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Alternate uses for wood treated with carbon-based preservatives at the end of service life

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42901
Author
Stirling, Rod
Daniels, C. Robert
Morris, Paul I.
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Stirling, Rod
Daniels, C. Robert
Morris, Paul I.
Contributor
Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Waste utilization
Utilization
Recycling
Preservatives carbon
Preservatives
Series Number
W-2976
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The absence of commercial facilities to recycle or recover value from wood treated with metal-based wood preservatives at the end of its service life is one of the most significant negative points in the generally positive life cycle analysis of treated wood. Wood treated with carbon-based preservatives (metal-free) may be far easier to recycle or recover value from since the preservatives are relatively vulnerable to thermal, chemical and biological breakdown. As a result they might be destroyed by kraft pulping, combustion or composting of treated wood. The present research evaluates the use of carbon-based preservative-treated wood in these processes. Kraft pulps produced from wood freshly treated with recommended loadings of carbon-based preservatives contained significant quantities of didecyldimethylammonium carbonate (DDAcarbonate), propiconazole and tebuconazole. However, lower preservative concentration in the wood and intensive pulping may be able to produce pulps without detectable preservatives. The azoles were also detected in significant quantities in the black liquor (DDAcarbonate was not analysed in black liquor). No azoles were found in the ash produced from combustion, but significant quantities were detected in the filtered smoke. DDAcarbonate was not detected in the filtered smoke. Analysis of DDAcarbonate in ash was inconclusive. A composting experiment has been set up and is in progress. Data on preservative breakdown during composting is expected next year.
RECYCLING
Preservatives - Carbon
Waste - Utilization for pulp
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Analysis of western red cedar heartwood extractives by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and identification of unknown compound J

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1428
Author
Daniels, C. Robert
Stirling, Rod
Date
February 2009
Edition
37928
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Daniels, C. Robert
Stirling, Rod
Date
February 2009
Edition
37928
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
23 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Thuja
Thuja plicata
Series Number
General Revenue Report Project No. 3807
W-2604
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
To better understand the role extractives play in western red cedar’s decay resistance, commonly detected but unknown extractives need to be identified and evaluated for their potential contribution to natural durability. A new liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for separating extractives from western red cedar has been developed. Mass spectral detection provides useful structural information that gives increased confidence in peak identifications and helps to identify unknown peaks. Using LC/MS data, combined with data from UV and NMR spectroscopy, unknown compound J commonly found in many samples of WRC we have analysed, was identified as alpha-thujaplicin. This was known to be a major extractive in eastern white cedar but was considered to be a negligible component of WRC. Its potential contribution to the durability of WRC has not been considered in previous work attempting to correlate durability to specific extractives.
Thuja plicata - Extractives
Thujaplicins
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Antisapstain quality assurance program

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub40954
Author
Daniels, C. Robert
Smith, R.S.
Date
March 1990
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Daniels, C. Robert
Smith, R.S.
Date
March 1990
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
17 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Stain fungal
Stain
Preservatives tests
Preservatives
Series Number
1781K401
W-810
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Summary included
Preservatives - Tests
Stains - Fungal
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Assessment of a transverse antisapstain chemical spray system

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub4199
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Smith, R.S.
Daniels, C. Robert
Minchin, D.
Date
August 1988
Edition
40940
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Smith, R.S.
Daniels, C. Robert
Minchin, D.
Date
August 1988
Edition
40940
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
7 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Stain fungal
Stain
Spraying
Series Number
17-43-K-104
W-607
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Spraying
Stains - Fungal - Control
Documents
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Causes of hemlock brownstain. Phase 4. Monitoring of biological and chemical parameters in hem-fir lumber over time. (Fourth of six reports)

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub4315
Author
Kreber, B.
Daniels, C. Robert
Date
March 1993
Edition
41085
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Kreber, B.
Daniels, C. Robert
Date
March 1993
Edition
41085
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Tsuga Heterophylla
Tsuga
Stain
Series Number
Forestry Canada No. 52C
Contract no. 1712K024
W-1036
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Biological and chemical changes were evaluated in freshly sawn amabilis fir and western hemlock lumber (hem-fir) over 10 weeks of outside storage. Both wood species commonly contained brownstain microscopically in heartwood and sapwood. Microorganisms were often found in discoloured samples, but brownstain could not be linked to the presence of microorganisms. Qualitative HPLC analysis was employed on methanol extracted hem-fir segments over time, but this approach provided no indication about potential precursors to hemlock brownstain. However, the HPLC method developed produced a reliable separation and identification of nine wood constituents in hem-fir lumber and can be used for future quantitative analysis. The factors producing macroscopic brownstain were not understood, but a high moisture content appeared to be essential to transport precursors of hemlock brownstain to the wood surface.
Tsuga heterophylla - Stains, Chemical
Stains, Chemical
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Characteristics of waterlogged western red cedar and western hemlock wood : implications for the salvage of timber from the Kinbasket reservoir in B.C.

