The absence of commercial facilities to recycle or recover value from wood treated with metal-based wood preservatives at the end of its service life is one of the most significant negative points in the generally positive life cycle analysis of treated wood. Wood treated with carbon-based preservatives (metal-free) may be far easier to recycle or recover value from since the preservatives are relatively vulnerable to thermal, chemical and biological breakdown. As a result they might be destroyed by kraft pulping, combustion or composting of treated wood. The present research evaluates the use of carbon-based preservative-treated wood in these processes.
Kraft pulps produced from wood freshly treated with recommended loadings of carbon-based preservatives contained significant quantities of didecyldimethylammonium carbonate (DDAcarbonate), propiconazole and tebuconazole. However, lower preservative concentration in the wood and intensive pulping may be able to produce pulps without detectable preservatives. The azoles were also detected in significant quantities in the black liquor (DDAcarbonate was not analysed in black liquor).
No azoles were found in the ash produced from combustion, but significant quantities were detected in the filtered smoke. DDAcarbonate was not detected in the filtered smoke. Analysis of DDAcarbonate in ash was inconclusive.
A composting experiment has been set up and is in progress. Data on preservative breakdown during composting is expected next year.
To better understand the role extractives play in western red cedar’s decay resistance, commonly detected but unknown extractives need to be identified and evaluated for their potential contribution to natural durability. A new liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for separating extractives from western red cedar has been developed. Mass spectral detection provides useful structural information that gives increased confidence in peak identifications and helps to identify unknown peaks. Using LC/MS data, combined with data from UV and NMR spectroscopy, unknown compound J commonly found in many samples of WRC we have analysed, was identified as alpha-thujaplicin. This was known to be a major extractive in eastern white cedar but was considered to be a negligible component of WRC. Its potential contribution to the durability of WRC has not been considered in previous work attempting to correlate durability to specific extractives.
In wood products, such as parquetry, cabinetry and furniture, some of the performance criterions are related to moisture transfer between their different construction layers. Non homogenous moisture transfer usually results in the product’s deformation . Engineered Wood Parquet Flooring (EWPF) is an important case, which presents non homogenous moisture transfer due to its utilisation in service. Many types of varnish are available on the market. Physical properties of those varnishes such as hardness and abrasion resistance are readily available from the manufacturers. No data on water vapour diffusion is available, so this study is focused on this specific topic. Water vapour coefficient was determined for 6 commercial and industrial varnishes. These values will be used in further modelling work on EWPF.
In summer 2001 we ran one field experiment to test the feasibility of Sylvanex (formerly Cartapip 97) as a biocontrol agent to protect logs from being stained by wild-type bluestain fungi. Freshly felled lodgepole pine logs were spray-treated with Sylvanex, dispersed in water, or with water alone (referred to as non-treated). Sampling of the piles of logs took place after 6 weeks and again after 13 weeks. The bluestained area on discs taken from the logs was measured in the laboratory. The data clearly indicate that Sylvanex can control bluestain in freshly felled lodgepole pine logs if applied immediately after felling to the total log exterior. After six weeks of summer storage, when logs are most vulnerable, Sylvanex-treated logs remained almost spotless compared to heavily stained non-treated logs. After 13 weeks of storage there was moderate stain development in Sylvanex-treated logs but the amount was significantly less than in non-treated logs. The product, and the concept of using albino isolates to control stain, therefore has potential for industrial use. Before Sylvanex is used industrially on a large scale it is recommended that additional studies should investigate whether adjuvants, such as spreaders and stickers, or using higher concentrations of biocontrol agent improve its performance and consistency. In addition the efficacy of the product should be tested on other wood species.
Development of bluestain in logs prevents the Canadian forest industry from producing maximum-value products from a considerable portion of the resource every year. The major purpose of this project was to determine the practical and economic feasibility of using an albino stain of a common bluestain fungus Ophiostoma piliferum (Cartapip 97, recently renamed Sylvanex) or equivalent albino fungi to control sapstain in lodgepole pine logs. We also tested the Forintek's eastern laboratory integrated control technology (fungus Gliocladium roseum with alkali). Different activities were planned but as results developed some had to be modified or dropped and others added to the planned work. The various aspects of this work are described in the set of reports that are included in the appendices.
Stains - Fungal - Control - Tests
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Stains - Fungal
The objectives of the project are to determine the major source of bluestain fungi and determine the mechanisms of their dispersion, and to determine the biology and weak points of pests that may be expoited to control them.
A concept for an outdoor test facility in Vancouver for building enclosure materials and components has been under study by Forintek and others since Fall 2000. Phase One - a preliminary feasibility study - was previously completed. This report describes accomplishments to date of Phase Two, a transition phase involving identification of a project custodian, further concept development, development of a business plan, preparation for fundraising and identification of potential sites.