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Advanced technologies to improve penetration of wood treatments : biological incising with Dichomitus squalens in spruce and pine lumber

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42460
Author
Dale, Angela
Morris, Paul I.
Date
March 2011
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Dale, Angela
Morris, Paul I.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2011
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
18 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Preservation
Pinus
Picea
Series Number
Value to Wood No. FPI#117W
W-2823
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
Canadian wood species such as spruce and pine are difficult to treat with wood preservatives or other wood enhancing formulations due to a thin sapwood band and refractory heartwood. One method of improving penetration is by biological incising. Biological incising with Dichomitus squalens was originally developed in Austria in the 1990s to increase the permeability of European spruce prior to treatment with wood preservatives. Recently the patents on this technology lapsed. It was considered unlikely that industrial use of a European white-rot fungus would be acceptable in Canada. FPInnovations therefore conducted a screening test of a range of Canadian isolates of various white-rot fungi to identify an isolate that would be suitable for biological incising of Canadian spruce and pine. Under pure culture conditions, one isolate of Dichomitus squalens isolated from white spruce was found to greatly increase the permeability of the wood, particularly in spruce. The objective of the current study was to determine if these results could be achieved on commercial sized wood under non-sterile conditions more similar to an industrial setting. Lumber samples, 3.8 cm by 8.9 cm by 400 cm in length were incubated in plastic totes with fungal inoculum. Two isolates of fungi were tested as well as two different decontamination methods (steam and Benomyl solution) and two time frames (4 and 6 weeks). Through treatment of spruce samples (19 mm penetration) with 1.7% ACQ was achieved after six weeks incubation with D. squalens 78A (a spruce isolate). In matched samples treated with MCA, a minimum of 10 mm penetration was achieved in 90% of the samples. Strength loss in some individual samples was higher than adjustment factors for conventional incising (over 25%) suggesting that incubation time may need to be shortened. Preservative penetration was more variable in pine but permeability was increased; 60% of the samples reached a minimum penetration of 5 mm. Incubation time and conditions may need to be adjusted to achieve more consistent results. The results of this study show that biological incising can greatly improve the permeability of spruce and pine and can be achieved on 38 by 89 dimension lumber under conditions that could be utilized in an industrial setting. Future work should focus on determining incubation conditions that allow penetration requirements in Canadian standards to be met with acceptable strength loss.
Picea - Preservation
Pinus - Preservation
Preservation - Incising
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Advanced technologies to improve wood penetration : alternative incising technologies

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42457
Author
Morris, Paul I.
Date
March 2011
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Morris, Paul I.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
March 2011
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
10 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Preservatives penetration
Preservatives
Preservation
Penetration
Series Number
Value to Wood No. FPI 117W
W-2820
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The biggest obstacle to the enhancement of wood properties through any form of chemical treatment is the impermeability of the heartwood of virtually all Canadian Wood species and their relatively narrow sapwood. Incisors using toothed rollers are commonplace in Canadian treating plants but they are not used for many products due to the detrimental effect on surface appearance. Alternative incising technologies anticipated to have less effects on surface appearance have been investigated over the past 30 years. This report revisits four of these technologies, lasers, needles, water jets and biological incising and evaluates their potential for further investigation based on recent advances in technology. Even using the latest technology, laser incising would be too slow and too expensive for a Canadian treating plant. Needle incising would be too slow but the equipment cost should not be an issue. Water jet treatment would also be too slow and the equipment cost is unknown. Biological incising is a very different approach involving batch processing. The major factor would be the cost of inventory which depends on the duration of incubation yet to be determined.
Preservatives - Penetration
Preservation - Incising
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Advanced technologies to improve wood penetration : preliminary screening of fungi with potential for bioincising

