Skip header and navigation

25 records – page 1 of 3.

Croissance, propriétés et utilisations du Western Red Cedar

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub38910
Author
Gonzalez, J.S.
Date
March 2004
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Gonzalez, J.S.
Date
March 2004
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
42 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood quality
Wood
Thuja plicata
Quality control
Qualitative analysis
Physical properties
Growth
Series Number
E-3969
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
French
Abstract
Le Western Red Cedar est un arbre très répandu sur la côte Nord-Ouest du Canada et des États-Unis et dans les forêts pluviales de l'intérieur de la Colombie-Britannique (C.-B.). Cet arbre constitue l'une des essences résineuses les plus anciennes en Amérique du Nord et les plus résistantes à l'altération par les champignons ou les insectes. C'est pourquoi il peut atteindre une très grande taille. Depuis des temps immémoriaux, les Premières nations de la région du Nord-Ouest ont utilisé le bois, les branches, l'écorce et les racines du Western Red Cedar à des fins rituelles ou religieuses, ou dans la fabrication de maisons, de moyens de transport, de vêtements, d'objets domestiques ou d'accessoires de pêche ou de chasse. Mesurée en volume de bois debout, la présence des Red Cedars en C.-B. représente environ 750 millions de mètres cubes. Plus de la moitié de ces arbres se trouvent dans la région côtière, où ils se classent au deuxième rang parmi les conifères les plus répandus, la majeure partie de la côte se composant d'anciennes forêts, c'est-à-dire vieilles de plus de 250 ans. À eux seuls, les parcs ou d'autres zones protégées abritent quelque 50 millions de mètres cubes des Red Cedars présents dans la région côtière. Une portion notable de ces Red Cedars se trouve également dans la "forêt exploitable" de la Côte, dont une grande partie a obtenu, ou obtiendra bientôt, sa certification environnementale. Les jeunes plants de Red Cedar commencent à prendre de la maturité et, avec les Red Cedars plus anciens, sont exploités pour la grande valeur de leur bois. La quantité de Red Cedar exploités tourne autour de six millions de m3 par an, soit une quantité jugée écologiquement soutenable, compte tenu de la possibilité de coupe pour l'ensemble de la province. Le Western Red Cedar est un bois léger, de texture uniforme, de fil droit et dépourvu de résine. Ces caratéristiques en font un excellent bois d'oeuvre et une essence très recherchée pour les applications exigeant une résistance à l'altération par les champignons, une stabilité dimensionnelle ou un bon pouvoir isolant. Ce bois se prête à de nombreuses utilisations telles que la fabrication de revêtements extérieurs, de terrasses, de clôtures, d'accessoires de jardin, de rondins traditionnels ou de lamellés pour l'industrie de la construction, de poteaux de services publics, et de produits de spécialité tels que panneaux de revêtement intérieurs, instruments de musique et bardeaux de toit (souvent faits à partir de troncs d'arbres morts trouvés dans la forêt). Même si seuls les déchets de scierie sont employés dans la fabrication de la pâte à papier, l'excellente morphologie du Western Red Cedar est recherchée dans la production de pâte kraft pure ou mélangée, aux fins de fabrication de produits de papier pour usages spéciaux. Le Western Red Cedar a fait l'objet de nombreuses études scientifiques, particulièrement en ce qui a trait à ses propriétés chimiques exceptionnelles. Les matières extractibles contenues dans le bois de coeur agissent sur les caractéristiques de celui-ci dans une proportion bien supérieure à la quantité de matière présente. Ces matières extractibles donnent au bois son caractère particulier, et celles qui confèrent au Red Cedar sa grande durabilité font actuellement l'objet d'importantes découvertes. Des recherches sont présentement effectuées sur les utilisations possibles de l'huile de bois et des matières extractibles purifiées du bois. En Colombie-Britannique, on procède depuis 1987 à l'extraction et à la vente de l'huile des feuilles. Des recherches se poursuivent sur l'interrelation entre le taux de croissance, la densité et la durabilité du bois selon qu'il est soumis à différentes pratiques sylvicoles. Les données indiquent que la densité du bois de Red Cedar à croissance rapide est moindre que celle du bois ancien, mais cela n'affecte pas son utilité, étant donné qu'il sert principalement à des fins décoratives ou à la fabrication de produits non structuraux. Les recherches sur la durabilité du Red Cedar de seconde génération sont en cours, et tout semble indiquer que les matières extractibles contenues dans les jeunes arbres vigoureux de seconde génération sont beaucoup plus abondantes que celles présentes dans le bois de coeur des Red Cedars que l'on retrouve dans les forêts anciennes de même âge depuis la germination des graines. Cela est probablemetn attribuable en grande partie au fait que les microorganismes présents dans les arbres anciens sur pied finissent par dégrader les matières extractibles. Le Western Red Cedar constitue l'un des arbres les plus étudiés du monde entier. Ce document fait le point sur les connaissances actuelles concernant cette essence et traite de la croissance, des propriétés et des utilisations du Western Red Cedar.
Thuja plicata - Physical properties
Growth - Influence on quality
Growth - Influence on physical properties
Wood quality
Documents
Less detail

