Skip header and navigation

61 records – page 1 of 7.

Accuracy of check modeling and its effect on lumber value recovery

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1357
Author
Orbay, L.
Date
March 2007
Edition
37841
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
of British Columbia through the Forestry Innovation Investment Market Development Program. Forintek
Author
Orbay, L.
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment
Date
March 2007
Edition
37841
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
42 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Seasoning degrade
Seasoning
Recovery
Process control
Prevention
Series Number
Recipient Agreement No.: FII-MDP-07-0016
Contract No.: 2007-5155
W-2441
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Recovery - Process control
Seasoning - Degrade - Prevention
Documents
Less detail

Advanced methods of encapsulation

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub6091
Author
Osborne, Lindsay
Roy-Poirier, A.
Date
November 2016
Edition
44220
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Officer, Fire Safety Group, National Research Council Canada Forestry Innovation Investment 1200
Author
Osborne, Lindsay
Roy-Poirier, A.
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment
Date
November 2016
Edition
44220
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
66 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Building construction
Wood frame
Design
Fire
Series Number
W-3261
Language
English
Abstract
Neither the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) [1], nor any provincial code, such as the British Columbia Building Code (BCBC) [2], currently provide “acceptable solutions” to permit the construction of tall wood buildings, that is buildings of 7 stories and above. British Columbia, however, was the first province in Canada to allow mid-rise (5/6 storey) wood construction and other provinces have since followed. As more mid-rise wood buildings are erected, their benefits are becoming apparent to the industry, and therefore they are gaining popularity and becoming more desirable. Forest product research has now begun to shift towards more substantial buildings, particularly in terms of height. High-rise buildings, typically taller than 6 storeys, are currently required to achieve 2 h fire resistance ratings (FRR) for floors and other structural elements, and need to be of non-combustible construction, as per the “acceptable solutions” of Division B of the NBCC [1]. In order for a tall wood building to be approved, it must follow an “alternative solution” approach, which requires demonstrating that the design provides an equivalent or greater level of safety as compared to an accepted solution using non-combustible construction. One method to achieve this level of safety is by ‘encapsulating’ the assembly to provide additional protection before wood elements become involved in the fire, as intended by the Code objectives and functional statements (i.e., prolong the time before the wood elements potentially start to char and their structural capacity is affected). It is also necessary to demonstrate that the assembly, in particular the interior finishes, conform to any necessary flame spread requirements. The Technical Guide for the Design and Construction of Tall Wood Buildings in Canada [3] recommends designing a tall wood building so that it is code-conforming in all respects, except that it employs mass timber construction. The guide presents various encapsulation methods, from full encapsulation of all wood elements to partial protection of select elements. National Research Council Canada (NRC), FPInnovations, and the Canadian Wood Council (CWC) began specifically investigating encapsulation techniques during their Mid-Rise Wood Buildings Consortium research project, and demonstrated that direct applied gypsum board, cement board and gypsum-concrete can delay the effects of fire on a wood substrate [4]. There is extensive data on the use of gypsum board as a means of encapsulation for wood-frame assemblies and cold-formed steel assemblies. However, tall wood buildings are more likely to employ mass timber elements due to higher load conditions, requirements for longer fire resistance ratings, as well as other factors. There is little knowledge currently available related to using gypsum board directly applied to mass timber, or in other configurations, for fire protection. Testing performed to date has been limited to direct applied Type X gypsum board using standard screw spacing, and showed promising results [5, 6, 7]. This represents an opportunity for other configurations that might provide enhanced protection of wood elements to be investigated. Being able to provide equivalent fire performance of assemblies between non-combustible and combustible construction will thus improve the competiveness of tall timber buildings by providing additional options for designers.
Revision of March 2015 edition
Documents
Less detail

