This report presents the importance of best management practices for mitigating erosion from resource roads and preventing sediment from entering a watercourse. Key to achieving these goals is the understanding of erosion from the road surface and the level of connectivity from the delivery point of the sediment-laden water onto the forest floor and the watercourse. This report provides a list of best management practices that is specific to resource roads.
Debris management at logging sites and handling facilities is of increasing concern due to the volume of accumulated material and the constrained options for disposal. In March 2014, B.C. Timber Sales (BCTS) provided a timber sale on Maurelle Island that produced a large quantity of detached bark which originated from a 132-ha harvest area. Harvesting was during March 2014, and the predominant source of bark was from 41 150 m3 of Douglas-fir which accounted for approximately half the harvested volume (88 050 m3 total harvest volume). The bark accumulated at both a log storage area and on a transport barge during loading and unloading. The bark was disposed of along two dead-end spur roads (Figure 1). One of the spur roads has a small S6 stream (non-fish bearing) crossing through it. The disposal of logging debris (bark) along spur roads had not been considered or tried before by the Strait of Georgia Business Area of BCTS. The bark for Douglas-fir accounts for 30% by volume, which is the highest overall volume of bark for all softwood species (on average bark accounts for 10 to 15%).
The Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada (FERIC) and the B.C. Ministry of Forests’ Resource Tenures and Engineering Branch surveyed users of closed-bottom corrugated-steel embedded culverts to find installations that generally conform to the Fish-stream Crossing Guidebook that was released in 2002 under the Forest Practices Code of British Columbia Act. This report describes seven sites that were visited, and includes the installation procedures and costs for each of the sites.
The Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada (FERIC) surveyed users of closed-bottom corrugated-steel embedded culverts within British Columbia and visited selected sites. This report presents information about the installations visited, including the installation procedures and costs. This report also provides suggestions for the implementation of future embedded culverts.
Forest managers in western Canada are now treating old forest roads and harvested sites to mitigate environmental concerns. This Compendium has been developed to assist practitioners in western Canada in selecting and implementing restoration measures appropriate to their needs and conditions. Watershed restoration activities, techniques and research trials in western North America are described and contacts for further information are given. Additions to the Compendium will be made on an ongoing basis.
Wetlands are a critical and valued component of boreal landscapes in northeastern Alberta, and they comprise a significant proportion of operational tenures within the in-situ oil sands region. While companies have made progress on avoidance and mitigation strategies to reduce their impacts to wetlands, they also face many common challenges, including pad, road, and culvert settlement; culvert bowing and failure; and tree mortality or other vegetation changes in wetlands adjacent to roads. This
document compiles a toolbox of shared practices currently in use by COSIA companies, or which have been used but were found to be unsuccessful.
Logging operations conducted during the spring may encounter a greater amount of bark sloughing from cut trees than during other times of the year. The sap flow in a tree during the spring can loosen bark, and depending on the tree species, it can result in bark becoming detached more easily during machine handling. In March 2014, B.C. Timber Sales (BCTS) provided a sale on Maurelle Island that produced a large quantity of detached bark. The bark accumulated at both the log storage area and on the transport barge during loading and unloading. The amount of bark on the barge was too much for the offload facility to accept, so it was left on the barge for the return trip to Maurelle Island. The bark was disposed of along two dead-end spur roads.
Galvanized steel (zinc coated) culverts have been used extensively as conduits for water management along resource roads. Practitioners have become accustomed to using galvanized culverts for many applications. There are, however, alternative coatings that may be better suited for local site and environmental conditions, thereby helping extend a culvert’s expected life. Although abrasion, culvert wall thickness, and coatings are all important considerations for determining the life expectancy of a culvert, this research note focuses on the site parameters identified in water samples that can be used as indicators to help avoid corrosion.
Forest operations across Canada are encountering increasingly difficult road conditions and more frequent access interruptions related to wet and weak road sections. Resource roads are considered a liability by many forest companies and their business model has been to create the lowest cost, lowest standard, resource road network possible that also will provide tolerable levels of access (i.e., some but not too many failures and hauling disruptions). Increasingly difficult operating conditions and frequent access interruptions, however, drive up costs and threaten the economic sustainability of forest operations.
Starting in 2017, FPInnovations has launched a project to provide its members with techniques and strategies that will offer more reliable and strong road sections and reduce overall road costs. A state-of-practice survey of FPInnovations members provided researchers with a comprehensive understanding of conventional means of responding to wet, weak road conditions in Canada. The report summarizes the responses to wet, weak resource road sections that were identified in the state-of-practice survey and provides an overview of the chief causes and related site indicators for wet, weak road conditions.
Recommended best practices are provided for a variety of conventional industry responses to wet, weak road sections. These address common misconceptions and knowledge gaps that reduce the effectiveness and increase the overall cost associated with the industry responses. These best practice recommendations were based upon findings from a literature review, product manufacturer information, and from researcher expertise.
The report also considers improvements to conventional practices, and advanced solutions that are potentially more effective and economic than the state-of-practice but are not widely exploited by industry. Eleven potential solutions from these two categories were compared and ranked in order of potential. The practice improvements selected for further study were soil compaction, and corduroy and access mats. The advanced solutions selected for further study were geosynthetics that offer both soil reinforcement and enhanced drainage, geocells, and TPCS, a technology to improve truck road-friendliness. Starting in 2021, FPInnovations will initiate field trials and life cycle cost analyses of these technologies.
This handbook is a compilation of erosion and sediment control practices aimed at aiding the forest industry, and includes background information to support such practices. These practices are often termed Best Management Practices (BMPs). The handbook will offer guidance for erosion prevention and sediment containment along forest roads where the driving forces are rain and moving water; erosion from wind and mass wasting processes will not be covered.