onysko, D.M.
Jones, S.K.
Date
March 1988
Edition
41506
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
32 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Siding
Measurement
Materials
Building materials
Building construction
Air
Series Number
CFS project no.15
Project no.4310C016
E-785
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
Air Leakage - Measurement
Siding - Hardboard
Building construction - Moisture determination
Building materials - Hardboard siding
Documents
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Air tightness of two walls sprayed with polyurethane foam insulation

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5905
Author
Onysko, D.M.
Jones, S.K.
Date
March 1988
Edition
41507
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Onysko, D.M.
Jones, S.K.
Date
March 1988
Edition
41507
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
22 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Walls
Testing
Measurement
Materials
Building construction
Air
Series Number
CFS project no.15
Project no.4310C016
E-786
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
Foam, Urethane - Testing
Insulating Materials - Moisture - Measurement
Building construction - Light frame - Testing
Walls - Air Leakage
Documents
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Design construction and calibration of a chamber for testing the air tightness of full-sized wall sections : 1st of 2 reports

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41484
Author
Onysko, D.M.
George, P.
Date
March 1987
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Onysko, D.M.
George, P.
Date
March 1987
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
23 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Walls
Testing
Measurement
Air
Series Number
CFS project no.15
Project no.4310016
E-506
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
Walls - Air Leakage
Walls - Testing
Air Leakage - Measurement
Documents
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Development of a hydraulic air conditioner for forest machinery

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub43362
Author
Courteau, J.
Date
1990
Material Type
Research report
Field
Fibre Supply
Author
Courteau, J.
Date
1990
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
4 p.
Sector
Forest Operations
Field
Fibre Supply
Research Area
Forestry
Subject
Air
Temperature
Series Number
Technical Notes
Language
English
Abstract
This report chronicles the joint development of an air conditioner for forest machinery by FERIC and I & M electric rebuilders of Thunder Bay, Ontario. The air conditioner is hydraulically powered and used a compressed refrigerant gas for heat transfer. Three prototypes were designed, built, and tested in forest operations in Ontario and Quebec.
Forest machines
Cabs
Thermal environment
TEMPERATURE CONTROL
Air conditioning equipment
DEVELOPMENT
Documents
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Development of an air quality test program for composite mills

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41652
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 1995
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 1995
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
18 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Test methods
Quality control
Qualitative analysis
Air
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 15
E-2173
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Air Quality
Composite Mills
Test
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Development of an improved method for analysis of panels with low formaldehyde emission

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39223
Author
Dechamplain, F.
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Dechamplain, F.
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
28 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Pollution
Panels
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 20
5763
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
In April 2008, the State of California adopted an airborne toxic control measure (ATCM) to reduce formaldehyde emissions from composite wood products, proposed by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), part of the California Environmental Protection Agency. Phase 1 started in January 2009, and at the end of the implementation, in July 2012, formaldehyde emission limits will range between 0.05 and 0.13 ppm, depending on the type of products, based on the ASTM E 1333 Large Chamber Method. These new limits are in the order of the limits of detection of the current analytical methods presently used, and rendered the chromotropic acid reaction, on which the ASTM E 1333 is based, with a limit of detection of 0.01 ppm less precise. An alternative method to determine formaldehyde concentration in air has been developed to be used as part of the ASTM E1333 Large Chamber Method. 60 L of air are sampled through an impinger containing an acetylacetone-ammonia solution. The solution is then heated, and analyzed by fluorimetry using a Turner Quantech filter fluorometer equipped with a NB430 excitation filter and a SC500 emission filter. The test method is inexpensive, easy to use, compatible with the Large Chamber, Perforator and Desiccator Methods, and is very sensitive. The minimum detection limit (MDL) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) of this analytical method are 0.0004 and 0.0013 ppm, respectively.
Air pollution
Formaldehyde
Panels
Documents
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Development of an improved method for analysis of panels with low formaldehyde emission (Part B)

