The key objectives of this project are to develop two-way technology transfer instruments that achieve a connection with specifiers, designers, builders, homeowners and maintenance supervisors, and to explore opportunities for collaborative field studies of durability performance where information gaps exist.
The ultimate goal of the project is to increase confidence in the durability of wood construction, and thereby lead to greater use of wood products in China. This report aims to assess wood-durability related climate, termite, and decay loads, to inform those building wood structures. Specifically a decay hazard map for exterior above-ground wood structures was refined and a termite map was updated. Based on the decay and termite hazards, four biological hazard zones were proposed: low hazard zone with low decay hazard and no termites, moderate hazard zone with moderate decay hazard but no termites, moderate hazard zone with moderate decay hazard and Reticulitermes, and severe hazard zone with severe decay hazard and both Reticulitermes and Coptotermes. It is hoped that the information can be used by designers and builders as a general guide for designing for certain climate loads and biological hazards, and such a classification will pave the way for developing appropriate requirements for wood protection against decay and termites in different regions in China. The report also sends a strong message that compared to North America, China has a much larger area with a severe or moderate hazard. Hence proper wood protection is critical for achieving durability of wood construction.
Despite their excellent mechanical properties, Engineered Wood Products (EWP) like Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL), Parallel Strand Lumber (PSL) and Laminated Strand Lumber (LSL) have not been widely used in structural applications. Such products have largely been employed as substitutes for sawn lumber materials in 'small building' applications. To change this, it is essential that engineers gain knowledge of the strength and stiffness characteristics of mechanical connections, to supplement what is known about properties of EWP themselves.
This project was aimed at developing generalized structural design information for mechanical connections in (EWP), taking into account the physical characteristics of such products.
This Interim Report of the research project "Improved prediction of seismic resistance of Part 9 Houses" under the CMHC External Research Program presents a detailed literature review of research relevant to lateral resistance of conventional wood-frame construction and an assessment of three mechanics-based methods for calculating lateral capacity.
The relative performance of the three mechanics-based methods is ascertained by comparing the test data of lateral capacities of partially restrained wall specimens having window openings with the predicted results from the calculation methods. Method 1 by Ni and Karacabeyli (2000, 2002) is the simplest to use and gave the most conservative results; Method 2 by Källsner et al., (2001, 2002) is less conservative but more complicated, and Method 3 by Källsner and Gurhammar (2005, 2006) gives non-conservative results.
In the next phase of the project, these mechanics-based methods will be further calibrated against pertinent shake table results from the recent UBC "Earthquake 99" project and from the Forintek – Tongji University tests of conventional wood-frame construction. They will then be employed in the determination of the seismic response of houses as prescribed by the seismic part of the Engineering Guide for Wood Frame Construction published by the Canadian Wood Council.
Support industry to expand its markets for wood and wood products by providing designers and specifiers with design provisions and practical design solutions for wood-based lateral load resisting systems in engineered wood construction. This four-year project will address two main issues:
Develop and compile the fundamental information needed to establish a Lateral Load Resisting Systems Design Section in CSA O86, which will be consistent with the 2005 edition of the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC 2005).
Develop and compile the information needed to link the new Lateral Load Resisting Systems Design Section in CSA O86 with the Fastenings Section in terms of connection behaviour required to satisfy the specified system response to lateral loading.
This report assists Canadian wood product manufacturers in understanding the requirements of the LEED® program. LEED is a tremendously popular “green” design guideline and rating system in the United States and Canada. Environmentally-conscious construction has rapidly escalated in North America from a niche interest area to a dominant media topic and an important market trend in the building sector. The value of U.S. green building construction was $12 billion in 2007, which was a 71% increase from 2006, which itself was a 37% increase over 2005. Every category of construction product is being affected by this design trend.
The green construction, or sustainable design, movement is driven by rising public awareness of the need to reduce demands on resources, mitigate climate change, reduce waste, and improve occupant health, among other goals. The construction sector is identified as a major cause of energy consumption, material use and greenhouse gas emissions; hence it is a target for improvement. Numerous initiatives are in place across the continent toward that end; however none have approached the recognition and influence of LEED. In place in the U.S. since 2000, LEED has become a de facto standard for green design and is increasingly being adopted in the legislation of various jurisdictions.
