Skip header and navigation

24 records – page 1 of 3.

The ability of bacteria to induce brownstain in western hemlock

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5877
Author
Kreber, B.
Hedberg, B.
Date
March 1996
Edition
41145
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Kreber, B.
Hedberg, B.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 1996
Edition
41145
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
7 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Tsuga Heterophylla
Tsuga
Stain
Bacteria
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 32 1/2
Contract no. 1715K024
W-1322
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Three Gram negative bacteria isolated from brownstained western hemlock were investigated for their capacity to produce hemlock brownstain. Brownstain was observed when infecting western hemlock with two bacteria. Oxygen was strongly indicated as being indespensable for the development of brownstain in infected samples. However, pH did not seem to influence the production of this stain.
Tsuga heterophylla - Stains, Chemical
Stains - Chemical
Degradation, Bacterial
Bacteria
Documents
Less detail

Biology and management of bluestain fungi

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub4615
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Date
March 2009
Edition
41414
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2009
Edition
41414
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
4 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Stain fungal
Stain
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 38
W-2664
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The objectives of the project are to determine the major source of bluestain fungi and determine the mechanisms of their dispersion, and to determine the biology and weak points of pests that may be expoited to control them.
Stain - Fungal - Control
Documents
Less detail

Causes of hemlock brownstain : final summary report

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub4377
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Kreber, B.
Date
July 1996
Edition
41152
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Kreber, B.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
July 1996
Edition
41152
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
6 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood
Tsuga Heterophylla
Tsuga
Stain fungal
Stain
Growth
Balsam
Fir
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 32
W-1379
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Discolourations of hem-fir, usually called hemlock brownstain, have become an economically important problem with the move towards increased kiln-drying of the wood species mixture and added-value products in which discolourations cannot be tolerated. These discolourations, clearly different from sapstain, can occur in several types and intensities and are a serious problem in high-value markets. Because little is known about their causes means for their control are still unavailable. Therefore fundamental research was initiated to elucidate the biology and chemistry of hemlock brownstain and to suggest control measures. A post graduate student was hired to undertake laboratory and field work as part of a Ph.D. program. The thesis subject was "the role of microorganisms in the phenomenon of hemlock brownstain". The thesis covers: a literature review; laboratory work to locate the stain and define its nature; a storage study of logs and lumber to monitor progress in development of brownstain; fungal isolation work and sap characterization studies; in vitro production of hemlock brownstain in wood and sap; and additional laboratory experiments to determine what factors influence the formation of the brownstain. In addition to the thesis research the role of bacteria in the formation of the stain was investigated in the laboratory and the ability of various chemicals, including fumigants, to prevent the stain was tested in small-scale field test. This report provides an overview of the findings and provides recommendations for future work. The experiments clearly demonstrated that a non-specific microflora can produce brownstain which led to the hypothesis that microorganisms could be involved in hemlock brownstain. Based on our knowledge of the coastal sawmilling industry a strategy of minimizing fungal infection and rapid handling of the tree breakdown into final wood products could probably be the best approach to help reduce the problem. In terms of future work we recommend that work to understand the mechanism of DDAC in mitigation of the browning take precedence in future work on hemlock brownstain.
Abies amabilis - Stains - Fungal
Tsuga heterophylla - Stains - Fungal
Fungi - Growth
Fungi - Wood staining
Stains - Fungal
Hem-Fir - Stains - Fungal
Documents
Less detail

Controlled atmosphere log storage and potential for its Canadian applicability

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41416
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Uzunovic, Adnan
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
15 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Stain fungal
Stain
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 38
W-2666
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Softwood and hardwood logs and lumber are susceptible to sapstain from the time the tree is felled, during storage prior to processing, and after processing. As part of the project, Biology and Management of Bluestain, we aim to help the industry to extract the most value from wood by finding ways to prevent bluestain and other biodeterioration during wood storage and transport. Recently we investigated the feasibility of using controlled atmosphere storage to inhibit the growth of sapstain fungi. This involves wrapping and sealing green logs or lumber immediately after harvesting in UV-resistant and gas-impermeable sheets. This allows CO2 to build up to 20-40% due to microbial and live wood cell respiration, while oxygen gets depleted to near zero levels in a few days. This ecologically friendly storage method does not depend on climate, storage site, tree species or size of pile. It may be used in areas where other methods are not available and in nature-conservation, water protection and other ecologically sensitive areas. Logs have been shown to remain sound for up to four years. The process has been patented in Germany and has been used in Europe on a commercial scale but has limited exposure in North America. This paper reviews existing knowledge and experience with this process and assesses the feasibility of using it in Canada for Canadian wood species. It also aims to recognize key knowledge gaps that may need to be addressed before the method is presented to the industry as a viable and economical option for safe storage of wood on a large industrial scale.
Stains - Fungal - Control
Documents
Less detail