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39297
Author
Dechamplain, F.
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Dechamplain, F.
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
13 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Pollution
Panels
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 20
201000329
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
In April 2008, the State of California adopted an airborne toxic control measure (ATCM) to reduce formaldehyde emissions from composite wood products, proposed by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), part of the California Environmental Protection Agency. Phase 1 started in January 2009, and at the end of the implementation, in July 2012, formaldehyde emission limits will range between 0.05 and 0.13 ppm, depending on the type of products, based on the ASTM E 1333 Large Chamber Method. These new limits are in the order of the limits of detection of the current analytical methods presently used, and rendered the chromotropic acid reaction, on which the ASTM E 1333 is based, with a limit of detection of 0.01 ppm less precise. The use of Near Infrared technology was investigated in 2009/2010. This analytical technique was not initially considered to be sensitive enough to measure formaldehyde emissions at very low levels. Recent developments in the broadband sources of near infrared radiation available and the type of detectors used have contributed in recent years to improve spectral stability and sensitivity. Some instruments have recently been tested in Europe and equipment suppliers claim that these systems can be used for online monitoring of formaldehyde emissions. This analytical technique is not recognized at this time by Canadian and US regulatory authorities and more testing was required to demonstrate the system’s reliability. Commercial products with very low free formaldehyde have been tested in 2009 with NIR sensors and results have been correlated with the ASTM E 1333 Large Chamber test results. At least one Canadian panel manufacturer has already expressed interest in running a mill trial. Results will be presented to regulatory authorities.
Air pollution
Formaldehyde
Panels
Documents
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Development of performance criteria for wood-based building systems

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub52998
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Date
March 2016
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2016
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
53 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Building codes
Vibration
Durablity
Energy efficiency
Air
Emissions
Accoustics
Fire
Standards
Language
English
Abstract
This report is divided into six (6) subsections related to different building performance attributes. It presents a review of current design provisions as well as an investigation and identification of gaps in current knowledge with respect to performance criteria for wood-based building systems. Lastly, suggestions related to performance criteria are given with respect to, among others, structural, sound, vibration, fire, building enclosure, energy efficiency, durability and environmental performance. The development of such criteria is fundamental for reducing the burden on early adopters and AHJs in demonstrating regulatory acceptance of innovative building systems.
Documents
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Effectiveness of barriers to minimize VOC emissions, including formaldehyde

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38953
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Contributor
Canada. Natural Resources Canada
Date
March 2006
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Pollution control
Pollution
Materials
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Value to Wood No. FCC 32
4506
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Since the energy crisis in the early 1970s, there has been a decided trend towards tightly constructed buildings that conserve energy and reduce costs. The downside of these well-intended efforts has been the lowering of interior air exchange rates, to the extent that many chemical contaminants are now being trapped indoors where people spend most of their lives. These contaminants may include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as formaldehyde, that have been suggested by some to be among the factors responsible for this air quality deterioration. Wood composite panels, which contain formaldehyde such as particleboard and medium density fiberboard (MDF) are often targeted for strict emission regulations or prohibited altogether, despite the fact that this industry has reduced formaldehyde emissions of raw panels by more than 80% over the past twenty years, thereby actually minimizing indoor air contaminants. Moreover, most consumer products made with composite panels are not used in a raw form, but instead have some type of surface finish over the substrate, that generally acts as a barrier to off-gassing, and subsequently reduces emissions. In this year’s research, ten commonly used finishes were evaluated for their effectiveness as emissions barriers for formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC). It appeared that the powder coating is among the most effective barriers for both formaldehyde and VOCs, with more than 90% emission reduction when applied to MDF. A similar efficiency was observed with phenolic, vinyl, melamine paper, aluminium oxide overlay, Syn Décor laminates, thermofoil 12mil, and 2 mils Natural vinyl applied on particleboard panels. Some finishing material such as birch veneer showed excellent efficiency towards formaldehyde reduction with, however, a lower VOC emission reduction. Results also suggested further evaluation of other combinations of substrate and finish need to be considered (powder coatings on particleboard, clear coating or vinyl laminate on MDF) to more fully evaluate the impact of the substrate, if any, on emission characteristics of these surface treatments. The evaluation of the other finishing materials which showed an excellent efficiency on a particular type of product such as particleboard also need to be evaluated on the other product, in this case MDF in order to complete the evaluation of the effectiveness of any given barrier. The paper finish, water based topcoat, and the multiple (3) topcoat wet process appeared to be the less efficient barriers to either formaldehyde and/or VOCs with, 41% and 28% formaldehyde emission reduction respectively and an increase of VOC emissions by 79% and 57% respectively, suggesting that these barriers may have high solvent contents. A limitation of this first study was that the formaldehyde and VOC contribution of the surface coating or laminate were not tested by themselves without a substrate. The very limited number of tests conducted for any individual barriers suggests that these preliminary results should be viewed with caution and that more sampling is necessary to ensure completeness as well as confidence in the data. The next phase of this study will include an inter-laboratory comparison study, further evaluation of the finishes and the effect of sample aging as it relates to emissions. A very good correlation between ASTM D 5116 and ASTM D 6007 has been established by comparing formaldehyde emission results from the two methods. An R² of 0.94 has been obtained and could be improved by expanding the database.
Air pollution - Control
Composite materials
Finishes
Documents
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Effectiveness of barriers to minimize VOC emissions, including formaldehyde

