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29 records – page 1 of 3.

Application de la vision artificielle dans les scieries europeennes : un rapport de voyage prepare pour le Conseil national de recherches du Canada (Mai 1988)

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5636
Author
Middleton, G.R.
Munro, B.D.
Morin, M.
Date
January 1991
Edition
38128
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Middleton, G.R.
Munro, B.D.
Morin, M.
Date
January 1991
Edition
38128
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
21 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Digitalization
Subject
Saw mills
Efficiency
Automatic control
Series Number
E-402
Location
Ottawa, Ontario
Language
French
Abstract
Sawmilling - Efficiency
Sawmills - Automation
Sawmills - Europe
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Les caractéristiques déterminant la qualité du bois: nature et conséquences pratiques

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub41843
Author
Jozsa, Les A.
Middleton, G.R.
Date
May 1997
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
sylvicole. 5. Forêts-Gestion. 1. Middleton, G.R. II. Forintek Canada Corp. Division de l’Est. Ill
Author
Jozsa, Les A.
Middleton, G.R.
Date
May 1997
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
42 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Trees
Quality control
Qualitative analysis
Canada
Series Number
Publication spéciale SP34F
E-3132
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
French
ISBN
0864885261
ISSN
08250030
Abstract
Les auteurs définissent la qualité du bois en fonction de ses emplois, puis décrivent l'anatomie et la croissance du bois en regard de ses caractéristiques microscopiques et macroscopiques telles qu'observées en coupe transversale. Les exigences liées aux emplois sont énoncées selon les différentes classes de bois. Diverses caractéristiques déterminant la qualité du bois sont présentées et leurs conséquences pratiques pour la transformation du bois et les produits sont expliquées. Ces caractéristiques sont: la densité du bois, les variations de la densité, la répartition des bois juvénile et adulte, la proportion de duramen et d'aubier, la longueur des fibres, l'orientation des microfibrilles, le bois de compression, les noeuds, le grain ou la texture, le fil et les substances extractibles. Enfin, les auteurs traitent de la possibilité de modifier les paramètres de croissance de l'arbre et la qualité du bois grâce à un contrôle de la densité du peuplement. Les forestiers sont invités à prendre en considération les répercussions des travaux sylvicoles propres à chaque station.
Assessment Methods
Forest - Resource
Forintek Canada Corp. - Publications
Qualite
Quality
Resource Assessment
Trees - Physiology
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Characteristics of waterlogged western red cedar and western hemlock wood : implications for the salvage of timber from the Kinbasket reservoir in B.C.

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub1064
Author
Middleton, G.R.
Lum, Conroy
Daniels, C. Robert
Date
December 1997
Edition
37465
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Middleton, G.R.
Lum, Conroy
Daniels, C. Robert
Contributor
Forest Renewal BC
Date
December 1997
Edition
37465
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Tsuga Heterophylla
Tsuga
Timber
Thuja plicata
Series Number
W-1470
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Samples of western hemlock [Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.] and western red cedar [Thuja plicata Donn] trees completely submerged standing in a fresh water reservoir for approximately 24 years were examined in terms of relative wood density, extractives content in cedar and mechanical properties of small clear specimens. Due to diameter limitations in the sample material, test results for modulus of elasticity (MOE) in compression parallel-to-the-grain were found to be unreliable, but could be expected to compare to published values in a like manner as other test results. Based on the results of tests for wood density, extractives content and strength properties of small clears, the sound wood quality of submerged western hemlock and western red cedar is comparable to that of these species in general. Mitigating these favourable results, however, were the low proportion of sound logs recovered, external checking of log surfaces, and fine shake observed in red cedar which could have a negative impact on appearance grades. Definite determination of submerged wood quality would require sawing of logs, and evaluation of lumber yield and properties, and long-term tests for durability of the red cedar.
FRBC Contract No. 976C057
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Comparison of the lumber manufacturing efficiency of seven sawmills operating in the B.C. interior

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5475
Author
Middleton, G.R.
Munro, B.D.
Date
February 1985
Edition
37064
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Middleton, G.R.
Munro, B.D.
Date
February 1985
Edition
37064
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Studs
Saw mills
Efficiency
Recovery
Series Number
W-274
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Sawmilling studies
Recovery
Sawmilling - Efficiency
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Confirmation of stand density effects on lodgepole pine wood characteristics