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub42470
Author
Dale, Angela
Symons, Paul D.
Morris, Paul I.
Date
November 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Dale, Angela
Symons, Paul D.
Morris, Paul I.
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service.
Date
November 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
16 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Preservation
Growth
Series Number
Value to Wood No. FPI 117W
W-2855
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
A major constraint to the Canadian wood preservation industry in both domestic and export markets is the difficulty of penetrating Canadian wood species with preservatives. FPInnovations has put considerable effort into various forms of improved mechanical incising but these have not been adopted by the industry due to adverse effects on throughput and appearance of the final product. Recently, work in Europe has shown promising results from biological incising using white-rot fungi that colonize wood relatively rapidly but decay slowly. The use of European isolates of fungi in North America may be constrained by phytosanitary concerns. This report covers an experiment to screen North American isolates of white-rot fungi for potential as biological control agents. A modification of the soil-block test method was used to evaluate the ability of a range of fungi to improve permeability without affecting strength properties. Wood samples were exposed to the fungi for zero, two, four and six week time increments and were then treated with a 1.5% ACQ-D solution. Preservative uptake was calculated based on change in weight before and after treatment. Two isolates of Dichomitus squalens were found that dramatically increased preservative uptake. These samples were tested for strength loss and preservative penetration. Spruce samples exposed to D. squalens isolate 78A for six weeks were completely penetrated with preservative (19 mm depth) in all six samples. D. squalens 78B also showed promising results in pine and spruce samples based on uptake and penetration data. No stiffness loss was detected in any of these samples based on results from the crushing tests.
Preservation - Incising
Fungi - Growth
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Advanced wood-based solutions for mid-rise and high-rise construction: acoustic performance of innovative composite wood stud partition walls

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub49838
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Cuerrier-Auclair, Samuel
Deng, James
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Date
April 2018
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Biomaterials Xiang-Ming Wang, Scientist, Engineered Wood Products Manufacturing Natural Resources Canada
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Cuerrier-Auclair, Samuel
Deng, James
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
April 2018
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood
Vibration
Design
Walls
Studs
Language
English
Abstract
Airborne sound insulation performance of wall assemblies is a critical aspect which is directly associated with the comfort level of the occupants, which in turn affects the market acceptance.
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Advanced wood-based solutions for mid-rise and high-rise construction: analytical models for balloon-type CLT shear walls

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub52680
Author
Chen, Zhiyong
Cuerrier-Auclair, Samuel
Popovski, Marjan
Date
July 2018
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
., P.Eng., Principal Scientist, Building Systems Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service
Author
Chen, Zhiyong
Cuerrier-Auclair, Samuel
Popovski, Marjan
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
July 2018
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
83 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Cross Laminated Timber
Performance
Building construction
Building materials
Energy
Language
English
Abstract
Lack of research and design information for the seismic performance of balloon-type CLT shear walls prevents CLT from being used as an acceptable solution to resist seismic loads in balloon-type mass-timber buildings. To quantify the performance of balloon-type CLT structures subjected to lateral loads and create the research background for future code implementation of balloon-type CLT systems in CSA O86 and NBCC, FPInnovations initiated a project to determine the behaviour of balloon-type CLT construction. A series of tests on balloon-type CLT walls and connections used in these walls were conducted. Analytical models were developed based on engineering principles and basic mechanics to predict the deflection and resistance of the balloon-type CLT shear walls. This report covers the work related to development of the analytical models and the tests on balloon-type CLT walls that the models were verified against.
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Advanced wood-based solutions for mid-rise and high-rise construction: exit fire separations in mid-rise Wood buildings

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub49853
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Dagenais, Christian
Date
March 2018
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
FPInnovations Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service Ressources Naturelles Canada
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Dagenais, Christian
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2018
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
91 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood
Fire
Building code
Residential construction
Language
English
Abstract
In 2015, the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) [1] adopted prescriptive provisions to allow the construction of mid-rise (5- and 6-storey) buildings using combustible construction. These types of buildings were already permitted under the British Columbia Building Code, as of 2009 [2]. In2014 the Province of Ontario filed an amendment to also allow mid-rise wood buildings, however, it required that the exit fire separations be built using noncombustible construction having a fire resistance rating (FRR) of not less than 1.5-hr, which was an increase from the 1-hr requirement in the NBCC. The Québec Construction Code has also filed amendments to allow mid-rise wood construction and also limits exit stairwells to use noncombustible construction.
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Advanced wood-based solutions for mid-rise and high-rise construction: in-situ testing of the arbora building for vibration and acoustic performances