Influence of thinning on wood density and branch size of young western larch

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5543
Author
Sauter, U.H.
Gonzalez, J.S.
Gordon, J.R.
Schmidt, W.C.
Jaquish, B.C.
Date
March 1999
Edition
37489
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Sauter, U.H.
Gonzalez, J.S.
Gordon, J.R.
Schmidt, W.C.
Jaquish, B.C.
Date
March 1999
Edition
37489
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
21 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Treatment
Silviculture
Larix
Growth
Series Number
Technical Report No. 18
W-1544
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) is one of three native Larix species in North America, besides subalpine larch (Larix lyallii Parl.) and tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch). It easily reaches 50 m in total height. High wood density and strength usually characterize its wood. In British Columbia, western larch represents a minor component of the provincial timber supply. Due to extensive western larch plantations in southeastern British Columbia it promises to become an important wood species in this region. Throughout most of western larches' natural range, existing stands originated from natural regeneration following wildfires, and are often overstocked. Therefore, early reductions of stand densities by precommercial thinning became an important management tool to establish stabilized stands and to concentrate stand growth potential on fewer vigorous, well-formed trees. This process of maximizing total stand value rather than maximizing yield can be completed by later commercial thinning and artificial pruning. The intent of this study was to provide basic information on the relationship between tree spacing and the two major wood quality parameters wood density and branch size to support stand management decisions. From four 43/45-year-old western larch experimental stands in northwest Montana, 618 sample trees were chosen representing different stocking levels ranging from 270 to 6700 trees per hectare. From two pith-to-bark cores, taken at breast height for each tree, density profiles were obtained using Forintek's x-ray densitometer. Additionally, the largest branch diameters in 4 m-stem height and below in four selected plots on three sites were measured and analysed. The sample trees showed a strong relationship between width of spacing and tree height and diameter breast height. As expected, trees in the widest spaced plots grew the fastest. Despite large differences in diameter growth, no significant differences in average wood density occurred between spacings. A second moderate thinning on the best sites clearly showed that enhancing the wood density of western larch is possible. As expected the branch diameter increases nearly linearly with the width of the initial spacing in western larch stands. But for the most valuable part of the tree, the branch sizes do not exceed 20 mm even when a wide spacing as 4.6 by 4.6 m is applied. The overall high relative wood density level of about 0.52, which is the highest average wood density of the commercial softwood in North America, and a reasonable knot size confirm that western larch from managed stands remains a valuable tree species in future markets.
Larix occidentalis - Density
Larix occidentalis - Growth
Growth - Influence of silvicultural treatment
Documents
Less detail