Assessment of combustibility parameters of structural composite lumber

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub3149
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Date
March 2014
Edition
39807
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
PDF
Ajoutez cet article à votre liste de sélections pour demander le PDF - Add this item to your selection list to request the PDF
for: Forestry Innovation Investment Ltd. Suite 1200 – 1130 West Pender St. Vancouver, BC, V6E 4A4
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment
Date
March 2014
Edition
39807
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
16 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Structural composites
Lumber
Fire
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
The present work aims at evaluating the combustibility characteristics (i.e. reaction to fire) of structural composite lumber (SCL) when tested in compliance with the cone calorimeter standard ISO 5660 [7, 8, 9]. More precisely, this study evaluates the heat release rate, total heat release, mass loss, effective heat of combustion, smoke obscuration as well as the presence of toxic gases when SCL products are tested in conformance with ISO 5660. Moreover, this study is solely focused on SCL elements that are thick enough to act as semi-infinite solids (thermally thick solids), as opposed to typical thin combustible finish products. Tests data are also compared to those obtained for visually-graded solid wood specimens of the SPF species group.
Combustibility
Composite Lumber
Laminated products - Fire resistance
Structural Composites - Properties
PDF
Ajoutez cet article à votre liste de sélections pour demander le PDF - Add this item to your selection list to request the PDF
Documents
Less detail

A benchmarking study for structural wood products demand in the People's Republic of China

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5574
Author
Gaston, Chris
Maplesden, F.
Date
March 2003
Edition
37646
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
of these surveys. TABLE OF CONTENTS FORESTRY INNOVATION INVESTMENT LTD. ©2003 v Abstract i
Author
Gaston, Chris
Maplesden, F.
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment.
Date
March 2003
Edition
37646
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
103 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Market Analysis
Subject
Markets
Building construction
Series Number
3833
W-1944
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
China has long been recognised as a major potential market for wood-based products. This view has been fuelled by the scale of the domestic market, rising GDP per capita (albeit from a low base), a demonstrated government commitment to housing reform, reduced timber supplies and, more recently, China's accession to the World Trade Organisation (WTO). These enormous market changes will have significant implications for forest products exporters. A cursory examination of the literature suggests that while there is considerable information and analysis of past trends, few of these provide comprehensive clues to the real areas of competitive advantage for softwood producers, or provide insights into the demands of future Chinese wood products consumers, who will undisputedly be of a different genre to the past consumer. This study investigates these potential opportunities via a two-part literature review and the results of a market benchmarking survey of almost 1,000 existing or pending homeowners in Beijing, Nanjing and Shanghai, three cities which have been identified with the largest potential for increased demand for wood products related to housing. The first of the literature reviews focuses on the published demographics of housing demand in China, and serves as a background to the benchmarking survey results. The second review is a paper written by Dr. David Cohen at the University of British Columbia, and investigates the cultural, political and societal changes and its impacts on foreigners doing business in China. The benchmarking survey was intended to record the existing awareness of wood-frame residential buildings, along with positive and negative attributes that they associate with these structures. Highlights of this study include:
At over 1.2 billion people, exploding urbanization, steady economic growth and a significant housing deficit, the growth in demand for housing materials/systems will be massive over the coming decades. At the same time, government reform has created a housing market where consumer quality demands exceed what was previously offered by the State.
With continued environmental protection policies, self-sufficiency in building materials will continue to decline, relying more and more on imports. (Note: overall imports surged by 63.4% year on year in January of 2003, to US$31billion; exports grew by 37.3% to US$29.8 billion, leaving China with its first monthly trade deficit since December 1996. [The Economist])
Like Japan, China’s population is aging, largely due to their “one child” policy. The number of people aged 60 and over is predicted to double in size by 2020.
Income distribution in China is uneven geographically and the disparity is widening. 2.2% of the population of China, living in such cities as Shanghai and Beijing, had reported annual household incomes between US$10,000 and US$15,000 in 2001 (CPIRC). This is considered a very affluent income level in China, a point that must be kept in mind regarding the population’s ability to pay for B.C./Canadian wood products. In contrast, over 50% of the population in China live in western and inland parts of China and earning less that US$1,800 in 2001.
These income levels were confirmed in the market benchmarking analysis of this study, showing annual household incomes among the respondents of primarily between CDN$4,600 and CDN$8,900 per year (26,000 to 50,000 RMB). It should be noted that the vast majority of these household incomes are earned by two people, meaning the average income per person is half this.
Further, average monthly rents for those that did not yet own their homes was CDN$191 for Beijing, CDN$122 for Nanjing and CDN$143 for Shanghai for those surveyed. Surprisingly though, the average existing/expected home purchase size (primarily apartments) was 97 m2 at a price of CDN$72,000 for Beijing, 125 m2 at a price of CDN$75,000 for Nanjing, and 109 m2 at a price of CDN$83,000 for Shanghai. There are two explanations for this divergence between income levels and willingness to pay for housing. First, savings rate is very high in China as compared to Canada. Second, not unlike Japan, interest rates are very low. It will be interesting to see what the existing levels of bad debts in China’s banking system does to the latter in the coming years.
Although evolving, China’s cultural, political, social and economic realities necessitate that B.C./Canadian exporters understand the environment to succeed. The need for local joint ventures, an assessment of risks/costs/benefits and a clear understanding of the dynamics of this market are critical.
The awareness of North American platform-frame and Japanese post & beam wood building systems was significant in all three cities investigated. For example, 44% of the respondents in Nanjing were aware of Japanese post & beam and 22% aware of North American platform-frame homes. Awareness came primarily from advertisements in China, followed by exposure through television / cinema programming. Awareness of wood-based home systems increased both with the respondent’s level of income and education.
There was an even higher awareness of combined wood / concrete / masonry building systems. This was found as a curious result as evidence of such structures in urban China is not evident. Further investigation revealed that the high awareness comes from the respondents’ previous life in (or knowledge of) rural homes in China where such structures are common. This is a very important issue regarding the Chinese connotations of wood-based homes. The image of these masonry/wood rural homes is not high, but rather associated with subsistence living. This is a much needed area for further market research, as it will not be clear whether or not this influences responses to positive / negative attitudes toward wood-based homes (next two highlights).
Aesthetics of wood-framed homes was the number one positive attribute in the survey in all three cities, followed by its insulative properties and environmental protection. Attributes such as “natural” and comfortable were also common among respondents. It is interesting to see that the performance of wood structures was NOT listed as a positive except for its earthquake resistance (see negative attributes).
On the negative attributes side, concerns over fire ranked number one in all three cities. The other negative attributes noted were virtually all performance related, including lack of insect resistance, moisture resistance, or even seismic concerns (conflicting with the positive mention above). Dealing with the concern over these negatives will be key in any promotion activity in China.
The results of this study suggest that there is a strong potential demand B.C./Canadian wood products/systems. In addition to continuing exposure through the existing promotion of high-end single-family homes, it is recommended that the greatest potential lie in the recognition of the cultural, social, political and economic realities that exist for housing in China. These largely point toward increased wood-use in their common low-rise multi-family structures. This must include dealing with the existing negative performance connotations of wood by the Chinese.
Promotional efforts by our government and industry need to incorporate the knowledge gained by the market intelligence generated in this and ongoing market research studies.
Forest products - Markets - China
Building construction - China
Documents
Less detail