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5514
Author
Middleton, G.R.
Jozsa, Les A.
Munro, B.D.
Sen, P.
Date
July 1995
Edition
37389
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
. British Coltmibia Ministry of Forests. Victoria, B.C. Middleton G.R., L.A. Jozsa, L.C. Palka, B.D. Munro
Author
Middleton, G.R.
Jozsa, Les A.
Munro, B.D.
Sen, P.
Contributor
British Columbia Ministry of Forests. Silviculture
Date
July 1995
Edition
37389
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
34 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Stands
Quality control
Qualitative analysis
Pinus contorta
Pinus
Physical properties
Growth
Series Number
W-1234
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
In a previously completed study, lumber obtained from a 95-year old lodgepole pine sample representing a final stand density of 700 live stems/hectare (s/ha) was found to have relatively low modulus- of-rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE). It was determined that this resulted from lower than average basic wood density, and larger than average knot size particularly in large diameter trees. It was also determined that average MOR and MOE could be predicted to some extent (R2 > .60) on the basis of tree diameter-at-breast height (d.b.h.) and breast-height average basic wood density. Before accepting the above results as typical of lodgepole pine of similar age and final stand density, it was considered important to compare the relationships between d.b.h. and breast-height wood density observed in this 700 s/ha sample with that of trees in open-stand-densities in other regions. Average branch size added only marginally to explained variation in the predictive equation, but knot size is known to effect lumber strength. Thus a measure of branch size was included in the current study plan. Biogeoclimatic zones were chosen as the basis for regional comparisons. A minimum of 30 trees were selected from open-stand sites in each of the following five biogeoclimatic zones: Montane Spruce (MS), Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine Fir (ESSF), Interior Douglas-Fir (IDF), Interior Cedar-Hemlock (ICH) and Sub-Boreal Spruce (SBS). Sampling was systematic by d.b.h. to ensure representation of small, medium and large diameter trees. Stem counts were made in 1/200 ha plots around each sample tree to ensure that samples were indicative of a relatively open stand density. Average basic wood density at breast height was determined from two pith-to-bark increment cores obtained from each sample tree. The size and height of the largest branch in the first 5 m of tree height was measured and recorded. Average basic wood density values and estimates of branch size obtained for the five samples in this study were compared to the values and estimates obtained from the original 700 s/ha sample site. Basic wood density obtained from three of the sites was not significantly different from that of the 700 s/ha sample. It was significantly higher in one site (ICH) and significantly lower in another (ESSF). The higher wood density was possibly the result of a slower growth rate to 30 years combined with older average tree age. The significantly lower wood density was attributed to a younger average stand age (80 years). Basic wood density showed a consistent relationship with d.b.h. in all of the tree samples, tending down as d.b.h. increased. There was a less consistent relationship between knot size and d.b.h. but what relationship there was would serve to reinforce the effect of differences in wood density on lumber strength and stiffness. Average size of the largest knots was smallest in the tree sample where wood density was highest, and largest in the sample where wood density was lowest. Important lumber strength determining tree characteristics (wood density and knot size) that resulted in the low MOE and MOR at the original 700 s/ha sample site were found to be unexceptional when compared to trees of similar age and final stand densities in other biogeoclimatic zones. Although a slower than average growth rate to 30 years offers a plausible explanation for the higher than expected wood density in the ICH sample, further investigation is recommended.
Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia - Density
Density - Influence on physical properties
Stand density
Growth - Influence on quality
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Cost reductions and added value through a sawmill operations profit improvement program

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub36873
Author
Middleton, G.R.
Date
December 1990
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Middleton, G.R.
Date
December 1990
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
21 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Value added
Studs
Saw mills
Efficiency
Series Number
Forestry Canada No. 30
contract no. 1215K007
W-799
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Forintek has developed a sawmill profit improvement program for mills in western Canada. A team of Forintek specialists work in cooperation with sawmill management to identify short-term low-cost improvements that can be made to current operations, and to identify the need for additional studies required to justify changes to equipment and processes that would achieve future profit improvement. Key areas included in the evaluation are sawmill processes, saws and sawing, kiln drying and lumber protection. The mill evaluation begins with documentation of known operating characteristics such as timber resource, sawmill design and maintenance, kiln design and control, and lumber drying schedules. The Forintek team visits the sawmill to evaluate current operating practices with the mill staff responsible for each aspect of the operation. Findings are discussed and a report is provided. This paper describes the sawmill evaluation process and provides examples of observations and recommendations made following three case studies. In all three case studies, significant improvements in mill operations could be made at very little additional cost
Sawmilling - Efficiency
Value added
Sawmilling studies
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A discussion of wood quality attributes and their practical implications.

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37367
Author
Jozsa, Les A.
Middleton, G.R.
Date
December 1994
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Jozsa, Les A.
Middleton, G.R.
Date
December 1994
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
42 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood quality
Wood
Trees
Treatment
Silviculture
Quality control
Qualitative analysis
Growth
Series Number
Special Publication ; SP-34
Contract ; FS 74 HSP95/3
W-1180
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
ISSN
ISSN No. 0824-2119
Abstract
Wood quality is defined as the suitability of wood for a particular end-use. Wood anatomy and tree growth are discussed in terms of macroscopic and microscopic features of a tree examined in cross section. End-use requirements are described in terms of lumber grading. The following wood quality attributes are introduced, defined and discussed in terms of their practical implications for wood processing and wood products: wood density, density variation, juvenile wood/mature wood distribution, proportion of heartwood/sapwood, fibre length, fibril angle, compression wood, knots, grain and extractives. The potential for influencing tree growth characteristics (eg. wood density, branch size) and wood quality (structural and appearance lumber grades) through stand stocking control is discussed. Foresters are asked to consider the wood quality implications of site specific silvicultural operations.
Wood quality
Trees - Improvement
Growth - Influence on quality
Growth - Influence of silvicultural treatment
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Effect of growth rate on wood density of Saskatchewan white spruce : implications for silvicultural practices. Final Report 2004/05

