Thirty full-length sample trees from the B.C. Interior were selected for a study to determine whether external log characteristics can predict internal log quality. The sample trees were also used to create 3-dimensional log images for sawmill simulation purposes. "LogSaw", a simulation tool with internal log defect detection capabilities, was used to explore the extent to which internal and external log quality information can improve log breakdown optimization. A model of a hypothetical sawmill producing lumber for the standard North American dimension market was created to study how lumber value recovery depends on different sawing optimization scenarios.
Three sawing optimization scenarios using different levels of knowledge of internal log defects were compared to currently used sawing optimization technique:
Ideal sawing optimization - all defects within log interior are known.
Sawing optimization using only the knowledge of surface knots.
Sawing optimization using log rotation instructions based on zones of least external knot density.
Simulation results have shown that it is worthwhile to “look into the log”. When compared with the current optimization technique, the sawing optimization, including the full knowledge of log interior, has increased the value recovery by 6.2%. When only the surface knots were projected into the log interior and included in the optimization, the value recovery had increased by 4.3%. Even this 4.3% increase is still a big improvement because this sawing optimization could be implemented using currently available scanning technologies and optimization software enhanced to include log surface knots. The scenario of using log rotation instructions based on predicted zones of least internal knot density did not show value recovery improvement.
Including surface knots in the log breakdown optimization has considerably increased sawmill revenue; the hypothetical sawmill considered in this study, processing 400,000 m3 of log per year, has increased its revenue by $2.2 million.
FERIC compared three harvesting systems (full-tree, tree-length, and cut-to length) on a clay site in northwestern Québec. None of the systems limited rutting to below the acceptable target level; however, cut-to-length harvesting (using a three-machine system) showed slightly better results than the other two systems.
FERIC a étudié trois systèmes de récolte produisant des bois tronçonnés afin d'établir les productivités et les coûts applicables aux peuplements de feuillus intolérants. Les systèmes sont caractérisés par l'endroit où a lieu le façonnage soit à l'abattage, à la souche ou en bordure de chemin. Le coût du système utilisant une façonneuse en bordure de chemin était le plus économique, mais les deux autres systèmes observés peuvent aussi convenir aux conditions de récolte très variables rencontrées dans les peuplements feuillus. Un chantier de façonnage à la souche dans des peuplements de feuillus tolérants a aussi été étudié et les résultats indiquent que cette opération est moins productive et plus coûteuse que celle pratiquée en feuillus intolérants. La faible productivité obtenue était cependant compensée par la valeur supérieure des billes de sciage et de déroulage produites.
This study is a preliminary investigation of market demand for Western Canadian aspen in three major market places, the United States, Japan and Western Europe. As a preliminary investigation, there was no attempt to statistically characterize specifier populations. Rather, through consultations with industry, combined with the author's personal experiences, potential specifiers were identified and selectively interviewed. This process included aspen lumber/boards at various grades, edge-glued panels, veneer, plywood, and laminated veneer lumber. Both structural and non-structural applications were considered.
Les géosynthétiques de renforcement ont été évalués sur une route traversant une tourbière. Trois options ont été expérimentées : géogrille, géotextile non tissé renforcé et radier (arbres ébranchés déposés côte à côte). Après 1 an, les trois tronçons donnentt ds performances équivalentes. L'emploi des matériaux géosynthétiques était moins dispendieux que celui d'un radier lorsque les tiges utilisées généraient un profit supérieur à 3 $/m³. Les géosynthétiques sont faciles à mettre en place, ne nécessitent pas d'équipements additionnels pour l'installation et évitent la perte de fibre.
Geosynthetic reinforcement was evaluated in a road that crossed a muskeg bog. Three options were tested: geogrid, reinforced non-woven geotextile, and corduroy (delimed trees laid side by side). After 1 year, the three road segments provided similar performance. Geosynthetics were less expensive than corduroy if the stems used in the latter approach could have generated a net profit of greater than $/m3. Geosynnthetics are easy to install, require no additional equipment during the installation, and avoid fiber loss.
Particleboard (PB) is an important panelboard material used in value-added wood products. Its advantage is its low cost but its disadvantage is that its surface quality degrades when machined. Extensive research has been conducted in PB machining, the key aspects of which are highlighted in this report. Research to improve machineability has focused on the PB material, cutting tool and process parameters. Work on the PB material has mainly focused on reducing tool wear and, more recently, on PB micro-scale behaviour during cutting. This work has led to the reduction of impurities in PB. Work on the cutting tool has focused on tool geometry and tool material improvement. This has led to the development of specialized bevel sawtooth profiles that reduce edge chipping. Tungsten carbide and polycrystalline diamond have been extensively tested and are the most widely recommended tool materials for PB. Work on the cutting parameters has focused on developing operating guidelines as well as on optimizing the milling angle relative to the workpiece. A cone-face milling tool has been designed to reduce edge chipping in the edge banding process. Research and testing has also led to general guidelines for parameters such as feed per tooth. The effect of PB material, tool and cutting parameters is commonly measured by the change in cutting force and surface quality. A standard measurement method for melamine edge chipping and an approximate method of calculating cutting force have been developed. Although many developments in PB machining have been made, several key industrial machining process areas still require research. These include machinery set-up, process optimization and troubleshooting. There is an urgent need to account for the variability and micro properties of PB in the machining process. If successful, this should increase the reliability of research results and increase the industrial applicability of the work.
Une comparaison de trois systèmes de récolte (arbres entiers, troncs entiers et bois tronçonnés) a été réalisé sur un site argileux du nord-ouest du Québec. Aucun des systèmes n'a rencontré l'objectif fixé de limitation de l'orniérage; toutefois, le mode de récolte par bois tronçonnés (système à trois machines) montrait un léger avantage sur les deux autres systèmes.
This study identified footwear appropriate for Alberta wildland firefighters and assessed the need for protective toecaps on their footwear. Hazard and risk of foot injuries were assessed, and recommendations are made.
In wood products, such as parquetry, cabinetry and furniture, some of the performance criterions are related to moisture transfer between their different construction layers. Non homogenous moisture transfer usually results in the product’s deformation . Engineered Wood Parquet Flooring (EWPF) is an important case, which presents non homogenous moisture transfer due to its utilisation in service. Many types of varnish are available on the market. Physical properties of those varnishes such as hardness and abrasion resistance are readily available from the manufacturers. No data on water vapour diffusion is available, so this study is focused on this specific topic. Water vapour coefficient was determined for 6 commercial and industrial varnishes. These values will be used in further modelling work on EWPF.