Benchmarking wood use in roofs of multi-family housing in China

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1260
Author
Wahl, A.
Date
May 2004
Edition
37718
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
I N C H I N A M A Y 2 0 0 4 Prepared for Forestry Innovation Investment by Antje Wahl
Author
Wahl, A.
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment.
Date
May 2004
Edition
37718
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Market Analysis
Subject
Roofs
Markets
China
Building construction
Series Number
4281
W-2099
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This benchmarking study aims at providing the Canadian industry, agencies and governments with the necessary understanding of the knowledge and perception of wood roof trusses among specifiers in selected urban regions in China for ongoing and future promotions of wood roof trusses in China. The objectives of this project are the following: 1. Assess current awareness, knowledge and perception of wood roof trusses in multi-family housing among specifiers (architects, engineers and builders/developers); 2. Examine how decisions on roofing/building systems and materials are made; 3. Determine best ways to transfer knowledge about wood roof truss systems to specifiers. Two separate surveys were carried out for benchmarking wood use in roofs in China. The first survey was part of a survey of Chinese building specifiers (Benchmarking Chinese Building Specifiers (Cohen and Ding 2004)) carried out in October/November 2003. A second survey was administered during the Conference on Hybrid Building Construction in China and Wood Roof Truss Workshops in Shanghai and Beijing in December 2003.
Forest products - Markets - China
Building construction - China
Roofs
Documents
Less detail

Bondability of beetle-killed lodgepole pine for the manufacture of wood composite products