Properties and uses of four western Canadian commercial tree species

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37410
Author
Gonzalez, J.S.
Date
March 1996
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Gonzalez, J.S.
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 1996
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 v.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood quality
Wood
Tsuga Heterophylla
Tsuga
Quality control
Qualitative analysis
Picea
Physical properties
Larix
Growth
Balsam
Canada
Fir
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 37
Contract no. 1215A806
W-1310
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Information describing the properties and uses of four commercial softwood species in western Canada is presented to help evaluate resource assessment needs and to help set research priorities. Western hemlock, western larch, white spruce and amabilis fir are each described with respect to the resource, the raw material, and manufacturing uses. Information on the resource includes tree description, the species distribution and commonly associated species, standing volume, growth and yield, important diseases and pests, and other damaging agents. Description of the raw material includes the gross and microscopic features of the wood, common defects, and physical (shrinkage and drying properties), chemical, and mechanical properties. Specified strengths based on clear wood samples and visually graded products are given whenever available. Manufacturing uses focus on current applications, and include products such as sawlogs, lumber, plywood and veneer, and pulp. Potential products such as laminated veneer lumber and other value-added engineered products are identified where information is available. Gaps in current knowledge about the species are identified and recommendations are made to fill these gaps. It is noted that information on how forest management practices impact wood characteristics and product yields is generally lacking.
Tsuga heterophylla - Physical properties
Larix occidentalis - Physical properties
Picea glauca - Physical properties
Abies amabilis - Physical properties
Growth - Influence on quality
Growth - Influence on physical properties
Wood quality
Documents
Less detail

Characteristics of Alberta's commercial tree species

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub985
Author
Gonzalez, J.S.
Date
March 1995
Edition
37360
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Gonzalez, J.S.
Contributor
Alberta Research Council
Date
March 1995
Edition
37360
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 v.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Alberta
British Columbia
Populus tremuloides
Populus
Pinus contorta
Pinus banksiana
Pinus
Picea
Black spruce
Betula
Balsam
Aspen
Fir
Series Number
W-1150
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This publication characterizes nine commercial tree species of Alberta. Included are descriptions of the range and volume of each species, their wood properties, and present and potential manufacturing uses.
Populus balsamifera
Populus tremuloides
Betula papyrifera
Abies balsamea
Abies lasiocarpa
Pinus banksiana
Pinus contorta Dougl var. latifolia
Picea mariana
Picea glauca
Documents
Less detail

Reference collection of world timbers

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37358
Author
Gonzalez, J.S.
Date
March 1994
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Gonzalez, J.S.
Date
March 1994
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
1 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood
Identification
Series Number
W-1147
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The objective is to maintain Forintek's reference collection of world timbers. Forty wood samples had been acquired from the Kerala Forest Research Institute and added to the eastern laboratory collection. Plans were made to transfer the eastern laboratory wood collection to the new location in Quebec.
Identification - Woods
Documents
Less detail

Exploring the use of average wood relative density of lodgepole pine sites as a predictor of MSR yield

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5505
Author
Gonzalez, J.S.
Lum, Conroy
Munro, B.D.
Date
March 1993
Edition
37304
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Gonzalez, J.S.
Lum, Conroy
Munro, B.D.
Date
March 1993
Edition
37304
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
27 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Stresses
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Grading
Series Number
Forestry Canada No. 32
Contract no. 1212K029
W-1013
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The average relative density of lodgepole pine trees from five sites in three regions of interior B.C. was determined using lumber from a previous joinery-yield study. The use of relative density as a predictor of a site's potential for machine-stress-rated (MSR) lumber was explored by comparing the MSR lumber yields for a high and a low relative density site. There was a significant difference in the average relative density of the sites within a region and between regions. The average relative density ranged from 0.39 to 0.42 with a standard deviation of 0.02 to 0.03. Relative density generally declined with increasing stem height. Logs from the lowest point (first 3.7 meters from stump height of 30 cm) in the stem were higher in relative density than the logs from the upper part of the stem. The yield of 2400f-2.OE MSR grade lumber decreased with decreasing log density. There was a positive and significant correlation between relative density on one hand and stiffness (MOE) and MSR lumber yield on the other. MOE was influenced only partly but significantly by relative density. The overall MSR yield for the high and low relative density sites was significantly different. The site with the higher average relative density gave higher yield of MSR grade 2400f-2.OE and lower rejects (lower than 1650f-1.5E grade), while the site with the lower average relative density produced a negligible amount of the high MSR grade and higher rejects. Trees with high relative density were necessary for producing the 2400f-2.OE grade. Therefore, assessing the average relative density of a site should also quantify the relative density of trees at the upper tail of the relative density distribution.
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Density
Grading - Lumber - Stress, Mechanical
Documents
Less detail