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5589
Author
Middleton, G.R.
Munro, B.D.
Date
April 2005
Edition
37723
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
. J. 11(3):122-126. Middleton, G.R., B.D. Munro and J. Sadlish. 2000. Influence of growth rate
Author
Middleton, G.R.
Munro, B.D.
Date
April 2005
Edition
37723
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Treatment
Silviculture
Saskatchewan
Picea
Growth
Series Number
General Revenue Project No. 3480;3480
W-2146
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
A total of 110 white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss) trees were systematically sampled by 30, 40 and 50 cm diameter-at-breast height (DBH) classes from three natural stands in Saskatchewan located near Big River, Candle Lake and Hudson Bay. Mean ages of the tree samples were 120, 110 and 107 years respectively. Based on sample trees, site indices at breast-height age 50 were 18.5, 18.1 and 18.3 respectively. Wood basic relative density at breast height was determined for each sample tree by X-ray densitometry. Mean values for each tree sample were 0.372, 0.369 and 0.361 respectively. ANOVA of basic relative density on DBH class and stand (R2 = 0.32) revealed that differences in mean density between stands were not significant. The effect of DBH class (rate-of-growth) was significant (p < 0.0001). Consequently, mean relative density values were determined for the 30, 40 and 50 cm DBH classes for the three tree samples combined. These were 0.384, 0.368 and 0.349 respectively compared to the species average of 0.354. Pith-to-bark density trends were inversely related to ring-width trends, consistent with expectations for white spruce. Density trends observed in Saskatchewan coincided with those obtained from white spruce trees sampled similarly from three stands in northeastern British Columbia and three stands in north central Alberta. In the BC study trends in breast-height wood density were reflected in similar and more significant trends in bending modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE), MOE in compression, and ultimate compression strength (UCS) of small clear specimens. The combined results of the two previous studies demonstrated robustly that for stands of similar age and site index, wood density and related structural wood properties of white spruce are influenced primarily by rate-of-growth. Pooled results for the three Saskatchewan stands confirmed this wood density/growth-rate relationship. Considered within each stand, wood density generally declined significantly (a = 0.05) as diameter class increased. A notable exception occurred at Candle Lake. In that stand, although not significantly different, the mean wood density in the 30 cm DBH class was slightly lower than that of the 40 cm class. On review, a similar lack of significant difference in mean density occurred between the 30 and 40 cm DBH classes in two previous samples, one in BC and one in Alberta, but in those stands the density hierarchy remained as expected. One plausible explanation is a deleterious effect of greater competition combined with low site index. The lower than expected density values for small diameter trees coincided with the three lowest site indices of the nine samples. Wood density of Saskatchewan white spruce was higher than that observed in BC and Alberta with even the 50 cm DBH class showing no significant difference from the species average. This suggests that faster growth can be pursued in Saskatchewan before encountering a detrimental reduction in average wood density. Pronounced increases in annual growth rate that occurred after cambial age twenty in the 40 cm and 50 cm trees at the Big River stand coincided with pronounced declines in breast-height wood density. This was consistent with results observed in two of the previous six samples studied, and strengthens evidence that natural events that result in release will reduce white spruce wood density. Silvicultural interventions that result in similar release can be expected to have a similar effect.
Picea glauca - Density - Saskatchewan
Picea glauca - Growth
Silviculture
Growth - Influence of silvicultural treatment
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Evaluating Douglas-fir tree quality in the British Columbia interior

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5451
Author
Middleton, G.R.
Munro, B.D.
Wright, D.M.
Date
June 1985
Edition
36977
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Middleton, G.R.
Munro, B.D.
Wright, D.M.
Date
June 1985
Edition
36977
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
30 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Value added
Stands
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Pseudotsuga
British Columbia
Series Number
Special Publication ; SP-19
W-97
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The study objective was to determine if differences in the quality of Douglas-fir in the B.C. Interior could be assessed on the basis of characteristics visible in standing trees so as to provide site-specific measures of stand value. Six sawmill studies, with a final sample of 1,862 trees are described. Sample trees were selected and their quality characteristics recorded. These trees were felled and their logs processed into finished lumber from which individual tree values were calculated. An index shows the effect of tree quality and tree size on average lumber value per unit volume. A description of each mill study allows comparison of average sound lumber recovery factors.
Stand value
Pseudotsuga menziesii - British Columbia
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Evaluating two methods of coping with tree shear damage at the sawmill

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5474
Author
Middleton, G.R.
Munro, B.D.
Date
February 1985
Edition
37063
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Middleton, G.R.
Munro, B.D.
Date
February 1985
Edition
37063
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
19 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Recovery
Logs
Balsam
Fir
Series Number
W-273
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Abies lasiocarpa - Recovery
Logging - Losses
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29 records – page 1 of 3.