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Ensuring good seismic performance with platform-frame wood housing

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37851
Author
Rainer, J.H.
Karacabeyli, Erol
Date
December 2000
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. Also Structural commentaries (Part 4). 3. Rainer, J.H
Author
Rainer, J.H.
Karacabeyli, Erol
Contributor
National Research Council. Institute for Research in Construction.
Date
December 2000
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
4 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Design
Building construction
Series Number
Construction Technology Update ; No. 45
W-2456
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This Update reviews the generally good performance of platform-frame wood housing in earthquakes, presents solutions to some problems that occur in practice, and outlines new developments in technology, standards and codes.
Building construction - Design
Earthquakes, Effect on building construction
Documents
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Improved prediction of seismic resistance of part 9 houses : final report

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37943
Author
Rainer, J.H.
Ni, Chun
Date
May 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Rainer, J.H.
Ni, Chun
Contributor
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC)
Date
May 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
96 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Design
Building construction
Series Number
W-2636
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This report of the research project "Improved prediction of seismic resistance of Part 9 Houses" under the CMHC External Research Program consists of a review and assessment of analysis methods; numerical evaluation of current seismic design requirements in Canada; and new formulations for seismic design of conventional wood-frame construction in Canada. The relative performance of three mechanics-based methods is ascertained by comparing the test data of lateral capacities of partially restrained wall specimens having window openings with the predicted results from three calculation methods: Method 1 by Ni and Karacabeyli (2000, 2002) is the simplest to use and gave the most conservative results; Method 2 by Källsner et al., (2001, 2002) is less conservative but more complicated to apply to practical problems, and Method 3 by Källsner and Gurhammar (2005, 2006) gives non-conservative results. The suitability of other methods of analysis, (e.g. SAWS, Drain2D-X) was also examined. Method 1 was chosen as the principal analysis tool for this investigation. The adequacy of the seismic provisions of the CWC 2004 Design Guide and of the proposals for Part 9 of the 2010 NBCC are assessed by the seismic design methods specified in Part 4 of the 2005 NBCC and utilizing the analysis Method 1. Two building types were used: a square building of 15.0 x 15.0 m plan and a rectangular one of 4.8 x 15.0 m, each of 1, 2 and 3 storeys height. The analysis indicates that neither the current CWC Guide nor the proposals for the 2010 NBCC Part 9 meet the seismic requirements of Part 4 of the 2005 NBCC for the higher seismic zones. The discrepancies are particularly pronounced for the shorter side of the rectangular buildings. It must be noted that the buildings studied in this investigation represented worst case scenarios. In reality, wood-frame houses would generally contain more walls than the minimum wall lengths required by the CWC Guide and the proposed NBCC 2010, and thus would possess larger lateral resistance. Following the numerical results of a parametric study of different wall constructions, two new approaches for the seismic provisions of conventional wood-frame construction in Canada are presented, an area-based method, and a method based on percentages of braced wall lengths. Both methods conform substantially to the seismic requirements of Part 4 of the 2005 NBCC. For heavy construction the provisions for 1 and 2 storey buildings give reasonable agreement with those for 2 and 3 storeys of light construction. Additional parameter studies should be carried out for irregular buildings, for heavy wall cladding such as stucco and masonry, and for minimum size of braced wall panels.
Building construction - Design
Building construction - Light-frame
Earthquakes, Effect on building construction
Documents
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Improved prediction of seismic resistance of part 9 houses: progress report

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37875
Author
Rainer, J.H.
Ni, Chun
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Rainer, J.H.
Ni, Chun
Contributor
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC)
Date
March 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
20 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Design
Building construction
Series Number
5580
W-2510
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This Interim Report of the research project "Improved prediction of seismic resistance of Part 9 Houses" under the CMHC External Research Program presents a detailed literature review of research relevant to lateral resistance of conventional wood-frame construction and an assessment of three mechanics-based methods for calculating lateral capacity. The relative performance of the three mechanics-based methods is ascertained by comparing the test data of lateral capacities of partially restrained wall specimens having window openings with the predicted results from the calculation methods. Method 1 by Ni and Karacabeyli (2000, 2002) is the simplest to use and gave the most conservative results; Method 2 by Källsner et al., (2001, 2002) is less conservative but more complicated, and Method 3 by Källsner and Gurhammar (2005, 2006) gives non-conservative results. In the next phase of the project, these mechanics-based methods will be further calibrated against pertinent shake table results from the recent UBC "Earthquake 99" project and from the Forintek – Tongji University tests of conventional wood-frame construction. They will then be employed in the determination of the seismic response of houses as prescribed by the seismic part of the Engineering Guide for Wood Frame Construction published by the Canadian Wood Council.
Earthquakes, Effect on building construction
Building construction - Design
Documents
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Performance of wood-frame building construction in earthquakes