Decision aids for durable wood construction

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41412
Author
Wang, Jieying
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Wang, Jieying
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
5 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Process control
Building construction
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 19
W-2656
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The objectives of the project are to develop two-way technology transfer instruments that achieve a connection with specifiers, designers, builders, homeowners and maintenance supervisors and to explore opportunities for collaborative field studies of durability performance where information gaps exist.
Building construction - Process control
Buildings - Durability
Documents
Less detail

Effect of relative humidity on fungal growth on kiln-dry lumber

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41139
Author
Clark, Jean E.
Date
July 1996
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Clark, Jean E.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
July 1996
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
17 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood
Stain fungal
Stain
Growth
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 31B
Contract no. 1712K710
W-1311
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Dry wood which is re-wetted is at risk of attack by fungi. Mould and sapstain fungi on wood, while not significantly affecting strength properties, are considered unsightly and unacceptable in many markets, particularly those associated with high-value products. More recently, mould growth in buildings and the associated problems with odour, health and air quality have become issues. Additionally, there is concern that future international trade in wood products may be subject to restrictions regarding fungal pests present in wood. This study was set up to examine fungal growth on naturally infected kiln-dried dimension lumber. White spruce, lodgepole pine, alpine fir and western hemlock were exposed to a range of relative humidities (rh) between 75% and 95% and examined for fungal growth based on visual and microscope observation. Wood moisture content (mc) and fungal growth were determined weekly for ten weeks. The higher the rh, the earlier fungal growth appeared on the samples. Penicillium moulds predominated, with some dark fungi appearing with time on the wood at the highest rh. Once mould appeared, it progressed more rapidly at higher rh, affecting more of the surface and becoming more visible with time. Fungal growth was invisible to the unaided eye on all four wood species at 80% rh; it was seen on lodgepole pine after eight weeks at 82% rh but was not visible on alpine fir until six weeks at 86% rh, on spruce until seven weeks at 89% rh, or on hemlock until nine weeks at 90% rh. Lodgepole pine was 16% mc when mould became visible, while the mc for alpine fir was 19%, spruce was 21% mc and hemlock was 22% mc. Minute amounts of mould on lodgepole pine and spruce were visible only with a microscope after eight or nine weeks incubation at 72% or 74% rh and did not develop further. The first microscopic mould traces on hemlock and alpine fir occurred at 76% and 78% rh after six and ten weeks respectively. The study indicated that storage of kiln-dry lumber at 85-90% rh results in equilibrium moisture contents (emc) sufficient for mould growth and subsequent disfiguration of the product. At relative humidities between 75-85%, fungi may colonize and sporulate on the wood at non-visible levels, providing an infection source that can result in visible growth with slight increases in wood mc. If high-value kiln-dried products are subject to storage, transport or use under humid conditions, consideration should be given to application of a preventive treatment to control mould growth.
Stains - Fungal
Fungi - Wood staining
Fungi - Growth
Fungi - Reaction to moisture
Fungi - Reaction to temperature
Fungi - Physiology
Documents
Less detail

Fire risk assessment : final report

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38824
Author
Tammim, A.
Date
March 1996
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Tammim, A.
Date
March 1996
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
10 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Fire
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 4
3010K047
E-2881
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
English
Abstract
Assessment
Fire Risk
Documents
Less detail

A knowledge-based approach for timber connection design

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37412
Author
Varoglu, E.
Date
March 1996
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Varoglu, E.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 1996
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
9 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Timber
Structural engineering
Sample
Joints
Design
Building construction
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 10
Contract no. 1510K025
W-1320
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The complexity of the current timber connection design process is one of the major reasons preventing the wider use of wood products in low-rise non-residential and innovative residential construction. Connections of members in structures, particularly in timber buildings, require the combination of both quantitative and qualitative aspects of design to produce a safe and aesthetically pleasing structure. Knowledge-based expert systems offer designers access to the full range of design methods, allowing the connection design task to be completed with ease and confidence. This study investigates the expert system approach by constructing a framework for such a design aid - a framework that incorporates techniques from artificial intelligence, architecture, and engineering. The design aid has potential for industrial application, and could be developed into an educational tool for timber and wood product design courses at the university level.
Building construction - Design
Joints and fastenings - Design
Structural engineering
Engineering - Timber
Documents
Less detail