Density evaluation of western larch parent trees in B.C. tree improvement program

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37267
Author
Gonzalez, J.S.
Date
March 1992
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Gonzalez, J.S.
Date
March 1992
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Larix
Series Number
Forestry Canada No. 29
Contract no. 1212K010
W-906
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Pith-to-bark increment cores were obtained at breast height of 225 western larch parent trees from the interior of British Columbia. The cores were divided into juvenile (first 15 annual growth rings from the pith) and mature wood sections (from growth ring 16 to the bark) and assessed separately for wood density. The mature wood had an average wood density of 0.493 gms/cm3. This was significantly higher than the density of the juvenile wood which averaged 0.468 gms/cm3. The Spearman Rank Correlation between the mature and juvenile wood densities was 0.58 and highly significant (p = 0.0001).
Larix occidentalis
Documents
Less detail

Relative density of Douglas-fir parent trees selected under the British Columbia tree improvement program

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37231
Author
Gonzalez, J.S.
Mackay, J.F.Graham
Date
March 1991
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
0.405 2.6 2.2 • From: Gonzalez, J.S. 1987. Wood density of tree species in British Columbia. Report
Author
Gonzalez, J.S.
Mackay, J.F.Graham
Date
March 1991
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Trees
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Pseudotsuga
Series Number
Forestry Canada No. 38;1212X010
W-837
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The species averages for wood density of Canadian trees and standing timber volumes currently listed in the ASTM standard method D2555 are based on old surveys. When compared to two studies more recently conducted on the wood density of British Columbia- and Ontario-grown trees, the ASTM values suffered from much smaller sample sizes and shortage of data from the Ontario region. The ASTM values could be augmented or replaced with data from the British Columbia study to increase the precision in the estimates of the species population parameters. Data from the Ontario study should be used as supplementary information. The standing timber volumes for Canadian species in the ASTM are based on 1965 statistics and should be updated with the 1990 forest inventory compiled by Forestry Canada.
Pseudotsuga menziesii - Density
Trees - Improvement
Pseudotsuga menziesii - Improvement of stock
Documents
Less detail

Current applicability of standing timber volumes and wood density for Canadian species in ASTM Standard D2555 on establishing clear wood strength values

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37233
Author
Gonzalez, J.S.
Stieda, C.K.A.
Date
March 1991
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
r e s t r y S t a t i s t i c s . Dep. Trade and Commerce, Ottawa, Ontario. Gonzalez, J.S. 1990
Author
Gonzalez, J.S.
Stieda, C.K.A.
Date
March 1991
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
18 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Mechanical properties
Series Number
Forestry Canada No. 11;5410K024
W-839
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Pith-to-bark increment cores were obtained at breast height from 199 interior Douglas-fir parent trees located in the east Kootenay region of British Columbia. The cores were divided into equal lengths and were analyzed separately for wood density. The half portion close to the pith (inner half) was used to estimate the juvenile wood density; the outer half was used to estimate the wood density of the mature volume of the tree. The outer half was significantly higher in wood density than the inner half. When compared to other parent trees of the same species located in other interior seed zones, the outer half of these east Kootenay trees had significantly lower wood density.
Density
Strength
Documents
Less detail

Correlation between stem growth and density in young interior spruce

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37232
Author
Gonzalez, J.S.
Date
September 1990
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
extreme wood s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y . S i l v a e Genet. 18(3):57-61. Gonzalez, J.S. 1989. Wood
Author
Gonzalez, J.S.
Date
September 1990
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
16 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Picea
Growth
Series Number
Forestry Canada No. 39;5512X005
W-838
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The phenotypic correlation between wood density and stem growth (tree height and diameter) was examined in young interior spruce. The sample trees represented 40 half-sib families in two progeny test sites in British Columbia. In general, the relationship was found to be negative and weak. There were individual trees and families that showed fast growth and above-average wood density. If genetic correlations are equal to or weaker than the phenotypic correlations, and if the correlations persist in mature trees, it would be possible to select individual trees and families for fast growth without reducing wood density.
Picea - Growth
Picea - Density
Documents
Less detail

25 records – page 1 of 3.