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37497
Author
Rainer, J.H.
Karacabeyli, Erol
Date
March 1999
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Rainer, J.H.
Karacabeyli, Erol
Date
March 1999
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
34 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Walls
Joints
Design
Building construction
Algorithms
Series Number
W-1578
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This report presents a survey of the performance of wood-frame construction in a number of recent earthquakes. After a review of the dominant factors that affect the seismic behaviour of buildings, the following earthquakes are examined: Alaska, 1964; San Fernando, California 1971; Edgecombe, New Zealand, 1987; Saguenay, Quebec, 1988; Loma Prieta, California 1989; Northridge, California, 1994; and Kobe, Japan 1995. Wherever possible, the behaviour of buildings is related to the measured peak horizontal ground accelerations. The survey shows that despite some specific shortcomings and resultant failures, a majority of wood-frame buildings of various ages, when subjected to peak ground accelerations of 0.6 g and greater, survived the shaking without serious structural damage or collapse and with very few resulting injuries and deaths. Thus, the life-safety criterion that is implicit in building codes is largely satisfied. In addition, many modern wood-frame buildings survived such shaking without any visible damage. The few observed failures and collapses could be traced primarily to specific instances of lack of lateral bracing, weak first storey, inadequate connection to foundations and the fact that the observed ground motions far exceeded the then-existing design requirements. The observed shortcomings have been and are being addressed by researchers and practitioners in order to eliminate these adverse effects in future earthquakes. The research program at Forintek Canada Corp. is highlighted, aimed at improved seismic behaviour of wood-frame construction and the subsequent implementation into design guides and codes and standards. Studies on joints, shear walls, mathematical modelling and development of codes and standards are discussed. Finally, for existing buildings that do not meet current seismic standards, guidelines available in the USA and Canada for screening, evaluation and upgrading are presented. It is concluded that wood-frame construction can withstand the shaking from large earthquakes without serious distress and often without damage provided that appropriate anti-seismic procedures are followed by designers, builders and owners.
Earthquakes, Effect on building construction
Building construction - Design
Joints and fastenings
Walls
Models, Mathematical
Documents
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Performance of wood-frame building construction in earthquakes

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub37518
Author
Rainer, J.H.
Karacabeyli, Erol
Date
April 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Rainer, J.H.
Karacabeyli, Erol
Date
April 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
28 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Wall strength
Walls
Structural analysis
Mechanical properties
Design
Building construction
Analysis
Series Number
Special Publication ; SP-40
W-1613
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
This report presents a survey of the performance of wood-frame construction in a number of recent earthquakes. After a review of the dominant factors that affect the seismic behaviour of buildings, the following earthquakes are examined: Alaska, 1964; San Fernando, California 1971; Edgecumbe, New Zealand 1987; Saguenay, Quebec 1988; Loma Prieta, California 1989; Northridge, California 1994; and Kobe, Japan 1995. Wherever possible, the behaviour of buildings is related to the measured peak horizontal ground accelerations.
Earthquakes, Effect on building construction
Building construction - Design
Walls - Strength
Framing - Structural analysis
Documents
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Résistance des bâtiments à ossature bois aux tremblements de terre