In recent previous work, Forintek industry advisors performed an extensive roadmapping exercise for the Canadian value-added sector to determine technical and market needs. One of the themes that emerged from this exercise was a general uncertainty with respect to LEED. Manufacturers that serve commercial, institutional and other non-residential clients were increasingly being asked about LEED preparedness and to bid on supplying LEED projects but did not feel prepared to respond.
This report provides a guide to LEED geared specifically for wood product manufacturers and designed to simplify the process of understanding LEED requirements. In the report, we translate the hundreds of pages of LEED material down to just what the manufacturers need to know about issues such as recycled content, certified wood, and VOC emissions of coatings.
Trendspotting is an important tool in enabling manufacturers to be proactive rather than reactive in their businesses. This year we tracked trends in the window, door, cabinet, and outdoor projects segments. A multidisciplinary team from marketing, design, and industry advising pulled together a list of trends that are currently or imminently going to affect these sectors. Trends revolved around demographics, new materials, alternative species, sustainability, the economy, and other factors. Each potential trend was researched as to current and potential opportunities and threats. Four separate trend reports resulted from this effort: Part A - Doors, Part B - Windows, Part C - Cabinets, and Part D - Outdoor Living.
Some of the trends in this document are already established while others are in their infancy. As a manufacturer it is up to you to pick and choose the trends and opportunities that best suit your manufacturing, marketing, and customer profile. We hope this document can tip you off to new opportunities, alert you to some pitfalls, and inspire your product lines. Good luck!
Transformative Technologies - Federal Initiative Final Report 2007/08
Vancouver, British Columbia
"Creating value via innovation". That principle is at the core of FPInnovations' value proposition. This report acknowledges that and takes a multi tier approach to better understand the innovation process and it is divided into three levels: manufacturer, R&D, and user. A careful reading of FPInnovations' vision and mission reveals that the consolidation has brought change and challenge, taking the organization beyond research and assuming a protagonist role as an integrator of the innovation efforts carried out by its members, the R&D community and its own staff (Research Program 2008/2009). Accomplishing such demanding goals will demand acquiring and mastering a number of tools, management practices and knowledge base that this report has tried to examine. It also recognizes the role that the external environment plays and therefore it includes sections looking at industry structure considerations, cooperation networks and such. From an internal point of view, the report outlines some guidelines meant to serve as an aide in the operationalization of the mission and vision set for FPInnovations by our board.
The merger and new guidelines have added a new innovation component to the Divisions' successful record of value creation for their members. This new component is a much needed response to the challenging times the industry is going through. FPInnovations recognizes the value proposition of innovation while also acknowledging the merits of best practices for those companies favouring a more traditional approach to doing business.
Wood design standards in Canada and the United States provide design values for floor and roof diaphragms with sheathing thickness ranging from 9.5 mm (3/8 in) up to 18.5 mm (3/4 in), that are supported by joists spaced less than 610 mm (24 in) on centre. This range of sheathing thicknesses is adequate for housing and small buildings, but for large non-residential structures, diaphragms with thicker sheathing and wider joist spacing may be more appropriate.
This paper includes the findings of a study aimed at providing research information suitable for implementing design values for diaphragms with thick sheathing in the North American wood design standards. Results from quasi-static monotonic tests on fifteen full-scale 7.3 m (24 ft) long by 2.4 m (8 ft) wide diaphragms framed with 38x191 mm or 38x235 mm (nominal 2x8 and 2x10, respectively) solid sawn lumber or laminated strand lumber and sheathed with plywood or oriented strand board are discussed.
A numerical model was developed using the finite element method. The basic properties of the sheathing, framing members and nailed connections were implemented in the model to replicate the structural behaviour of the diaphragms with thick panels. The numerical model was successfully validated against the experimental data. The shear resistance values for the diaphragms with thick panels tested in this study were calculated. The model may be used to interpolate between various diaphragm configurations and calculate shear resistance values for other configurations of diaphragms with thick sheathing.
In the long run, it is hoped that the use of thicker sheathing will enable the use of structural systems that are cost effective for wider joist or beam spacing than systems made with dimension lumber and traditional sheathing thickness. The experimental data and the model developed in this project will be used to develop proposals for implementation of wood floor and roof diaphragms with thick panels in the Canadian and United States wood design standards.