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39025
Author
Barry, A.
Date
March 2007
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Barry, A.
Contributor
Canada. Natural Resources Canada
Date
March 2007
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
39 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Pollution control
Pollution
Materials
Air pollution
Air
Series Number
Value to Wood No. FCC 72
5351
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Since the energy crisis in the early 1970s, there has been a decided trend towards tightly constructed buildings that conserve energy and reduce costs. The downside of these well-intended efforts has been the lowering of interior air exchange rates, to the extent that many chemical contaminants are now being trapped indoors where people spend most of their lives. These contaminants may include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as formaldehyde, that have been suggested by some to be among the factors responsible for this air quality deterioration. Wood composite panels, which contain formaldehyde such as particleboard and medium density fiberboard (MDF)are often targeted for strict emission regulations or prohibited altogether, despite the fact that this industry has reduced formaldehyde emissions of raw panels by more than 80% over the past twenty years, thereby actually minimizing indoor air contaminants. Moreover, most consumer products made with composite panels are not used in a raw form, but instead have some type of surface finish over the substrate, that generally acts as a barrier to off-gassing, and subsequently reduces emissions. In this 2003 research, ten commonly used finishes were evaluated for their effectiveness as emissions barriers for formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC). It appeared that the powder coating is among the most effective barriers for both formaldehyde and VOCs, with more than 90% emission reduction when applied to MDF. A similar efficiency was observed with phenolic, vinyl, melamine paper, aluminium oxide overlay, Syn Décor laminates, thermofoil 12mil, and 2 mils Natural vinyl applied on particleboard panels. Some finishing material showed excellent efficiency towards formaldehyde reduction with, however, a lower VOC emission reduction such as birch finishing etc. Results also suggested an evaluation of powder coatings on particleboard, and, if practical the clear coating and vinyl laminate on MDF to more fully evaluate the impact of the substrate, if any, on emission characteristics of these surface treatments. The evaluation of the other finishing materials which showed an excellent efficiency on a particular type of product such as particleboard also need to be evaluated on the other product such as MDF in order to complete the evaluation of the effectiveness of any given barrier. The paper finish, water based topcoat, and the multiple (3) topcoat wet process appeared to be the less efficient barriers towards either formaldehyde and/or VOCs with, 41% and 28% formaldehyde emission reduction respectively and an increase of VOC emissions by 79% and 57% respectively, suggesting that these barriers may have high solvent contents. A limitation of this trial study was that the formaldehyde and VOC contribution of the surface coating or laminate were not tested by themselves without a substrate. The very limited number of tests conducted for any individual barriers suggests that these preliminary results should be viewed with caution and that more sampling (confirmatory as well as additional coatings/laminates) is necessary to ensure completeness as well as confidence in the data. The inter-laboratory comparison study, showed some discrepancies on both formaldehyde and TVOC results. The techniques used such as one sample face against two faces, the analytical techniques, the air exchange rates could be responsible for some part of these discrepancies and the very limited number of tests did not help improve the reliability of the results. A very good correlation between ASTM D 5116 and ASTM D 6007 has been established by comparing formaldehyde emission results from the two methods. An R² of 0.94 has been obtained and could be improved by upgrading the database. The decay tests conducted for a long period of time, some samples were tested for more than 200 days, indicated a net decrease of formaldehyde and VOCs emission over time especially for samples with high initial emission rates. For some low initial formaldehyde emitting samples there was no discernable decrease of emissions over time. Decay emission patterns models varied from sample to sample and some were exponential especially for high initial emitting products and some other were polynomial as reported in the literature. The decaying study showed that VOC emissions decayed favourably other time and some sample products showed almost zero emission after few months. This observation is very encouraging because it indicates that most products before being purchased by the client had emitted more than 60 to 70% of their initial emissions levels, particularly those with high initial emission rates. For those with very emission rates such as those finished with powder coatings, melamine, etc, the decaying is not relevant because their emission levels were already at the detection levels.
Air pollution - Control
Composite materials
Finishes
Documents
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43 records – page 1 of 5.