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5189
Author
Rainer, J.H.
Karacabeyli, Erol
Date
March 2000
Edition
42050
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Rainer, J.H.
Karacabeyli, Erol
Date
March 2000
Edition
42050
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
28 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Wall strength
Walls
Structural analysis
Mechanical properties
Design
Building construction
Analysis
Series Number
Special Publication ; SP-40F
E-3562
Location
Sainte-Foy, Québec
Language
French
ISBN
ISBN 0-86488-532-6
ISSN
ISSN 0825-0030
Abstract
Ce rapport présente une étude portant sur le comportement de bâtiments à ossature bois lors de récents tremblements de terre. Après un rappel des principaux facteurs qui affectent la résistance sismique des bâtiments, on examine les séismes suivants : Alaska (1964), San Fernando, Californie (1971), Edgecumbe, Nouvelle-Zélande (1987), Saguenay, Québec (1988), Loma Prieta, Californie (1989), Northridge, Californie (1994) et Kobe, Japon (1995). Dans la mesure du possible, le comportement des bâtiments est présenté en rapport avec les accélérations horizontales mesurées. Notre étude établit que, malgré certaines faiblesses spécifiques et les défaillances mécaniques correspondantes, les bâtiments en bois d'âges divers soumis à des accélérations horizontales de 0,6g ou plus ont dans l'ensemble résisté aux secousses sans dégâts mécaniques graves, et avec très peu de blessures ou de morts chez les occupants. Les critères de sécurité implicites des codes du bâtiment sont donc largement respectés. De plus, les bâtiments à ossature bois de construction récente ont généralement résisté aux secousses sans dommages visibles. Les quelques défaillances mécaniques observées étaient essentiellement liées à des faiblesses particulières : absence de contreventement, insuffisance structurale du premier niveau de construction, connexion trop faible avec les fondations, ou au fait que la force des secousses enregistrées avait largement dépassé les limites prévues au moment où le bâtiment avait été conçu. Les chercheurs et les professionnels de la construction travaillent actuellement à corriger les faiblesses observées, de manière à éviter les mêmes problèmes lors de futurs tremblements de terre. Le rapport présente les grandes lignes du programme de recherche de Forintek Canada Corp., qui vise à améliorer la résistance sismique des bâtiments à ossature bois et à appliquer ces améliorations par le biais de guides de conception et des normes. Il est notamment question d'études sur les assemblages, les murs de contreventement, la modélisation mathématique et la préparation de normes et de codes. On y trouvera enfin des recommandations pour le dépistage, l'évaluation et le renforcement des bâtiments qui ne satisfont pas aux normes sismiques canadiennes ou américaines actuelles. En conclusion, le document constate que la construction à ossature bois est capable de résister aux secousses telluriques importantes sans dommages graves et souvent sans dégâts en autant que les concepteurs, constructeurs et propriétaires respectent les règles de protection reconnues.
Earthquakes - Effect on building construction
Building construction - Design
Walls - Strength
Framing - Structural analysis
Documents
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Survey of the performance of wood-frame construction during the Wenchuan (Sichuan) earthquake of May 12, 2008

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5624
Author
Ni, Chun
Rainer, J.H.
Doudak, Ghasan
Zhang, H.
Guo, H.
Date
October 2008
Edition
37924
Material Type
Research report
Field
Sustainable Construction
Author
Ni, Chun
Rainer, J.H.
Doudak, Ghasan
Zhang, H.
Guo, H.
Contributor
Forestry Innovation Investment
Date
October 2008
Edition
37924
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
78 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Sustainable Construction
Research Area
Building Systems
Subject
Specifications
Specification
Design
Building construction
Series Number
W-2599
Location
Vancouver, British Columbia
Language
English
Abstract
The objectives of the site visit were to document the damage to wood-frame and other wood buildings from the May 12, 2008 Wenchuan (Sichuan) earthquake and to compare the performance of wood-frame buildings with non-wood buildings of similar size. Because of the limited number of wood-frame buildings in the affected region, all the available wood construction close to the seismically affected area was investigated as follows:
2 wood-frame houses in Dujiangyan
3 solid timber cabins in Dujiangyan
2 houses of wood-frame construction in Chengdu
6 houses of post-and-beam construction with wood-panel infill in Songpan. The houses in Chengdu and in Dujiangyan are located, respectively, in low intensity and moderate-to-high intensity regions of shaking during that earthquake. From the inspection of the four houses and other concrete buildings nearby, it can be stated that even under light and moderate-to-high levels of seismic shaking the wood-frame houses examined suffered significantly less damage than nearby reinforced concrete houses of comparable size. Based on a design-oriented analysis of seismic capacity it is shown that the wood-frame Houses A and B can withstand a pseudo-spectral acceleration of at least 0.89 and 1.01 g, respectively. This is judged to be a conservative estimate since the positive contribution of the exterior stucco and the second interior gypsum wall board (GWB) has not been included in the analysis. The three timber cabins examined in Dujiangyan also performed very well, showing no signs of seismic-induced distress. The six post-and-beam wood buildings with wood-frame infill in Songpan also showed no signs of seismic damage, although for the latter the intensity of shaking was quite low. From some examples of damaged concrete buildings, it was observed that numerous infill walls were damaged or had collapsed and thus subjected the inhabitants to mortal danger. Lightweight wood-frame infill walls for concrete frames could provide a safer alternative to the heavy and relatively brittle brick infill walls. Furthermore, the resulting reduction in building weight would further enhance seismic safety of the entire building. It is recommended that for the Chinese code the GWB contribution be considered for normal seismic loading. However, the GWB should not be included in the design check for rare earthquakes because of the limited ductility of shear walls sheathed with GWB at the high levels of shaking associated with the rare seismic events.
Building construction - Design - China
Building construction - Specifications - China
Earthquakes, Effect on building construction
Documents
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7 records – page 1 of 1.