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Cost reduction and optimization of advanced impregnation technologies with nanotechnology

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39698
Author
Cai, X.
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Cai, X.
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
87 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Test methods
Surface properties
Optimization
Impregnation
Costs
Series Number
Transformative Technologies Program
Project No. TT1.18
Project no.201000354
E-4803
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
This study selected acylate monomers/oligomers as the nanoparticle transportation chemicals to produce high value-added wood surface densification products. The effect of nanoparticles in the formulations on the Brinell surface hardness, impact resistance and abrasion resistance was evaluated in this project. It was found that the addition of nanoparticles showed significant effect on mechanical properties of surface densification wood products. Different ratio of monomer/oligomers formulation and their viscosities on the chemical retention and penetration properties were investigated. Lower viscosity formulation presented better penetration and higher chemical retention with same surface densification process. Two optimized advanced surface densification processes were developed to improve the efficiency and lower the chemical retention thus to decrease the cost of final value-added surface densification wood products. The first optimized advanced densification process that prepared surface-densified wood product by replacing the traditional time-consuming pressurization stage with only a short vacuum process was investigated. Formulations with nanoparticles were successfully impregnated into maple and oak engineered wood flooring planks by using a vacuum time from 30 s to 10 min without further pressurizing during the impregnation process. The properties of these short vacuum process impregnated wood products were also comparable to or even superior to the conventional vacuum/pressure impregnated wood products. The Brinell surface hardness of impregnated maple wood were improved 205% with a 30s vacuum process and oak wood were improved 108% with 60s vacuum process. The second optimized advanced surface densification process contained three steps process. The 1st step consists on application of a layer of resin on the wood surface by roller or curtain coater; the 2nd step is using a 60s vacuum to penetrate the resin into the wood surface to a target depth 1-2 mm; the 3rd step is to cure the impregnated wood with UV/thermal dual in situ polymerization process. The chemical retention decreased drastically with this approach compare to conventional vacuum/pressure impregnation process. 22% improvement of the Brinell surface hardness was found through this low cost approach. Electron beam (EB) and UV/thermal dual cure process which was industrial viable online in situ polymerization process have been successfully developed to cure the surface densification wood products. The efficacy of EB and UV/thermal dual cure was validated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and photo-DSC characterization. The results showed that EB cure is a powerful instant online polymerization method to cure the fully penetrated chemical surface densification wood products with a relative high capital investment on equipment. UV/thermal dual cure method is a cost-effective approach to polymerize the roller/coater resin application and vacuum penetration surface densified wood products. In general, this study implied that reduce cost from surface densification process is possible through application of resin by roller/curtain coater followed with a short vacuum process to penetrate the resin into wood surface. This work also implied that in situ UV/thermal dual cure could replace the high cost EB cure surface densification products, which in turn, favour our industrial to adopt this technology cost-effectively.
COST CONTROL
OPTIMIZATION
IMPREGNATION
NANOPARTICLES
SURFACE PROPERTIES
DENSIFICATION
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Development of value-added products from BC low-quality wood resource using nano-based technology literature review

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5727
Author
Cai, X.
Akhtar, A.
Feng, Martin
Wan, Hui
Zhang, S.Y. (Tony)
Date
March 1909
Edition
39278
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
type phenolic resin/layered silicate nanocomposite. Chem. Mater. 13, 4221-4226. Cai, X. 2007
Author
Cai, X.
Akhtar, A.
Feng, Martin
Wan, Hui
Zhang, S.Y. (Tony)
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment.
Date
March 1909
Edition
39278
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
22 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
British Columbia
Research
Glue
Series Number
W-2770
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
A literature review was conducted to identify potentially effective nano-based technology for improving wood attributes in order to develop competitive specialty wood products. The review covered both conventional chemical treatment methods and nano-based methods. Traditional chemical treatments have shown to be effective in improving wood hardness, dimensional stability, stiffness, fire resistance, UV resistance, biological resistance and aesthetic appeal. However, nanotechnology offers new opportunities for further improving wood product attributes due to some very unique and desirable properties of chemical materials in the form of particles in nano scale. The advantages of nanotechnology appear to be particularly obvious when applied to create polymer nanocomposites such as wood coatings. Polymer nanocomposites consist of a continuous polymer matrix which contains inorganic particles of a size below approximately 100 nm at least in one dimension. Due to the material nature of solid wood products, creating a continuous polymer matrix with effective inorganic nanoparticles inside wood cells and lumens would be very difficult. The most promising areas of applying nanotechnology to create improvement opportunities would be wood coatings and wood adhesives. It is recommended that research be carried out to explore the potential of nanotechnology in wood coatings and adhesives and their applications in B.C. wood species and wood products.
Finishing
Glue - Research
Nanotechnology
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Further development and commercialization of ultra-low density composites : investigation of the formulations impact on drying (I)

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39877
Author
Zhang, Yaolin
Deng, James
Cai, X.
Date
June 2014
Material Type
Research report
Field
Bioproducts
PDF
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Author
Zhang, Yaolin
Deng, James
Cai, X.
Contributor
Canadian Forest Services
Date
June 2014
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
22 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Bioproducts
Research Area
Biomaterials
Subject
Composites
Drying
Density
Packaging
Series Number
Transformative Technologies Program
Project no.301007944
E-4901
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
This study is a subtask under the “lab experiment on drying” project. This investigation consists to: 1) screen the main factors of the formulations impact on the drying process of the ultra-low density fiber composites (ULDC); 2) evaluate the effects of these main factors and try to optimize the formulations to shorten the drying process of ULDC; 3) have parameters for setting-up the new dryer.
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