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub49836
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Cuerrier-Auclair, Samuel
Date
April 2018
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
and Samuel Cuerrier Auclair Advanced Building Systems Department Natural Resources Canada Canadian
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Cuerrier-Auclair, Samuel
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
April 2018
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
40 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood
Vibration
Design
Beams
Floors
Language
English
Abstract
This report addresses serviceability issues of tall wood buildings focusing on vibration and sound insulation performance. The sound insulation and vibration performance may not affect building's safety, but affects occupants' comfort and proper operation of the buildings and the funciton of sensitive equipment, consequently the acceptance of midrise and tall wood buildings in market place. Lack of data, knowledge and experience of sound and vibration performance of tall wood buildings is one of the issues related to design and construction of tall wood buildings.
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Advanced wood-based solutions for mid-rise and high-rise construction: in-situ testing of the Brock Commons 18-Storey building for vibration and acoustic performances

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub49837
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Cuerrier-Auclair, Samuel
Date
April 2018
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
By: Lin Hu and Samuel Cuerrier Auclair, Scientists, Advanced Building Systems Natural Resources
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Cuerrier-Auclair, Samuel
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
April 2018
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
42 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood
Vibration
Design
Beams
Floors
Series Number
Transformative Technology ; TT 2018
Language
English
Abstract
This report addresses serviceability issues of tall wood buildings focusing on their vibration and sound insulation performance. The sound insulation and vibration performance may not affect the building’s safety, but affects the occupants’ comfort and the proper operation of the buildings and the function of sensitive equipment, consequently the acceptance of the midrise and tall wood buildings in market place. Lack of data, knowledge and experience of sound and vibration performance of tall wood buildings is one of the issues related to design and construction of tall wood buildings. The measured and estimated values should also be correlated with actual experiences of the occupants in the building if such information is obtained, for example, through a survey.
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Advanced wood-based solutions for mid-rise and high-rise construction: in-situ testing of the Origine 13-storey building for vibration and acoustic performances

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub49852
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Cuerrier-Auclair, Samuel
Date
March 2018
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
, Scientist, Advanced Building Systems Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service
Author
Hu, Lin J.
Cuerrier-Auclair, Samuel
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
March 2018
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
46 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood
Vibration
Design
Beams
Floors
Language
English
Abstract
Serviceability performance studied covers three different performance attributes of a building. These attributes are 1) vibration of the whole building structure, 2) vibration of the floor system, typically in regards to motions in a localized area within the entire floor plate, and 3) sound insulation performance of the wall and floor assemblies. Serviceability performance of a building is important as it affects the comfort of its occupants and the functionality of sensitive equipment as well. Many physical factors influence these performances. Designers use various parameters to account for them in their designs and different criteria to manage these performances. Lack of data, knowledge and experience of sound and vibration performance of tall wood buildings is one of the issues related to design and construction of tall wood buildings. survey.
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Advanced wood-based solutions for mid-rise and high-rise construction: Mid-rise wood exit shaft demonstration fire test report

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub49832
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Dagenais, Christian
Bénichou, Noureddine
Date
April 2018
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
FPInnovations Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service Ressources Naturelles Canada
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Dagenais, Christian
Bénichou, Noureddine
Contributor
Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
April 2018
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
48 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Advanced Wood Materials
Subject
Wood
Fire
Building code
Residential construction
Language
English
Abstract
FPInnovations conducted a research project to study the construction of mid-rise wood exit shafts in Ontario and Québec. The scope of the project included an investigation into the concerns that have been raised in regards to the use of wood exits in mid-rise buildings, an analysis of recent Canadian fire statistics in residential multi-family structures, and a fire demonstration of a mass timber wall and supported light-frame floor. This report describes the fire demonstration completed as part of this project; this report acts as a supplement to the full project report.
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193 records – page 1 of 20.