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1064
Author
Middleton, G.R.
Lum, Conroy
Daniels, C. Robert
Date
December 1997
Edition
37465
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Middleton, G.R.
Lum, Conroy
Daniels, C. Robert
Contributor
Forest Renewal BC
Date
December 1997
Edition
37465
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Tsuga Heterophylla
Tsuga
Timber
Thuja plicata
Series Number
W-1470
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Samples of western hemlock [Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.] and western red cedar [Thuja plicata Donn] trees completely submerged standing in a fresh water reservoir for approximately 24 years were examined in terms of relative wood density, extractives content in cedar and mechanical properties of small clear specimens. Due to diameter limitations in the sample material, test results for modulus of elasticity (MOE) in compression parallel-to-the-grain were found to be unreliable, but could be expected to compare to published values in a like manner as other test results. Based on the results of tests for wood density, extractives content and strength properties of small clears, the sound wood quality of submerged western hemlock and western red cedar is comparable to that of these species in general. Mitigating these favourable results, however, were the low proportion of sound logs recovered, external checking of log surfaces, and fine shake observed in red cedar which could have a negative impact on appearance grades. Definite determination of submerged wood quality would require sawing of logs, and evaluation of lumber yield and properties, and long-term tests for durability of the red cedar.
FRBC Contract No. 976C057
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Chemical analysis development : progress report. First of three reports

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub4318
Author
Daniels, C. Robert
Date
March 1993
Edition
41088
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Daniels, C. Robert
Date
March 1993
Edition
41088
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
8 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Preservatives
Analysis
Series Number
Forestry Canada No. 40
Contract no. 1712L022
W-1032
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Several problem areas exist for lumber manufacturers such as, application of antisapstain chemicals, hemlock brownstain and disposal of PRF resin used by wood lamination plants. The ability to monitor the application of antisapstain chemicals can prevent monetary claims against the industry and improve our credibility as a supplier. The mechanism by which hemlock brownstain occurs must be fully understood in order to control it. Lumber lamination plants must have a way of monitoring their waste PRF resin in order to meet provincial environmental regulations.
Preservatives - Chemical analysis
Preservatives - Experimental
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DDAC penetration into wood surfaces

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41117
Author
Weigel, G.
Daniels, C. Robert
Date
March 1995
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Weigel, G.
Daniels, C. Robert
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 1995
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
19 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Preservatives tests
Preservatives
Analysis
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 36
Contract no. 1712L022
W-1187
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) is a chemical commonly used in wood protection applications. The penetration of DDAC into wood has implications for efficacy as well as the development of surface analysis techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In order to gain a better understanding of the factors which affect the penetration of DDAC into wood, we saw a need for a technique which can be used to better define the distribution of DDAC within the wood. The technique developed in this project combines a microtome wood sampling procedure with a suitably modified version of Forintek's HPLC method for DDAC analysis. The detection limit was 500ng DDAC per sample vial, or 250ng per 32mm x 7mm x 100µm wood slice. The method was used to profile DDAC distribution in dip-treated wet and dry amabilis fir, Douglas fir, lodgepole pine and western hemlock sapwoods. For all samples tested, detectible DDAC penetration was found to be limited to less than 1mm below the surface. Dry samples were found to retain approximately twice as much DDAC as wet samples, and wet samples were found to retain a higher percentage of their total DDAC near the surface than dry samples. A follow-up study should be done using the techniques described in this paper to analyze DDAC penetration in a larger sample set. The study should compare DDAC penetration in dip, spray and pressure treatments, and should examine the relationship between the penetration of DDAC and other relevant chemicals such as borates and iodopropynylbutyl carbamate (IPBC).
Preservatives - Alkylammonium compound (AAC)
Preservatives - Tests
Preservatives - Chemical analysis
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Determination of DDAC surface retention by FTIR : Test III - effect of surface texture

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41118
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Daniels, C. Robert
Weigel, G.
Date
March 1995
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Daniels, C. Robert
Weigel, G.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 1995
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
12 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Spectroscopy
Preservatives tests
Preservatives
Infrared spectroscopy
Analysis
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 36
Contract no. 1712L022
W-1188
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) has been identified as a potential analytical method that might improve monitoring of sapstain control chemicals application in sawmills. The main benefit from use of this technique would be the ability to respond immediately to application problems identified. Based on preliminary laboratory data Bomem Inc., Forintek Canada Corp. (FCC) and the Pacific Forestry Centre (PFC) agreed to undertake research aimed at the development of FTIR for commercial application in sawmills. The first stage in this project was to validate the FTIR method in the laboratory. A protocol was agreed upon for a test which would determine the precision of the FTIR retention predictions on a variety of wood surfaces. Wood strips of rough, planed and intermediate surface texture were prepared. At FCC a technique was devised by which the wood strips were treated with known amounts of DDAC. Intermediate textured replicate samples were treated to known retentions of DDAC and sent to PFC to use in calibrating the FTIR instrument. Additionally, 20 replicates of each surface texture were treated with random amounts of DDAC over the range 0 - 200ug/cm squared. These "unknowns" were also sent to PFC for analyses by FTIR and prediction of DDAC retentions. Although correlation between actual and predicted DDAC retentions was linear within a particular surface texture, results show a mean difference or error between the actual (weight uptake) and FTIR determinations of DDAC retentions of 46% (standard deviation 28%). Therefore, overall, the FTIR analytical method gave unsatisfactory results. Our conclusion is that, based on the current calibration, the FTIR analytical method is not sufficiently accurate for general sawmill application. The surface texture of the wood being scanned significantly affected the retention of DDAC as determined by FTIR and corrections for surface texture would need to be incorporated into the software if further development was to be considered. Additionally, other variables than surface texture (e.g. formulation additives) may influence analytical results and were not considered in this study.
Preservatives - Alkylammonium compound (AAC)
Preservatives - Tests
Preservatives - Chemical analysis
Spectroscopy, Infrared
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Development of methods for identifying commercially important Canadian woods. Part III

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub36945
Author
Nault, J.R.
Daniels, C. Robert
Swan, E.P.
Date
August 1987
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Nault, J.R.
Daniels, C. Robert
Swan, E.P.
Date
August 1987
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
54 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Sorting
Logs
Wood
Identification
Series Number
W-622
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Logs - Sorting
Lumber - Sorting
Identification - Woods - Tests, Colour
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22 records – page 1 of 3.