Lateral load resisting systems for engineered wood construction

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37955
Author
Popovski, Marjan
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Popovski, Marjan
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
149 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Wind loads
Wind
Loads
Joints
Grading
Design
Building construction
Midply
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 27
W-2660
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The main sources of lateral loads on buildings are either strong winds or earthquakes. These lateral forces are resisted by the buildings’ Lateral Load Resisting Systems (LLRSs). Adequate design of these systems is of paramount importance for the structural behaviour in general. Basic procedures for design of buildings subjected to lateral loads are provided in national and international model building codes. Additional lateral load design provisions can be found in national and international material design standards. The seismic and wind design provisions for engineered wood structures in Canada need to be enhanced to be compatible with those available for other materials such as steel and concrete. Such design provisions are of vital importance for ensuring a competitive position of timber structures relative to reinforced concrete and steel structures. In this project a new design Section on Lateral Load Resisting Systems was drafted and prepared for future implementation in CSA O86, the Canadian Standard for Engineering Design in Wood. The new Section was prepared based on gathering existing research information on the behaviour of various structural systems used in engineered wood construction around the world as well as developing in-house research information by conducting experimental tests and analytical studies on structural systems subjected to lateral loads. This section for the first time tried to link the system behaviour to that of the connections in the system. Although the developed Section could not have been implemented in CSA O86 in its entirety during the latest code cycle that ended in 2008, the information it contains will form the foundation for future development of technical polls for implementation in the upcoming editions of CSA O86. Some parts of the developed Section were implemented in the 2009 edition of CSA O86 as five separate technical polls. The most important technical poll was the one on Special Seismic Design Considerations for Shearwalls and Diaphragms. This technical poll for the first time in North America includes partial capacity design procedures for wood buildings, and represents a significant step forward towards implementing full capacity-based seismic design procedures for wood structures. Implementation of these design procedures also eliminated most of the confusion and hurdles related to the design of wood-based diaphragms according to 2005 National Building Code of Canada. In other polls, the limit for use of unblocked shearwalls in CSA O86 was raised to 4.8 m, and based on the test results conducted during the project, the NLGA SPS3 fingerjoined studs were allowed to be used as substitutes for regular dimension lumber studs in shearwall applications in engineered buildings in Canada. With the US being the largest export market for the Canadian forest products industry, participation at code development committees in the field of structural and wood engineering in the US is of paramount importance. As a result of extensive activities during this project, for the first time one of the AF&PA Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic includes design values for unblocked shearwalls that were implemented based on FPInnovations’ research results. In addition, the project leader was involved in various aspects related to the NEESWood project in the US, in part of which a full scale six-storey wood-frame building will be tested at the E-Defense shake table in Miki, Japan in July 2009. Apart from being built from lumber and glued-laminated timber provided from Canada, the building will also feature the innovative Midply wood wall system that was also invented in Canada. The tests are expected to provide further technical evidence for increasing the height limits for platform frame construction in North America.
Building construction - Design
Earthquakes, Effect on building construction
Glued joints - Finger
Grading - Lumber
Wind loads
Documents
Less detail

Lateral load resisting systems for engineered wood construction

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37956
Author
Popovski, Marjan
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Popovski, Marjan
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
8 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Wind loads
Wind
Loads
Building construction
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 27
W-2661
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The goals of the project are to expand the use of wood and wood products in structural applications by enhancing seismic and wind design provisions for engineered wood-based structural systems. The project will develop new research information, as well as compile the existing research information necessary for development of new Lateral Load Design Provisions for engineered wood-based structural systems in the Canadian Standard for Engineering Design in Wood (CSA O86). When the appropriate code committees and industry associations implement these design provisions into the next edition of CSA O86, they will provide designers and specifiers more structural options for wood-based lateral load resisting systems, similar to those offered in other material codes.
Earthquakes, Effect on building construction
Wind loads
Documents
Less detail

24 records – page 1 of 3.