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Development of bio-modified of chitosan-based adhesives for wood composites

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5798
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Yang, D.-Q.
Zhang, Yaolin
Feng, Martin
Huang, Z.
He, G.
Date
February 2016
Edition
40114
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Yang, D.-Q.
Zhang, Yaolin
Feng, Martin
Huang, Z.
He, G.
Date
February 2016
Edition
40114
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
36 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Adhesives
Environment
Wood composites
Series Number
Transformative Technologies - Development of "Green" Wood Adhesives for Wood Composite Products
Project no.301006168
E-4956
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Chitosan is an amino polysaccharide obtained from the deacetylation of chitin, which is naturally occurring in the shells of a large number of marine crustaceans. Chitosan is soluble in weakly acidic aqueous solutions and possesses adhesive properties. Chitosan has received much attention for medical and industrial applications; however, only limited studies have been conducted on the application of chitosan as a wood adhesive, because its bonding properties on wood are poor. To improve the adhesive quality of chitosan resin, an innovative study on chitosan adhesives has been conducted to use selected fungal species to modify chitosan and improve its bonding properties, to synthesize non-formaldehyde resins with the fungus-modified chitosan, and to enhance urea-formaldehyde (UF) and phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin performance with the fungus-modified chitosan. The bonding properties of wood composites made with these chitosan-based green wood adhesives were significantly improved, in terms of lap-shear strength. Unmodified chitosan solution was not compatible with ammonium lignosulfonate, liquid PF resin, soybean resin, powder PF resin, or soybean flour, but was compatible with UF resin, polyvinyl acetate (PVA) resin, and phenol. With the addition of chitosan in UF and PVA resins, both the dry and wet shear strengths of plywood panels were improved, compared with those of panels bonded with the control UF and PVA resins, i.e. without chitosan. A number of chitosan and chitosan-reinforced UF resins were prepared as a binder for particleboard panel manufacturing. Six (6) types of particleboard panels with different levels of resin loadings and press conditions were manufactured. The resulting boards were tested to evaluate the bond quality of the chitosan and chitosan-reinforced UF resins. The test results showed that particleboard panels with good visual quality could be produced with all formulations of chitosan-UF adhesives, even with resin systems made with 1% of chitosan resin only. All chitosan resins used alone or added to UF resins yielded panels with better internal bond (IB) strength than those made with the UF control resin. The panels made with 1% chitosan resin plus 66% UF resin in a 1:1 ratio yielded panels with the highest IB strength and the best overall mechanical properties.
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Development of chitosan-based adhesives for wood composites

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub5772
Author
Yang, D.-Q.
Zhang, Yaolin
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Feng, Martin
Date
March 2013
Edition
39730
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Yang, D.-Q.
Zhang, Yaolin
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Feng, Martin
Date
March 2013
Edition
39730
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
37 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Test methods
Materials
Adhesives
Series Number
Transformative Technologies Program
Project No. TT 3.4.10
301006168
E-4819
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Chitosan is an amino polysaccharide deacetylated from chitin, which is naturally occurring in large amount in shells of marine crustaceans. Chitosan is soluble in weakly acidic aqueous solutions and possesses an adhesive property. Chitosan has received much attention for medical and industrial applications; however, only limited studies have been conducted on the application of chitosan as a wood adhesive because of its bonding properties on wood are poor. To improve the adhesive quality of chitosan resin, an innovative study on chitosan adhesives has been conducted to use selected fungal species to modify chitosan and improve its bonding property, to synthesize non-formaldehyde resin with the fungus-modified chitosan and to prepare UF and PF resins enhanced with the fungal modified chitosan. Bonding properties of wood composites made with these chitosan-based green wood adhesives in terms of lap-shear strength were significantly improved in this study. Unmodified chitosan solution was not compatible with ammonium lignosulfonate liquid, liquid PF resin, soybean resin, PF powder, or soybean flour, but was compatible with UF resin (liquid), PVA resin, or phenol. With addition of chitosan in UF and PVA resins, both dry and wet shear strengths of plywood panels were improved comparing with the use of the control UF and PVA resins without chitosan. A number of chitosan and chitosan-reinforced UF resins as binder for particleboard manufacturing have been prepared. Six (6) types of particleboards with different levels of resin loadings and press conditions were manufactured and evaluated for the bond quality of chitosan and chitosan-reinforced UF resins. The results showed that all formulations of chitosan-UF adhesives were able to produce particleboards with nice appearance, even those made of only with 1% of chitosan resin alone. All chitosan resins, alone or added to UF resins, had a better IB strength than UF control resin. The panels made of 1% of chitosan resin plus 66% of UF resin in a 1:1 ratio had the highest IB strength.
CHITOSAN
Adhesives - Composite materials
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Development of fire retardant composite panels