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5605
Author
Feng, Martin
He, G.
Date
January 2006
Edition
37778
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
. acknowledges the assistance provided by the Province of British Columbia through the Forestry Innovation
Author
Feng, Martin
He, G.
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment
Date
January 2006
Edition
37778
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
16 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Wood
Utilization
Recovery
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Insect killed
Series Number
5156
W-2253
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
To maximize value recovery from post mountain pine beetle - wood (MPB wood) for the manufacture of wood composite products, it is desirable to use completely MPB wood as OSB, MDF or particleboard furnish. The objective of this study in the first fiscal year was to determine and quantify the chemical properties, bondability and wettability of grey stage MPB wood in order to minimize or reduce the impact of beetle-killed wood on composite panel manufacturing. Investigation of the chemical and physical properties of grey stage MPB wood, such as wood pH and buffer capacity, wettability and bondability was conducted. Green lodgepole pine and aspen were used to compare the test results. Various wood furnish derived from MPB wood and green lodgepole pine have been prepared for the manufacturing testing of OSB, MDF and particleboard panels in the next fiscal year. The test results indicated that some basic chemical and physical properties of lodgepole pine, particularly in the sapwood area, had undergone changes associated with MPB infestation. Based on the test results so far, the following conclusions are made: 1. The pH values of both the MPB heartwood and sapwood were lower and their acid and base buffer capacities were higher than those of the green lodgepole pine. As a result, the curing rate of pH sensitive adhesives such as UF and MUF may be affected. 2. MPB sapwood showed extremely fast and high water absorption but its thickness swell was lower than those of the MPB heartwood, green pine sapwood and heartwood regardless of water temperatures. 3. Thickness swell of the MPB sapwood almost reached to the maximum in the first two hours of water soaking at 20°C. 4. The water absorption of sapwood was higher but the thickness swell was lower than that of heartwood in both MPB wood and green lodgepole pine. The rates of water absorption and thickness swell of these woods were fast in the first several hours and slowed down thereafter. 5. Both the MPB heartwood and the green pine heartwood behaved very similarly in terms of water absorption rate and percentages. It appeared that the beetle infestation did not significantly affect the water absorption property of the MPB heartwood. 6. Edge thickness swell and center thickness swell of the MPB sapwood behaved very similarly in terms of the rates and percentages, which were quite different from those of the other woods and suggest that the blue stained MPB sapwood had probably undergone profound changes. 7. Higher temperatures led to faster and more water absorption. The water temperature affected the MPB sapwood more than the MPB heartwood. 8. Thickness swell reached to the equilibrium faster at higher temperatures. 9. Water pH had little influence on water absorption but affected thickness swell. The thickness swell of both MPB wood and lodgepole pine decreased under both acidic and alkaline conditions. 10. The bonding strength of MPB and green lodgepole pine with liquid PF, powdered PF and liquid UF were generally comparable to that of aspen at high press temperatures. Both the MPB wood and green pine showed lower bonding strength than aspen at low press temperatures. This may have significant implications on the bonding quality of the core layer of panels. 11. At high temperature (200°C), green pine produced substantially higher MDI bonding strength while MPB wood and aspen gave lower and similar bonding strength. This was also the case at low press temperature (140ºC), particularly in longer press time. The MDI bonding strength of MPB wood was close to that of aspen under all these press time and temperature conditions. However, aspen appeared to be less sensitive to low press temperature in terms of bonding with MDI. Therefore, green lodgepole pine may be more suitable as a core furnish material than the MPB wood in the manufacture of OSB, where MDI resin is widely used as a core layer adhesive. Grey stage MPB wood may be more suitable as an OSB face furnish material. This hypothesis will be carefully tested in the 2nd fiscal year of this project.
Insect killed wood - Utilization
Insect-killed wood - Recovery
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - North America
Documents
Less detail

British Columbia forest products trend analysis in export markets 2012 : Volume 1 : Global market overview and BC exports

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub3152
Author
Poon, James
Date
September 2013
Edition
39810
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
and BC Exports Prepared for Forestry Innovation Investment By James Poon Business Analysis
Author
Poon, James
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
September 2013
Edition
39810
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Market Analysis
Subject
Markets
British Columbia
Series Number
W-3073
Language
English
Documents
Less detail