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39220
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2009
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
5 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Resistance
Panels
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
5764
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Panels - Fire resistance
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Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part I. Fire-performance requirements for composite wood products and standard fire tests for demonstrating compliance with those requirements - Literature review

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39078
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
January 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
January 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
31 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Materials
Series Number
CFS Progress report No. 18
5764
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Wood belongs to the natural bio-composites of plant origin containing cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and other compounds. When exposed to fire or any other high intensity heat sources, wood, being a natural polymer, is subject to thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) and combustion depending on the environmental conditions. Combustion accompanied by heat release and chemiluminescence occurs when wood is in direct contact with air and with a physical, chemical or microbiological stimulus associated with heat release. There are increasing concerns about the fire performance of engineered wood products (EWP). Eventually, these concerns may likely extend to wood composite products such as oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium density fiberboard (MDF), and high density fiberboard (HDF) panels. From environmental and safety points of view, wood composite panels, like structural wood products, should have certain fire retardant properties and it is believed this fire issue will get more attention in the near future through environmental regulation development and end-use customers’ requirements. A Canadian Forest Service (CFS) project in the Composites Program, entitled “Development of Fire Retardant Composite Panels (Project No. 5764),” was initiated in 2007. The aim of the project is to develop fire retardant OSB panel and low-density fiberboard (FB) through modification of wood furnish and/or adhesives with fire retardants and nano materials, and panel surface coating with fire retardant coatings and paints for improving fire performance. As part of the project deliverables, this report presents a review of the current literature on identifying fire performance requirements in Canada and the United States for wood and wood-based building products, OSB, HB, FB, low-density FB panels suitable for use as interior ceiling finish, and other composite wood products used in construction of buildings, and the standard fire tests specified in Canada and the United States for demonstrating compliance with those requirements. The literature review was conducted by Mr. Leslie R. Richardson, retired senior research scientist and Group Leader of Building Systems – Fire Program of FPInnovations - Forintek Division. It is believed that this literature review will be invaluable as a guide for acquiring information on fire performance requirements and standard fire test methods for wood and composite wood products. The full literature review is available in Appendix I.
Composite materials
Fire retardants
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Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part III. Small-scale fire testing methods for R&D use as alternatives to fire test standards specified in building codes : literature review

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39109
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
June 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
June 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
11 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
5764
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Wood belongs to the natural bio-composites of plant origin containing cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and other compounds. When exposed to fire or any other high intensity heat sources, wood, being a natural polymer, is subject to thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) and combustion depending on the environmental conditions. Combustion accompanied by heat release and chemiluminescence occurs when wood is in direct contact with air and with a physical, chemical or microbiological stimulus associated with heat release. There are increasing concerns about the fire performance of engineered wood products (EWP) and wood composite products such as oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium density fiberboard (MDF) and high density fiberboard (HDF) panels. Wood composite panels, like structural wood products, should have certain fire retardant properties with respect to both safety and the environment. It is believed that this issue will get more attention in the near future as environmental regulations are developed and the requirements of end-users change. A Canadian Forest Service (CFS) project in the Composites Program, entitled “Development of Fire Retardant Composite Panels (Project No. 5764),” was initiated in 2007. The aim of the project is to develop fire retardant OSB panel and low-density fiberboard (FB) through the modification of wood furnish and/or adhesives using fire retardants and nano materials, and to improve the fire performance of panel surface coatings by using fire retardant coatings and paints. As part of the project deliverables, a series of literature reviews on different aspects of fire performance for wood and composite wood products has been conducted. So far, two literature review reports have been issued: Part I. Fire-Performance Requirements for Composite Wood Products and Standard Fire Tests for Demonstrating Compliance with those Requirements - Literature Review and Part II. Proprietary Fire Retardant Treated Wood and Composite Wood Products - Literature Review. In this current report (Part III), the literature review was focused on describing a number of small-scale fire tests that can be used for research and development purposes as alternatives to the standard fire tests referenced in building codes in Canada and the United States. The literature review was conducted by Mr. Leslie R. Richardson, retired senior research scientist and Group Leader of Building Systems – Fire Program of FPInnovations – Forintek Division. It is believed that this literature review will be an invaluable guide for acquiring information on fire performance requirements and standard fire test methods for wood and composite wood products. The full literature review is available in Appendix.
Fire retardants
Composite products
Panels
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Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part II. Proprietary fire retardant treated wood and composite wood products : literature review

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39110
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
June 2008
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Contributor
Canada. Canadian Forest Service
Date
June 2008
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
73 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Materials
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
5764
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
Wood belongs to the natural bio-composites of plant origin containing cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and other compounds. When exposed to fire or any other high intensity heat sources, wood, being a natural polymer, is subject to thermal decomposition (pyrolysis) and combustion depending on the environmental conditions. Combustion accompanied by heat release and chemiluminescence occurs when wood is in direct contact with air and with a physical, chemical or microbiological stimulus associated with heat release. There are increasing concerns about the fire performance of engineered wood products (EWP) and wood composite products such as oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium density fiberboard (MDF) and high density fiberboard (HDF) panels. Wood composite panels, like structural wood products, should have certain fire retardant properties with respect to both safety and the environment. It is believed that this issue will get more attention in the near future as environmental regulations are developed and the requirements of end-users change. A Canadian Forest Service (CFS) project in the Composites Program, entitled “Development of Fire Retardant Composite Panels (Project No. 5764),” was initiated in 2007. The aim of the project is to develop fire retardant OSB panel and low-density fiberboard (FB) through modification of wood furnish and/or adhesives using fire retardants and nano materials, and to improve the fire performance of panel surface coatings by using fire retardant coatings and paints. As part of the project deliverables, this report presents a review of the current literature focused on the identification of proprietary fire retardant-treated wood and wood-based products, plywood, oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard, hardboard and fiberboard, low-density fiberboard panels suitable for use as interior ceiling finish, and other composite wood products used in construction of buildings, and the identification of potential new manufacturing processes for such products. The literature review was conducted by Mr. Leslie R. Richardson, retired senior research scientist and Group Leader of Building Systems – Fire Program of FPInnovations - Forintek Division. It is believed that this literature review will be an invaluable guide for acquiring information on fire performance requirements and standard fire test methods for wood and composite wood products. The full literature review is available in Appendix.
Fire retardants
Composite materials
Panels
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Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part IV. Fire performance of OSB and ceiling tile

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39290
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
37 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
201000328 5764
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
To improve the flame resistance of oriented strand board (OSB) and low-density fiberboard (ceiling tile), a laboratorial study was carried out to coat the commercial OSB panel and ceiling tile with three commercial fire retardant coatings (WT-102, Safe-T-Guard®, RUFR-1000) and ceiling tile with nanoclay 1130E-modified commercial coating/paint. The commercial coating and paint without fire retardants were designed for ceiling tile application. The test results indicated that the 2 wt% nanoclay-modified coating and/or paint could effectively improve the flame resistance of ceiling tile in terms of the short after-flame time according to ASTM D 3801 and the high limited oxygen index (LOI) according to ASTM D 2863. The nanoclay-modified coating and/or paint performed similarly to Safe-T-Guard® regarding both after-flame time and limited oxygen index. In general, the OSB panel coated with RUFR-1000 performed better than those with WT-102 and Safe-T-Guard® in terms of lowered panel consumption, net flame advance, insulation value and char index according to ASTM D 3806. An increase in fire retardant coating rate improved the fire performance of OSB for all three commercial fire retardant coatings. Full title: Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part IV. Improvement of fire performance of OSB and ceiling tile via surface coating with commercial fire retardant coatings for OSB and ceiling tile and nanoclay-modified coating/paint for ceiling tile
Composite products
Panels
Fire Retardant Coatings
Nanotechnology
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Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part IX. Improvement of fire performance of OSB panel via wood treatment and resin modification with glass fiber, fire retardants and nano-particles

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39295
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
34 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
201000328 5764
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the fire performance of randomly oriented strand boards manufactured with two fire retardants (FR: CROS 349 and BUDIT 380), two nano-particles (NP: Nanofil®9 and Cloisite 25A), woven glass fiber (WGF) and glass fiber (GF). These materials were only used in wood strands for panel surface layer. Liquid/powder phenol-formaldehyde (PF) combination system was used as binder. In case where the nano-particle was used, it was also incorporated into the surface powder PF resin. All resultant strand boards were evaluated for fire performance in terms of flame advance, panel consumption, insulation value and char index according to ASTM Standard D 3806-98, and mechanical and physical properties of boards such as internal bond (IB) strength, modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE), and 24-h thickness swelling (TS) and water absorption (WA) according to CSA Standard O437.1-93. This study showed that the use of FR, WGF and GF did not seem to have apparent impact on panel performance but NP did in terms of overall panel performance. With respect to all fire properties evaluated, no single treatment appeared to perform consistently better than others. However, laminating strand board with WGF was proven to be the most effective way to protect strand board against flaming in terms of reduced net flame advance and panel consumption. Treatment of strands with two fire retardants appeared to be also a promising method for improving board fire performance next to WGF. The two nano-particles used and the fire retardant BUDIT 380 performed better than other materials with respect to lowered insulation value of strand board. In addition, the two nano-particles and the fire retardant CROS 349 resulted in better fire performance strand board than did other materials in terms of lowered char index.
Composite products
Panels
Fire Retardant Coatings
Nanotechnology
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Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part VIII. Improvement of fire performance of OSB panel via post-treatment with fire retardants, nano-particles, nanocrystalline cellulose and woven glass fiber