British Columbia forest products trend analysis in export markets 2012 : Volume 2 : Export market summaries

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub3153
Author
Poon, James
Date
September 2013
Edition
39811
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Summaries Prepared for Forestry Innovation Investment By James Poon Business Analysis, FPInnovations
Author
Poon, James
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
September 2013
Edition
39811
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
63 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Market Analysis
Subject
Markets
Series Number
W-3074
Language
English
Documents
Less detail

Les Chapes de béton et l'humidité emprisonnée dans le bois lamellé-croisé pendant la construction

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub7796
Author
Wang, Jieying
Date
Octobre 2020
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
of cross- laminated timber. Rapport de FPInnovations à l’intention de Forestry Innovation Investment et du
Author
Wang, Jieying
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Forestry Innovation Investment
Date
Octobre 2020
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
3 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Building systems
Subject
Concrete
Construction
Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT)
Moisture
Drying
Performance
Water repellents
Series Number
InfoNote 2020 n.9
Language
French
Abstract
FPInnovations a effectué un essai en laboratoire afin d’étudier la teneur en humidité (TH) du bois lamellé-croisé (CLT) découlant du coulage de chapes de béton, et l’efficacité avec laquelle un enduit imperméabilisant et une membrane permettent de de prévenir cette humidification.
Documents

InfoNote2020N9F.pdf

Read Online Download
Less detail

Characterising the dimensional stability, checking, and permeability of wood containing beetle-transmitted bluestain

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1219
Author
McFarling, S.M.
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Date
August 2003
Edition
37666
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
by the Province of British Columbia through the Forestry Innovation Investment Program. Forintek Canada Corp
Author
McFarling, S.M.
Byrne, Anthony (Tony)
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment.
Date
August 2003
Edition
37666
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
13 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Trees
Stain fungal
Stain
Preservatives penetration
Preservatives chromated copper arsenate CCA
Preservatives
Preservation
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Permeability
Penetration
Insects
Series Number
R2003-0133
W-1985
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The major defining characteristic of lumber cut from trees that have been infected with the mountain pine beetle is the extent of fungal bluestain in the sapwood. Forintek Canada Corp. scientists have previously observed that bluestained wood appears to have different dimensional stability characteristics than non-stained wood when subjected to repeated wetting and drying. Bluestained wood has also been reported to show increased permeability, which may make treatment with liquids such as wood preservatives easier. However, no data is available on how bluestained wood resulting from the beetle attack might affect. We therefore identified the need to generate data on the dimensional stability, checking, and permeability characteristics of bluestained wood compared with non-stained wood. To examine dimensional stability, specimens of bluestained and non-stained 2 x 4 in. lumber were subjected to wetting/drying cycles. After 5 and 10 cycles, the amount of bow, crook, cupping, twist, and checking was measured. The permeability of the wood was also determined by weighing end-matched specimens before and after a 1-, 4-, and 24-hour dip or after a pressure treatment cycle with chromated copper arsenate preservative, and then calculating the uptake and preservative retention. The results clearly show that when repeatedly wetted and dried, such as occurs in exterior end uses, bluestained beetle-killed wood is more dimensionally stable (less cupping and twist) and checks less than non-stained sapwood, but is more permeable to water. The stresses appear to be relieved by many micro-checks rather than fewer large checks. Overall, the improved dimensional stability should result in the lumber made from stained wood remaining straighter. Increased permeability of the bluestained wood was confirmed by data showing enhanced chromated copper arsenate (CCA) uptake and penetration. One implication of the stained sapwood treating more readily than non-stained wood is that in batches of preservative-treated wood, the stained wood is liable to be overtreated or the non-stained wood undertreated. As anticipated, bluestain in the sapwood had no effect on the penetration of preservative into the heartwood, the most refractory part of the wood. Treatment with CCA also masked the bluestain by coloring it green. The increased permeability probably also has implications for ease of air or kiln drying and possibly reduced degrade in the kiln.
Insects - Attack on trees
Stains - Fungal
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Defects
Preservatives - Permeability
Preservatives - Penetration
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Preservation
Preservatives - Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)
Defects
Documents
Less detail

61 records – page 1 of 7.