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39294
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
25 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
E-4628
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
To improve fire performance of oriented strand board (OSB), a laboratorial study was carried out to post-treat commercial OSB panel with phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin containing various fire retardants (FR), nano-particles (NP) and nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). The post-treatment also included the laminating of OSB panel with woven glass fiber (WGF) and with the same PF resin as a binder. The resultant OSB panels were tested for fire performance in terms of net flame advance, panel consumption, insulation value, and char index. The test results indicated that the post-treatment improved the fire performance of OSB panel in terms of reduced net flame advance (up to 29%), panel consumption (up to 29%), insulation value (up to 17%), or char index (up to 33%), as compared to the untreated OSB panel. No treatment performed consistently better than others with regard to all fire properties measured, but laminating OSB panel with WGF appeared to be the most effective treatment for protecting OSB against flaming, which resulted in net flame advance decreased by 29%, panel consumption by 29%, and insulation value by 17%. An increase in the loading level of fire retardant from 10 to 15 parts or nano-particle from 5.3 to 13.1 parts per 100 parts of PF did not seem necessary for further improving fire performance for all additives. Besides WGF, the post-treatments leading to apparently improved fire performance included: (1) fire retardant BUDIT 380 (10 parts/100 parts PF) and nano-particle Cloisite 25A (13.1 parts/100 parts PF) in terms of lowered net flame advance (25% and 24%, respectively); (2) nano-particle Nanofil®SE 3000 (5.3 parts/100 parts PF) in consideration of lowered panel consumption (18%); (3) fire retardant CROS 481A (15 parts/100 parts PF) with respect to lowered insulation value (16%); and (4) fire retardant CROS 349 (10 parts/100 parts PF) (33%), fire retardant CROS 334 (15 parts/100 parts PF) (33%) and nano-particle Nano Al2O3 (13.1 parts/100 parts PF) (31%) with regard to reduced char index. In addition, this study showed that coating OSB with PF alone also seemed to be effective approach for protecting OSB panel against flaming as well, indicated by the lowered net flame advance (20%), panel consumption (13%) and char index (28%).
Composite products
Panels
Fire Retardant Coatings
Nanotechnology
Documents
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Development of fire retardant composite panels. Part VII. Improvement of fire performance of OSB panel via wood treatments with fire retardant, nano-particles and nanocrystalline cellulose

https://library.fpinnovations.ca/en/permalink/fpipub39293
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Author
Wang, Xiang-Ming
Zhang, Yaolin
Date
March 2010
Material Type
Research report
Physical Description
46 p.
Sector
Wood Products
Field
Wood Manufacturing & Digitalization
Research Area
Advanced Wood Manufacturing
Subject
Panels
Series Number
Canadian Forest Service No. 18
201000328 5764
Location
Québec, Québec
Language
English
Abstract
A series of randomly oriented three-layer strand boards were manufactured in the lab with five commercial fire retardants (CROS 349, CROS 334, BUDIT 380, CROS 481A, ZB-467), six commercial nano-particles (Cloisite 30B, Cloisite Na+, Nano Al2O3, zinc oxide, zinc oxide anion, zinc oxide non) and a sodium form of nanocrystalline cellulose in the surface layer. The resultant strand boards were evaluated for fire performance in terms of flame advance, weight loss (right after fire test) and insulation value (after fire test and conditioning), and mechanical and physical properties of board such as internal bond (IB) strength, dry and wet modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE), and 24-h thickness swelling (TS) and water absorption (WA). It was observed that when applied at 6% for liquid form (for CROS 349, CROS 334, BUDIT 380) or 3% for powder form (for CROS 481A, ZB-467) on a dry wood basis, all fire retardants had an influence on board mechanical/physical properties and fire performance as well (in terms of insulation values rather than net flame advance and weight loss right after fire test). CROS 334 and BUDIT 380 performed better than others in terms of improved insulation property. In consideration of both board mechanical/physical properties and fire performance, BUDIT 380 would be optimal for strand board, while CROS 349 and CROS 334 also showed the potential for further investigation. The use of 2% nano-particles in both dispersion and powder forms on a dry wood basis had no big influence on board fire performance. Cloisite 30B and Cloisite Na+ slightly improved the board fire performance in terms of reduced flame advance, but had a negative impact on board mechanical properties. All nano-particles also improved board insulation property at 0-inch test position. It is expected that an increase in application level of nano-particles would help to improve board fire performance. Application of 1% nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) in sodium form on a dry wood basis via spraying improved board mechanical/physical properties and also slightly improved board insulation property (rather than flame advance and weight loss). It is expected that an increase of NCC content in wood treatment would allow further improving board performance with regard to mechanical/physical properties and/or fire performance in terms of insulation property.
Composite products
Panels
Fire Retardant Coatings
Nanotechnology
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21 records – page 1 of 3.